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Learning from Comparisons and Choices [article]

Sahand Negahban and Sewoong Oh and Kiran K. Thekumparampil and Jiaming Xu
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Given such individualized ordinal data in the form of comparisons and choices, we address the problem of collaboratively learning representations of the users and the items.  ...  When tracking user-specific online activities, each user's preference is revealed in the form of choices and comparisons.  ...  Acknowledgments SN acknowledges support from NSF Grant DMS 1723128. SO and KT acknowledge support from NSF grants CCF 1553452, CNS 1527754, CCF 1705007, and RI 1815535.  ... 
arXiv:1704.07228v2 fatcat:mkmxc7pbiremnid2vzpu5p662e


Alberto Alesina, Davide Ticchi, Andrea Vindigni, Alessandra Casella, Thomas Palfrey, Raymond Riezman, Patrick Van Cayseele, Richard Freeman, Carla Marchese
1995 and especially since 1999, due to a decrease in Italy, France, Portugal, Spain and Greece that has offset increases in the majority of other countries ( Figure) .  ...  Make your economy a model economy The argument that economics has much to learn from behaviour in model economies just as biology learns from model species directs attention at the experience of economies  ...  A good example stems from a comparison of the United Kingdom and Italy in the 1970s and 1980s. Both countries went through difficulties.  ... 

Monkeys choose, but do not learn, through exclusion

Regina Paxton Gazes, Nicholas W. Chee, Robert R. Hampton
2018 Animal Behavior and Cognition  
In experiment 1, monkeys demonstrated choice by exclusion by choosing a novel comparison image from among known comparison images when presented with a novel sample image.  ...  In experiment 2, monkeys failed to benefit from choice by exclusion in learning new sets of paired associates.  ...  However, few studies have tested whether nonhuman animals learn from these choices.  ... 
doi:10.26451/abc. pmid:32864425 pmcid:PMC7450826 fatcat:occeer5hzfcutee2cxhyggy744

Learning from Mixed Feedback: Anticipation of the Future Reduces Appreciation of the Present

Tom Meyvis, Alan D. J. Cooke
2007 Journal of Consumer Research  
In particular, the anticipation of similar future choices increases consumers' sensitivity to comparisons with better alternatives and reduces their liking of the chosen option.  ...  and fail to appreciate the value of their current choice.  ...  LEARNING FROM MIXED FEEDBACK Both favorable and unfavorable comparisons provide valuable information to the decision maker.  ... 
doi:10.1086/519148 fatcat:vbchy5foazbrbgw5mzf727mcre

Comparison-Based Choices [article]

Jon Kleinberg, Sendhil Mullainathan, Johan Ugander
2017 arXiv   pre-print
A rich and growing line of work in the behavioral sciences indicate that human choices follow not only from the utility of alternatives, but also from the choice set in which alternatives are presented  ...  We also introduce a class of choice functions we call distance-comparison-based functions, and briefly discuss the analysis of such functions.  ...  [31] , with possible relevance to learning from distancecomparison-based choices.  ... 
arXiv:1705.05735v1 fatcat:6tmwd3xhprdlzfljd6mmhqvvqq

Visual working memory in decision making by honey bees

S. Zhang, F. Bock, A. Si, J. Tautz, M. V. Srinivasan
2005 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
Bees that have learned to use the relevant sample and to ignore the irrelevant sample can generalize this learning, and apply it to novel sets of sample and comparison stimuli that they have never previously  ...  Performance is significantly better than random-choice level even at delays as long as 5 sec and is reduced to random-choice levels at an average delay time of 8.68 ؎ 0.06 sec.  ...  In the first type of control test (see Materials and Methods), the choice frequency for one of the two (identical) comparison stimuli was 0.48, which was not significantly different from the random choice  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.0501440102 pmid:15795382 pmcid:PMC555688 fatcat:fzrjrcalwzdt5czqu44rexlgqe

Implications of Human Irrationality for Reinforcement Learning [article]

