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Learning to Make Analogies by Contrasting Abstract Relational Structure [article]

Felix Hill, Adam Santoro, David G.T. Barrett, Ari S. Morcos and Timothy Lillicrap
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The most robust capacity for analogical reasoning is induced when networks learn analogies by contrasting abstract relational structures in their input domains, a training method that uses only the input  ...  data to force models to learn about important abstract features.  ...  This ability, however, is critically dependent on a method of training we call learning analogies by contrasting abstract relational structure (LABC).  ... 
arXiv:1902.00120v1 fatcat:ht2muuoxufgsrcyyeyfq763rvu

Bootstrapping the Mind: Analogical Processes and Symbol Systems

Dedre Gentner
2010 Cognitive Science  
In this paper I argue, first, that analogical ability is the key factor in our prodigious capacity, and, second, that possession of a symbol system is crucial to the full expression of analogical ability  ...  How do we move from the nearly helpless state of infants to the cognitive proficiency that characterizes adults?  ...  Acknowledgments This research was supported by NSF SLC grant SBE-0541957, the Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC).  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1551-6709.2010.01114.x pmid:21564235 fatcat:5gf2yiqunzgttjuumslsmeogvq

Emergence of analogy from relation learning

Hongjing Lu, Ying Nian Wu, Keith J. Holyoak
2019 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
By middle childhood, humans are able to learn abstract semantic relations (e.g., antonym, synonym, category membership) and use them to reason by analogy.  ...  Abstract semantic relations can be induced by bootstrapping from nonrelational inputs, thereby enabling relational generalization and analogical reasoning.  ...  Preparation of this paper was supported by a Google Faculty Research Award and National Science Foundation Grant BCS-1827374 (to H.L. and K.J.H.).  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1814779116 pmid:30770443 pmcid:PMC6410800 fatcat:iz73e4gvgrhwhomomuqnkdsvnu

A Unified Account of General Learning Mechanisms and Theory-of-Mind Development

THEODORE BACH
2014 Mind & Language  
Section (4) describes how children develop the concept belief by employing structuralcomparison in order to make explicit the cognitive-behavioral relational system that defines belief.  ...  The article then explores an alternative domain-general learning mechanism by proposing that children grasp the concept belief through the progressive alignment of relational structure that occurs as a  ...  In contrast, explicit knowledge encodes a relation as multiply realizable by objects.  ... 
doi:10.1111/mila.12055 fatcat:yaspdzbznbclncrfmrxfmennue

Analogical Processes in Human Thinking and Learning [chapter]

Dedre Gentner, Julie Colhoun
2009 Towards a Theory of Thinking  
Recent research has also focused on another use of analogy in learningnamely, to reveal the common structure between two situations, neither of which needs to have been fully understood before the comparison  ...  In this paper, we begin by presenting an overview of analogy and its component processes. We then discuss each component process in greater detail.  ...  Mapping is followed by (3) evaluation of the analogy and its inferences and often by (4) abstraction of the structure common to both analogs.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03129-8_3 fatcat:gkrl3pwctveydgn7px6squbbeq

Mutual bootstrapping between language and analogical processing

Dedre Gentner, Stella Christie
2010 Language and Cognition  
We suggest a positive feedback relation in which structural alignment processes support the acquisition of language, and in turn, language -especially relational language -supports structural alignment  ...  What makes us so smart as a species, and what makes children such rapid learners?  ...  We continue to use analogical processes -often invited by language -to learn new concepts and to re-represent old ones throughout adulthood. Figure 1 . 1 Comparison as Structure-mapping.  ... 
doi:10.1515/langcog.2010.011 fatcat:lozyrcfy3ngdlp3gorqfowuhkm

Models as Relational Categories

Tommi Kokkonen
2017 Science & Education  
Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure.  ...  The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined.  ...  , and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11191-017-9928-9 fatcat:vooaedbtafesrj6rkqknhgunpi

Commentary: Analogical Thinking in Geoscience Education

Benjamin D. Jee, David H. Uttal, Dedre Gentner, Cathy Manduca, Thomas F. Shipley, Basil Tikoff, Carol J. Ormand, Bradley Sageman
2010 Journal of Geoscience education  
We end with recommendations about the use of analogy for instruction, and for future research on analogy as it relates to geoscience learning.  ...  We use a cognitive framework for analogy to discuss what makes an effective analogy, the various forms of analogical comparison used in instruction, and the ways that analogical thinking can be supported  ...  Acknowledgments This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SBE-0541957, the Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC).  ... 
doi:10.5408/1.3544291 fatcat:bq2tcfkltvemvmcy7ouyh7ngrq

