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A Peek into the Political Biases in Email Spam Filtering Algorithms During US Election 2020 [article]

Hassan Iqbal, Usman Mahmood Khan, Hassan Ali Khan, Muhammad Shahzad
2022 pre-print
We analyzed the biases in the SFAs towards the left and the right candidates and further studied the impact of the interactions (such as reading or marking emails as spam) of email recipients on these  ...  To study whether the SFAs of popular email services have any biases in treating the campaign emails, we conducted a large-scale study of the campaign emails of the US elections 2020 by subscribing to a  ...  CONCLUDING DISCUSSION In this paper, we conducted a large-scale measurement study to examine biases in SFAs of Gmail, Outlook, and Yahoo during the 2020 US elections.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3485447.3512121 arXiv:2203.16743v1 fatcat:7l2ycw5kfrf57hlgplw2ibjbau

Explainable AI for B5G/6G: Technical Aspects, Use Cases, and Research Challenges [article]

Shen Wang, M.Atif Qureshi, Luis Miralles-Pechuaán, Thien Huynh-The, Thippa Reddy Gadekallu, Madhusanka Liyanage
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This survey paper highlights the need for XAI towards the upcoming 6G age in every aspect, including 6G technologies (e.g., intelligent radio, zero-touch network management) and 6G use cases (e.g., industry  ...  When 5G began its commercialisation journey around 2020, the discussion on the vision of 6G also surfaced.  ...  biases or another kind of discrimination.  ... 
arXiv:2112.04698v1 fatcat:y7ss4opmrjbsbjm3ip2vgkkgky

On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models [article]

Rishi Bommasani, Drew A. Hudson, Ehsan Adeli, Russ Altman, Simran Arora, Sydney von Arx, Michael S. Bernstein, Jeannette Bohg, Antoine Bosselut, Emma Brunskill, Erik Brynjolfsson, Shyamal Buch (+102 others)
2022 arXiv   pre-print
AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks.  ...  This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical  ...  Foundation Models (CRFM), a center at Stanford University borne out of the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI).  ... 
arXiv:2108.07258v3 fatcat:kohwrwk2ybf7fd7wsuz2gp65ki

Philosophical Perspectives

Jochen Albrecht, Hunter College
2020 Geographic Information Science & Technology Body of Knowledge  
Version 1.0 4.1 Introduction: Ethics and information 4.2 Historical overview 4.3 Towards a unified approach to information ethics 4.4 Floridi's information ethics 4.5 The fundamental principles of Floridi's  ...  The very same question applies to the paparazzi and the celebrities that they target. What about spamming or hacking? Is there something like a right not to be spammed? Is spamming right or wrong?  ...  It doesn't matter whether you are using a phone -mobile or landline, or what make or model -or any of many different radios, or a Skype call, or sending a large file by email.  ... 
doi:10.22224/gistbok/2020.2.1 fatcat:ppcm2igyora3reqolttwmfn7o4

Pretrained Transformers for Text Ranking: BERT and Beyond

Andrew Yates, Rodrigo Nogueira, Jimmy Lin
2021 Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining  
The goal of text ranking is to generate an ordered list of texts retrieved from a corpus in response to a query for a particular task.  ...  Although the most common formulation of text ranking is search, instances of the task can also be found in many natural language processing applications.  ...  However, there remain many open research questions, and thus in addition to laying out the foundations of pretrained transformers for text ranking, this survey also attempts to prognosticate where the  ... 
doi:10.1145/3437963.3441667 fatcat:6teqmlndtrgfvk5mneq5l7ecvq

Open Access Publishing: A Literature Review

Giancarlo F. Frosio
2014 Social Science Research Network  
106 For a discussion and collection of empirical data regarding the motivations, personal attributes and behavioural patterns of those who are engaged in producing free/libre and open source software (  ...  FLOSS), see Paul A David and Joseph Shapiro, 'Community-  ...  of a journal within its field, which is calculated as the average number of cited articles divided by the number of citable items in a journal in the past two years -came into use during the 1970s through  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2697412 fatcat:po3pq3dhebcebme3loceef2fgq

