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Learning to be Fair: A Consequentialist Approach to Equitable Decision-Making [article]

Alex Chohlas-Wood, Madison Coots, Henry Zhu, Emma Brunskill, Sharad Goel
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We develop and describe a method for efficiently learning these optimal policies from data for a large family of expressive utility functions, facilitating a more holistic approach to equitable decision-making  ...  In the dominant paradigm for designing equitable machine learning systems, one works to ensure that model predictions satisfy various fairness criteria, such as parity in error rates across race, gender  ...  Code to replicate our analysis is available online at: https://github.com/stanford-policylab/ learning-to-be-fair.  ... 
arXiv:2109.08792v2 fatcat:agn6nebfj5bu3ehlvx27dx74qi

Consent, User Reliance, and Fair Use

Kevin J. Hickey
2014 Social Science Research Network  
As a matter of black letter law, the nature and circumstances of a copyright holder's refusal to consent to a use are irrelevant to whether a particular use is fair.  ...  Despite the standard view, a close analysis of the case law reveals that some courts implicitly consider consent-based factors in fair use decisions.  ...  doctrine's history as an "equitable rule of reason," and operates to creates a broader scope for fair use.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2391427 fatcat:s4v7wefusfat3eevgtnaj5dyma

Outcomes versus intentions: On the nature of fair behavior and its development with age

Matthias Sutter
2007 Journal of Economic Psychology  
We find that children and teens react systematically to perceived intentions, like university students do.  ...  Economic decisions depend on both actual outcomes as well as perceived intentions.  ...  Olga Mellizo did a great job in language editing.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.joep.2006.09.001 fatcat:uxzgvt7wljg3bim3eoanza2s2y

Inclusion Imagined: Fair Housing as Metropolitan Equity

David Troutt
2016 Social Science Research Network  
Since regional equity analyses surfaced in the academic literature in about the late 1990s, mainstream legal scholarship has focused less on its equitable dimensions.  ...  Somehow this seemed to become the dominant discourse on metropolitan equity in local government law, though its normative aims were thinly defined and its focus on equity fleeting. See, e.g  ...  Fair housing may be limited to a single unit of housing or expandable to a "region."  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2777563 fatcat:jzxnfz6jazagrcbg27w2bwj2qm

Causal Conceptions of Fairness and their Consequences [article]

Hamed Nilforoshan, Johann Gaebler, Ravi Shroff, Sharad Goel
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Recent work highlights the role of causality in designing equitable decision-making algorithms.  ...  For example, in the case of college admissions decisions, policies constrained to satisfy causal fairness definitions would be disfavored by every stakeholder with neutral or positive preferences for both  ...  H.N was supported by a Stanford Knight-Hennessy Scholarship and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under  ... 
arXiv:2207.05302v1 fatcat:i3l2tzroonhrxevahqyayca7zm

A THEME OF FAIRNESS REVISITED: LORD MANSFIELD'S LEGACY FOR A HOLISTIC THEORY OF CONTRACT TODAY

C M A McCauliff
2012 Denning Law Journal  
A THEME OF FAIRNESS REVISITED: LORD MANSFIELD'S LEGACY FOR A HOLISTIC THEORY OF CONTRACT TODAY  ...  Under Lord Mansfield, judicial decision-making grew more complex, and extra work had to be done, as exemplified by the special merchant juries.  ...  While we had a holistic approach under Mansfield, we now arguably have a bifurcated approach, the bargained-forexchange contract of the market place, and the trouble-shooting equitable notions of promissory  ... 
doi:10.5750/dlj.v15i1.291 fatcat:jtr7ycfqynelvgs2cgbgdcg6ha

A Pattern-Oriented Approach to Fair Use

Michael J. Madison
2003 Social Science Research Network  
In immediate terms, the approach should lead to a more consistent and predictable fair use jurisprudence.  ...  A more explicit acknowledgment of the role of these patterns in fair use analysis would be consistent with fair use, copyright policy, and tradition.  ...  THE PURPOSES OF PATTERNS To this point this Article has argued that a pattern-oriented approach is a descriptively appropriate method of unifying fair use decision making.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.442441 fatcat:x3xu5eheibbk7elwkpgjyg5grq

A Relational Fairness Perspective on Individuality and Individualization in Contemporary Approaches to Compensation in Organizations [chapter]

