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Less Is More: Domain Adaptation with Lottery Ticket for Reading Comprehension

Haichao Zhu, Zekun Wang, Heng Zhang, Ming Liu, Sendong Zhao, Bing Qin
2021 Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021   unpublished
In this paper, we propose a simple few-shot domain adaptation paradigm for reading comprehension.  ...  Then, we only fine-tune the lottery subnetwork, a small fraction of the whole parameters, on the annotated target domain data for adaptation.  ...  Acknowledgement We thank anonymous reviewers for their insightful feedback that helped improve the paper.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/2021.findings-emnlp.95 fatcat:4okmcz7z6bfahdfbyvdah2w24a

The Born Rule as Dutch-Book Coherence (and only a little more) [article]

John B. DeBrota, Christopher A. Fuchs, Jacques L. Pienaar, Blake C. Stacey
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Similarly, the subjective Bayesian interpretation of quantum mechanics (QBism) asserts that the Born rule is a normative rule in analogy to Dutch-book coherence, but with the addition of one or more empirically  ...  The key property for being sufficiently quantum-like is that the system admits a symmetric reference measurement, but that this measurement is not sampling any hidden variables.  ...  by 1 (Alice knows better than to buy a ticket for more than it could ever be worth).  ... 
arXiv:2012.14397v1 fatcat:tp4h7ldgmjfahlup5jsps3o5yi

A Process Account of the Endowment Effect: Voluntary Debiasing Through Agents and Markets

Jennifer Arlen, Stephan W. Tontrup
2013 Social Science Research Network  
The more they feel responsible for the decision, the more they expect experiencing regret over a negative outcome.  ...  Since many institutions shift responsibility, we conclude that the endowment effect is not present in many domains previously thought to implicate it.  ...  In particular, depending on the institutions used for trading, people will be more or less likely to trade the good they are endowed with.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2263447 fatcat:5j63lmwp4fajhhcmyuxe4x5nqm

Pressed for Time? Goal Conflict Shapes How Time is Perceived, Spent, and Valued

Jordan Etkin, Ioannis Evangelidis, Jennifer Aaker
2014 Social Science Research Network  
Research on goals, for instance, has explored why consumers adopt and pursue goals (e.g., Heath, Larrick, and Wu 1999; Locke and Latham 1990) as well as factors that affect the level and intensity of motivation  ...  In Study 2a (N=380), participants allocated 10 tickets between two hypothetical lotteries with equal probabilities of winning: Lottery A, which paid $10, or Lottery B, which paid $14.  ...  However, for each additional week that Lottery B's drawing occurred later than Lottery A's drawing, participants allocated .26 fewer tickets to Lottery B (p=.001), controlling for the timing of the payoffs  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2516760 fatcat:35hk3zxfvvfipkrrbyqqizpco4

Do extraverts get more bang for the buck? Refining the affective-reactivity hypothesis of extraversion

Luke D. Smillie, Andrew J. Cooper, Joshua Wilt, William Revelle
2012 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology  
In this paper we consider a more biologically plausible account of extraverts' affective--reactivity.  ...  Such reactions may potentially facilitate the reward--seeking behavior associated with Extraversion, but seem unlikely to explain the broadly happy disposition of extraverts.  ...  ., winning the lottery) as a result of their behavior (e.g., buying a lottery ticket).  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0028372 pmid:22582899 fatcat:n5eyabsi5faujmhfg5vbxcj2w4

Between Hope and Fear: The Psychology of Risk [chapter]

Lola L. Lopes
1987 Advances in Experimental Social Psychology  
the ticket is more than the expected value).  ...  [Took short shot because] (1) there is a greater chance of losing $130 or more with the [riskless lottery]. (2) There is a greater chance of losing less than $70 in the [short shot].  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60416-5 fatcat:suhtkuo26zgi5gsonv7nogrln4

What is moral about guilt? Acting "prosocially" at the disadvantage of others

Ilona E. de Hooge, Rob M. A. Nelissen, Seger M. Breugelmans, Marcel Zeelenberg
2011 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology  
In the first round they could earn a bonus of eight lottery tickets for themselves, and in the second round they could earn eight lottery tickets for the other player.  ...  Next to the comparison with shame, Experiment 4 tested whether the negative effects of guilt are found only with limited resources, such as money or lottery tickets, or also with a less restricted resource  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0021459 pmid:21244173 fatcat:oge63hruezarxkss7lawl6z6y4