D3.2 Guidelines for the development and the use of SIS [article]

Philip Brey, Björn Lundgren, Kevin Macnish, Mark Ryan, Andreas Andreou, Laurence Brooks, Tilimbe Jiya, Renate Klar, Dirk Lanzareth, Jonne Maas, Isaac Oluoch, Bernd Stahl
It is a deliverable of the SHERPA project, an EU Horizon 2020 project on the ethical and human rights implications of AI and big data.  ...  This report contains two sets of ethical guidelines – one for the technological development and one for the use – of artificial intelligence and big data systems, a glossary, two annexes, and a list of  ...  Acknowledgment: We would like to thank the participants of the workshop in July 2019 and those who provided feedback on our guidelines.  ... 
doi:10.21253/dmu.11316833.v3 fatcat:skuf25mj5rczlcwosr6l36c434

D3.2 Guidelines for the development and the use of SIS [article]

Kevin Macnish, Mark Ryan
It is a deliverable of the SHERPA project, an EU Horizon 2020 project on the ethical and human rights implications of AI and big data.  ...  This report contains two sets of ethical guidelines – one for the technological development and one for the use – of artificial intelligence and big data systems, a glossary, two annexes, and a list of  ...  For example, the model inferred that a particular email message was not spam (the negative class), but that email message actually was spam.  ... 
doi:10.21253/dmu.11316833 fatcat:mror4smnpnh2dft4r3nnca67vy

D1.4 Report on Ethical Tensions and Social Impacts [article]

Mark Ryan, Kevin Macnish
The Deliverable examines ethical tensions in the use of SIS in a pragmatic and comprehensive way, beginning with ethical issues related to the actual design of the technologies themselves.  ...  body of information into the most prevalent concerns for society today.  ...  make a left turn, or they may cause certain events to occur, as when an algorithm embedded in a robot causes it to raise its arm.  ... 
doi:10.21253/dmu.8397134 fatcat:lvierg7ianbfbawrattvatr4sy

Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence [article]

Matti Pietikäinen, Olli Silven
Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic.  ...  Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future.  ...  The research community has already begun to tackle these problems, and a number of related publications have already been published.  ... 
doi:10.48550/arxiv.2201.01466 fatcat:uqltsrhu5naf7pyyo2b622y36q

The dark side of the internet: a study about representations of the deep web and the Tor network in the British press

Thais De-Oliveira-Sarda
The findings demonstrate that the British press represents the Deep Web in a sharply negative way, through negative concepts, definitions and associations.  ...  However, the best-known Deep Web system, the Tor Network, is a technology developed to protect people's privacy through online anonymity, in the context of the contemporary culture of surveillance, thus  ...  , or 'surface,' web -stored in digital 3 archives that today's browsers never peek into.  ... 
doi:10.26174/thesis.lboro.12668612 fatcat:atktzb6ajndmznvwqn5asgd7qi

Bitcoin and the Japanese Retail Investor

Maksym Grinenko
The third chapter examines the Japanese retail investor and the Japanese retail investment landscape with a focus on the question of the low rates of risk-asset participation in face of a favorable investment  ...  Following that is a description of Bitcoin's roots and the history of its non-speculative usage. These chapters serve as a base for examining the cryptocurrency's role in Japan.  ...  Even though spam filters have improved significantly over the past decades, it is unlikely that many readers will not have received an email from alleged Nigerian royalty with a recently deceased parent  ... 
doi:10.11588/heidok.00028226 fatcat:4ko5xmczzzgyhbvvmgr664hgfa

SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY '19: Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research

Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The three-day conference was mainly organized by PEASEC (Science and Technology for Peace and Security) in cooperation with IANUS (Interdisciplinary Working Group on Science, Technology  ...  This abstract is a short version of an already published book section (Kaufhold, 2019) .  ...  Third, the ASAT test also had a domestic politics angle. Some opposition parties frame the mission as a political stunt ahead of the national elections in April 2019.  ... 
doi:10.25534/tuprints-00009164 fatcat:v6353gscpbeungviumxnedydf4