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The Common European Framework

F. Heyworth
2006 ELT Journal  
Threshold in the late 1980s had been their relevance to educational programmes of language learning for European citizenship.Notions of framework development linked to language learning progression were  ...  One framework which has a growing role for language testers is the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001).  ... 
doi:10.1093/elt/cci105 fatcat:kg7bo2zz3vdkxk672iui5vtqkq

THE VALUATION OF IPOS IN THE EUROPEAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Michele Meoli, Stefano Paleari, Silvio Vismara
2010 Corporate Ownership and Control  
We use a new dynamic measure of the evolution of the legal framework, defined as the compliance record of the Member States of the European Union.  ...  Therefore, we conclude that a higher evolution of the legal system leads to higher valuations of firms.  ...  Its unique contribution, investigating the effects of the legal aspects and governance characteristics, is of particular interest in the European context.  ... 
doi:10.22495/cocv7i4p1 fatcat:i4xhyl2djbadnisqu4mvptyjei

D2.6: Governance Framework for the European Open Science Cloud [article]

Matthew Dovey
2019 Zenodo  
This will form the basis, of a governance piloting exercise whereby the framework will be co-designed and developed with the community using the draft framework outlined here as a foundation and strawman  ...  EOSC, and a skeleton outline of the Executive layers role in commissioning and supporting the EOSC resource; an outline of the role and skeleton outline of the structure of the Steering layer in the form  ...  The European Interoperability Framework 39 defines four types of interoperability: • Legal Interoperability is about ensuring that organisations operating under different legal frameworks, policies and  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5094722 fatcat:bww6mkstdfa3xkc4xhyvqmenhy

The European data protection framework for the twenty-first century

V. Reding
2012 International Data Protecion Law  
The European data protection framework for the twenty-first century ARTICLE 13 Council Framework Decision 2008/977/JHA of 27 November 2008 on the protection of personal data processed in the framework  ...  legal instrument to define the general framework for the protection of personal data in the Union: the direct applicability of a Regulation in accordance with Article 288 TFEU will reduce legal fragmentation  ... 
doi:10.1093/idpl/ips015 fatcat:smhcfkwcgjf23dn273mcmerjqy

The European PNR framework and the changing landscape of EU-security

Elisa Orrù, Fachinformationsdienst Für Internationale Und Interdisziplinäre Rechtsforschung
2021 Verfassungsblog: On Matters Constitutional  
This loose link between the risk criteria and criminal or terroristic activity is a second aspect distinguishing the PNR approach from previous security initiatives at the EU level.  ...  A crucial aspect of the PNR directive is that the data processed in order to assess the individual risk of each traveler do not rely on criminalistic information, nor originates from LEAs criminalistic  ... 
doi:10.17176/20211221-115906-0 fatcat:gnsbl5jsfvfhrkjc3jfp2kev64

Key Ethical Challenges in the European Medical Information Framework

Luciano Floridi, Christoph Luetge, Ugo Pagallo, Burkhard Schafer, Peggy Valcke, Effy Vayena, Janet Addison, Nigel Hughes, Nathan Lea, Caroline Sage, Bart Vannieuwenhuyse, Dipak Kalra
2018 Minds and Machines  
The European Medical Information Framework (EMIF) project, funded through the IMI programme (Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking under Grant Agreement No. 115372), has designed and implemented  ...  EMIF developed a code of practice (ECoP) to ensure the privacy protection of data subjects, protect the interests of data sharing parties, comply with legislation and various organisational policies on  ...  of financial contribution from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007(FP7/ -2013 and EFPIA companies' in kind contribution.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11023-018-9467-4 fatcat:vm3ew7pnuvbi3fywzuogo54d7u

In support of the European Union biosimilar framework

Christian K Schneider, John J Borg, Falk Ehmann, Niklas Ekman, Esa Heinonen, Kowid Ho, Marcel H Hoefnagel, Roeland Martijn van der Plas, Sol Ruiz, Antonius J van der Stappen, Robin Thorpe, Klara Tiitso (+6 others)
2012 Nature Biotechnology  
.: E-mail: c_schneid@web.de The authors declare that they have no competing interests as defined by Nature Publishing Group, or other interests that might be perceived to influence the results and/or discussion  ...  A response from the scientific and regulatory perspective in support of the EU biosimilar framework To the editor: The commentary by Schellekens and Moors on clinical comparability and the European biosimilar  ...  regulations in the January 2010 issue 1 questions the value of the comparability exercise mandated in the European Union (EU) regulatory guidance.  ... 
doi:10.1038/nbt.2322 pmid:22871707 fatcat:wg53jgo2sng7hgakrujopigblq

The European Neighbourhood Policy: A Framework for Modernisation?