Are all analogies created equal? Prefrontal cortical functioning may predict types of analogical reasoning

Evangelia G. Chrysikou, Sharon L. Thompson-Schill
2010 Cognitive Neuroscience  
Such an architecture is important for analogy making. Also, PFC may form abstract representations of the types of relations that will be useful for generating future analogies.  ...  Abstract: The proposed theory can account for analogies based on learned relationships between elements in the source and target domains.  ...  The frontostriatal circuits would bring the basis for analogy formation and persistence, sustained by learning and prediction of reward/punishment.  ... 
doi:10.1080/17588921003763977 pmid:24168282 fatcat:27mg62l5ynh5fnkqg6x6scsrtu

An emergent approach to analogical inference

Paul H. Thibodeau, Stephen J. Flusberg, Jeremy J. Glick, Daniel A. Sternberg
2013 Connection science  
We conclude by discussing how these findings can potentially refine our understanding of the processes that are required to perform analogical inference. P.H.  ...  The results also parallel findings from the developmental literature on analogy, demonstrating a shift from an initial reliance on surface feature similarity to the use of relational similarity later in  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Jay McClelland and Lera Boroditsky for inspiration and helpful, critical discussion of the content of this paper and the issues it addresses.  ... 
doi:10.1080/09540091.2013.821458 fatcat:zk4zy4r55rh6nakdgfcqzrbilu

The Concrete Substrates of Abstract Rule Use [chapter]

Bradley C. Love, Marc Tomlinson, Todd M. Gureckis
2008 The psychology of learning and motivation  
We present three lines of related research to support this general point.  ...  In this contribution, we argue that the abstract nature of our thought is overstated and that our representations are inherently bound to the examples we experience during learning.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by AFOSR grant FA9550-04-1-0226, ARL grant W911NF-07-2-0023, and NSF CAREER grant 0349101 to B.C. Love.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0079-7421(08)00005-4 fatcat:m33h7fc6snhvfcvtsq4c7rt6ym

Contribution of frontostriatal function to sequence learning in Parkinson's Disease

Peter F. Dominey, Marc Jeannerod
1997 NeuroReport  
Another sequence learning mechanism is sensitive to abstract structure, or relationships between repeating sequence elements, and appears to be largely independent of the frontostriatal system.  ...  One of these mechanisms is sensitive to surface structure, or element-by-element sequence organization, and appears to rely on the frontostriatal system.  ...  P.F.D. is supported by the Fyssen Foundation (Paris).  ... 
doi:10.1097/00001756-199703240-00053 pmid:9175085 fatcat:r7sz224wi5alrcl4o6goxe5oqe

Structure Mapping for Social Learning

Stella Christie
2017 Topics in Cognitive Science  
Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains.  ...  Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool  ...  This work is supported by the Swarthmore College Faculty Research grant and the Lang Sabbatical Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1111/tops.12264 pmid:28328029 fatcat:uxtgt6itofhn7j43q3cu545o2a

Sensitivity to Relational Similarity and Object Similarity in Apes and Children

Stella Christie, Dedre Gentner, Josep Call, Daniel Benjamin Moritz Haun
2016 Current Biology  
Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains.  ...  Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool  ...  This work is supported by the Swarthmore College Faculty Research grant and the Lang Sabbatical Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.12.054 pmid:26853364 fatcat:uq5vz4gmrrbpnhcqiabe5yrina

Reducing problem complexity by analogical transfer

Peter F. Dominey
1997 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
For the model to exploit the abstract structure shared by isomorphic sequences like ABCBAC and DEFEDF, it must be capable of representing such sequences in terms of the structural relation sequence "u,  ...  learning a single or greatly reduced set of sequences, by continuously recoding sequences in terms of their relational structure.  ...  For the model to exploit the abstract structure shared by isomorphic sequences like ABCBAC and DEFEDF, it must be capable of representing such sequences in terms of the structural relation sequence "u,  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x97270020 fatcat:b44yzozqubgbhgp7ynbuujp6ku
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