Martin Lund Petersen
2014 A Relational Fairness Perspective on Individuality and Individualization in Contemporary Approaches to Compensation in Organizations  
According to this view, then, openness enables the employees to make informed and rational decisions about their own career, just as it enables them to make informed and rational judgments on the fairness  ...  In that sense, Folger tries with his deonance theory to identify a non-rational approach to fairness theory based on a deontic approach to morality.  ...  That is, when the two fairness measures go toward fairness, the norm violation goes towards no norm violation despite the fact that fairness, primarily, is a vertical phenomenon and norm violation, as  ... 
doi:10.13052/rp-9788793237308 fatcat:tbj5sdmdpzeppp3ax45ficly7i

Fairness Versus Efficiency in Environmental Law

Shi-Ling Hsu
2003 Social Science Research Network  
He substitutes them for public happiness, instead of making them subordinate to it.  ...  In fact, we must refer to that principle all those specious objects which governments pursue, without having the general good for a single and independent aim; such as good morals, equality, liberty, justice  ...  Kaplow and Shavell have noted that fairness concepts tend to be non-consequentialist in nature--that application of fairness principles can be correct even in light of adverse consequences1 -and that fairness  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.442420 fatcat:ppe5rstfoncpljycwssq7fg7tu

Intentions versus Outcomes: Cooperation and Fairness in a Sequential Prisoner's Dilemma with Nature

Garret Ridinger
2021 Games  
This paper investigates the importance of concerns about intentions and outcomes in a sequential prisoner's dilemma game with nature.  ...  Equilibrium predictions from theoretical models of fairness are tested experimentally by varying the chance the first mover's choice is reversed and whether the second mover observes the first mover's  ...  Both modeling approaches incorporate fairness concerns that are likely important in a wide range of human behavior, but in certain environments the predictions by the two approaches can be quite different  ... 
doi:10.3390/g12030058 fatcat:xslgz6owqfdq7p2xbwjhwioxoy

Compassion meditators show less anger, less punishment, and more compensation of victims in response to fairness violations

Cade McCall, Nikolaus Steinbeis, Matthieu Ricard, Tania Singer
2014 Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience  
To this end we recruited a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTPs) who had engaged in an average of 40 K h of mental training exercises including compassion-related meditation, along with a  ...  Compared to controls, LTPs were less likely to punish when they were the victims of fairness violations.  ...  A similar empathic concern induction was also shown to affect economic decision-making.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00424 pmid:25538589 pmcid:PMC4260514 fatcat:skexyyphmffdjlj3osdqvqa77q

A Rawlsian View of CSR and the Game Theory of its Implementation (Part II): Fairness and Equilibrium

Lorenzo Sacconi
2010 Social Science Research Network  
This seems to be a case where keeping to fairness makes every players worse off, which -according to Kaplow and Shavell -is unacceptable.  ...  the two approaches conflict when a regime with greater overall well-being is rejected 52).  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1777989 fatcat:xnf73bo745dkxgvaf5tkf4juce

Does the perception of fairness and standard of care in the health system depend on the field of study? Results of an empirical analysis

Kathrin Damm, Anne Prenzler, Andy Zuchandke
2014 BMC Health Services Research  
Methods: Between October 2011 and January 2012, we asked freshmen and advanced students of the fields mentioned above to participate in a paper and pencil survey.  ...  The aim of this study is to explore and compare the subjective perception of fairness and standard of care in the German health care system among students of medicine, law, economics, philosophy, and religion  ...  Further research is necessary to determine the attributes that make up a high standard of care and fair system.  ... 
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-166 pmid:24725356 pmcid:PMC3990008 fatcat:m4fckiwda5hxhf2sv6hwtlt6ti

Fairness, Efficiency, and Insider Trading: Deconstructing the Coin of the Realm in the Information Age

Kimberly D. Krawiec
2001 Social Science Research Network  
Just as the neoclassical economic approach to property meshed well with a Lockean natural-rights based theory of property, the economic incentive approach meshes well with a consequentialist or utilitarian  ...  Information as a Public Good. Because information is necessary to knowledgeable decision making, information is valuable.  ...  Such a person would not be content to earn a mere salary, he contends, but instead must be rewarded with a share of the corporation's profitability. Id. at 131-45.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.260256 fatcat:wpmbkz2avrgy3of4j4vtuqroom

A Rawlsian View of CSR and the Game Theory of its Implementation (Part II): Fairness and Equilibrium [chapter]

Lorenzo Sacconi
2011 Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance  
the two approaches conflict when a regime with greater overall well-being is rejected on grounds of fairness" (p. 52).  ...  This seems to be a case where keeping to fairness makes every players worse off, which -according to Kaplow and Shavell -is unacceptable.  ... 
doi:10.1057/9780230302112_8 fatcat:ouqp722burdszkkpssjdzx3aty
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