Marise Cremona, Gabriella Meloni
2007 Social Science Research Network  
in the framework of the ENP.  ...  This Working Paper offers a selection of the papers which were presented during the Workshop on "The European Neighbourhood Policy -A Framework for Modernisation?"  ...  It implies the introduction of specific elements of the European legal framework by means of bilateral negotiations.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1024102 fatcat:rg3de4xnozb7dgxkekptw7563i

Redeveloping the National Innovative Capacity Framework: European Union Perspective

Meda Andrijauskiene, Daiva Dumciuviene, Jovita Vasauskaite
2021 Economies  
A redevelopment of the framework also helped discover that gender equality and corruption have causal links with all forms of the investigated innovation indicators—technological, non-technological, and  ...  The collected data is employed in a multivariate Granger causality analysis that illustrates the causal links between the analyzed indicators and considers their dynamics.  ...  Before analyzing the panel data, the unit root test was performed to test the stationarity of the time series.  ... 
doi:10.3390/economies9040201 fatcat:byn6wuiy2nahdm276pzpa5chim

THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TOWARDS CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Vesna Poposka, Hasan Oktay
2021 Vision International Refereed Scientific Journal  
The paper aims to provide overall framework and general vision over the framework of activities in the area that is pretty diverse.  ...  Critical infrastructure protection is crucial to enrich and develop the four main freedoms of movement that settle the single European market.  ...  as a proposed list of framework definitions of key terms.  ... 
doi:10.55843/ivisum2116009p fatcat:fap4zdcwcff6bjj4dlyeq6cw5a

The European Union and the Search for an International Data Protection Framework

Christopher Kuner
2014 Groningen Journal of International Law  
The European Union (EU) has supported the growing calls for the creation of an international legal framework to safeguard data protection rights.  ...  At the same time, it has worked to spread its data protection law to other regions, and recent judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) have reaffirmed the autonomous nature of EU  ...  Article 29 Working Party, "The Future of Privacy: Joint contribution to the Consultation of the European Commission on the legal framework for the fundamental right to protection of personal data" (WP  ... 
doi:10.21827/5a86a82b67dab fatcat:em22r7iuafhrze7tqk3hsdrfoq

The European Union and the Search for an International Data Protection Framework

Christopher Kuner
2014 Social Science Research Network  
The European Union (EU) has supported the growing calls for the creation of an international legal framework to safeguard data protection rights.  ...  At the same time, it has worked to spread its data protection law to other regions, and recent judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) have reaffirmed the autonomous nature of EU  ...  29 Working Party, "The Future of Privacy: Joint contribution to the Consultation of the European Commission on the legal framework for the fundamental right to protection of personal data" (WP 168, 1  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2495273 fatcat:eh36ozlpqrdabafcqftm2lfcje

The European Legal Taxonomy Syllabus: A multi-lingual, multi-level ontology framework to untangle the web of European legal terminology

Gianmaria Ajani, Guido Boella, Luigi di Caro, Livio Robaldo, Llio Humphreys, Sabrina Praduroux, Piercarlo Rossi, Andrea Violato
2017 Applied Ontology  
The ontology framework is designed to help professionals study the meaning of national and European legal terms and how they inter-relate in the transposition of European Directives into national laws.  ...  It also takes into account the interpretation of norms, the dynamic character of norms and the contextual character of legal concepts in that they are linked to their legal sources (legislation, case law  ...  The main outcome of the EUCases project is a unique pan-European law and case law Linking Platform transforming multilingual legal open data into linked open data after semantic and structural analysis  ... 
doi:10.3233/ao-170174 fatcat:76gb52t5hbg2jadl6sj73t6pju

The regulatory framework of biosimilars in the European Union

Paola Minghetti, Paolo Rocco, Francesco Cilurzo, Lucia Del Vecchio, Francesco Locatelli
2012 Drug Discovery Today  
Conflict of interest FL is a member of an advisory board of Affymax, Amgen-Dompè, Jansen, GSK, Roche, Takeda and of the safety board of Sandoz.  ...  Thus, the extent of data to be submitted varies.  ...  In Europe, the legal basis for biosimilars was established by an EU Directive, 1 which lays down the requirements for the MAAs based on the demonstration of the similar nature of two biological medicinal  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2011.08.001 pmid:21856438 fatcat:xhx5awl64nfilmr5puh4iphwj4

Deliverable 2.1: Mapping of the relevant European IP legal framework

Marie-Christine Janssens, Arina Gorbatyuk, Sonsoles Pajares Rivas
2021 Zenodo  
The document provides a detailed overview of the current and upcoming IP legal framework affecting the activities of the CHIs.  ...  It will raise awareness of the legal constraints and opportunities that result from the IP framework applicable at the EU level.  ...  of databases Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5141439 fatcat:h7ahspdfgnc7zfnlwde3xelqfq
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