Crıtıcal Thınkıng Through Lıterature

2006 Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi  
The aim of this paper is to present how literature can be a powerful tool for teaching critical thinking as it offers the potential for higher level thinking. Benjamin S.  ...  Bloom's critical thinking questioning strategies are applied into the reading of a short story, "The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson.  ...  Since then, it has been accepted as a classic American short story, subject to many critical interpretations and media adaptations The purpose in teaching the story is not to have the students read for  ... 
doi:10.1501/dtcfder_0000001037 fatcat:vkggqlnq4fcfbmwdmrh2ny5msq

"Piensa" twice: On the foreign language effect in decision making

Albert Costa, Alice Foucart, Inbal Arnon, Melina Aparici, Jose Apesteguia
2014 Cognition  
In this article, we assess to what extent decision making is affected by the language in which a given problem is presented (native vs. foreign).  ...  To this end, we report four main studies in which more than 700 participants were tested on different types of individual decision making problems. In the first study, we replicated Keysar et al.'  ...  C more desirable than with lottery D.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2013.11.010 pmid:24334107 fatcat:5vegup5n3ra33hsq2po3kfvhzy

An Experimental Test of Generalized Ambiguity Aversion using Lottery Pricing Tasks

Michael Bleaney, Steven J. Humphrey
2006 Theory and Decision  
We report the results of an experiment which investigates the impact of the manner in which likelihood information is presented to decision-makers on valuations assigned to lotteries.  ...  We interpret this in terms of a reduction in ambiguity about the possible lottery outcomes.  ...  an anonymous referee for valuable comments, and to Olga Babouchkina for excellent research assistance.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11238-005-4573-1 fatcat:4alckrr6h5ehnfd56gcgflnkgy

Profiling and Proof: Are Statistics Safe?

Georgi Gardiner
2020 Philosophy  
Some theorists argue, furthermore, that examples of profiling also indicate that bare statistical evidence is insufficient for warranting outright verdicts.I examine Pritchard's and Buchak's treatments  ...  The vignettes that constitute the lottery paradox and the proof paradox are marshalled to support this claim.  ...  Cammie purchased a ticket in her community lottery, which has 50 tickets. She reads the results in her local newspaper, and the number does not match her ticket.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0031819120000030 fatcat:g5iw5qupgzeplbdxioe2pfzdnu

Violations of coalescing in parametric utility measurement

Andreas Glöckner, Baiba Renerte, Ulrich Schmidt
2020 Theory and Decision  
Also other typical violations of EU, like the common ratio effect or violations of transitivity, are less frequently observed for split than for coalesced presentation of gambles (Humphrey 2001; Schmidt  ...  This leads to the questions whether (1) the observed shape of weighting functions is a mere consequence of the coalesced presentation and, more generally, whether (2) preference elicitation should rely  ...  Example 1 Imagine a lottery wheel with 100 lottery tickets. 50 tickets are marked with ''0€'', whereas the other 50 tickets are marked with ''20€''.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11238-020-09761-5 fatcat:nbxcevfobzcpzfle45dxktfune

Content Effects on Decision Making

David A. Rettinger, Reid Hastie
2001 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes  
APPENDIX: JUDGMENT SCENARIOS Reckless Driving Traffic Ticket You are given a speeding ticket with a $62.50 fine.  ...  a comprehensive review).  ...  you enter a two-stage lottery. In the first stage, you have a 50% chance of winning. That would leave you with total winnings of $125 more than when you started and you are finished.  ... 
doi:10.1006/obhd.2000.2948 pmid:11461205 fatcat:rzaxmfqza5bojdigffyhzyzbcu

On mental transformations

Krzysztof Kontek
2011 Journal of Neuroscience Psychology and Economics  
It was assumed that mental transformations such as mental adaptation, prospect scaling, and logarithmic perception should be considered when analyzing the experimental data.  ...  who confirms that the pattern for losses is less clear than in the case of gains.  ...  In fact, the decision utility model follows Expected Utility Theory with a transformed outcome domain.  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0025387 fatcat:lvm2ffkibzhntne3dsrqkoo6ey

The Evolutionary Explanation of What?

Bengt Autzen
2018 Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics  
First, the paper argues that evolutionary psychology is ill-suited for explaining prospect theory risk preferences since the empirical evidence does not support the universality of the fourfold pattern  ...  Second, the paper argues that explaining prospect theory risk preferences by means of risk-sensitive foraging models is incomplete since this approach does not offer a rationale for the observed diversity  ...  An agent is said to be risk seeking if and only if she prefers a lottery with expected monetary value x to x for certain.  ... 
doi:10.23941/ejpe.v11i1.285 fatcat:ubtz4t4z6bar3jhheaapocnswe
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