Haiyang Chen, Hyung Jin Chang, Andrew Howes
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We suggest that human irrationalities may offer a productive source of inspiration for improving the design of AI architectures and machine learning methods.  ...  Previous work has shown that by taking into account choice context and making relational observations, people can maximize expected value.  ...  We then define a contextual choice problem as a POMDP that includes "comparison" observations and describe how to solve this POMDP with a reinforcement learning agent.  ... 
arXiv:2006.04072v1 fatcat:ve4jgzo565bivlwblwpgjwwkjm

The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence

Stefano Palminteri, Emma J. Kilford, Giorgio Coricelli, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Jill X O'Reilly
2016 PLoS Computational Biology  
In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment.  ...  Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Ashok Sakhardande, Delia Fuhrmann and Emily Garrett for helping with behavioural testing. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: SP SJB.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004953 pmid:27322574 pmcid:PMC4920542 fatcat:ztmyzuvnyzejtfyhynciy73i3q

Choice based on exclusion in pigeons

Tricia S. Clement, Thomas R. Zentall
2003 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
Presumably, the participants eliminate from choice those comparisons that have learned associations with other samples.  ...  One response to either comparison constituted a choice and ended comparison presentation.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03196558 pmid:15000545 fatcat:5rul3bmjefattcqd4ig543edbe

Discrimination Probes for Evaluating Learning of Emergent Name-Object Relations by Exclusion

Leylanne Martins R. Souza, Maria Stella Coutinho de A. Gil., Lucas Tadeu Garcia
2018 Temas em Psicologia  
Choices of the comparison corresponding to the sample would indicate learning. Naming probes.  ...  The criterion used to attest to occurrence of learning by exclusion was the correct choice in the two discrimination probes of the fi rst session, but, for purposes of comparison, the learning and naming  ... 
doi:10.9788/tp2018.4-19en fatcat:fi4v6zetsbd4vo2j6pb5cyu4ne

Page 165 of Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol. 42, Issue 3 [page]

1949 Journal of Comparative Psychology  
We have a measure of the relative effectiveness of primary and secondary rewards. In addition, this comparison serves as a check of our first index of learning.  ...  Then a comparison of the mean number of cor- rect choices made by this group with the means of the other groups tells us some- thing about the learning of the other groups.  ... 

Some tests of the anticipatory mediated generalization model of acquired sample equivalence in pigeons' many-to-one matching

Peter J. Urcuioli, Karen M. Lionello-denolf
2001 Animal Learning and Behavior  
In this task, different-looking sample stimuli (e.g., a red hue and a white-on-black vertical line) initially occasion the same comparison choice response, whereas other disparate samples (e.g., a green  ...  Moreover, this learned categorical discrimination often generalizes immediately and accurately to novel instances of the trained categories.  ...  The acquired equivalence that might arise from this history can be assessed by whether or not new comparison choices learned to some of the samples immediately generalize to the remaining samples.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03192892 fatcat:22drbvdkgjhw3fkwfyfapz3ruu

The intermediate learner's choice of self-as-a-model strategies and the eight-session practice in learning of the front crawl swim

Priscila Garcia Marques, Umberto Cesar Corrêa
2017 Kinesiology  
Results showed better learning of the front crawl swim for the choice group in comparison to the yoked and control group.  ...  choice group), and control group (did not watch any video).  ...  The Mann-Whitney U test showed that the choice group was different from both the yoked and control groups (p<.01) and that the yoked group was different from the control group (p<.01).  ... 
doi:10.26582/k.49.1.8 fatcat:5zxmcnttufbgng6urcm42ngiky

A Comparative Study of Relational Learning Capacity in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Stingless Bees (Melipona rufiventris)

Antonio Mauricio Moreno, Deisy das Graças de Souza, Judith Reinhard, Nigel E. Raine
2012 PLoS ONE  
choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations.  ...  A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination  ...  All experiments were conducted in strict accordance with national guidelines and regulations for animal research in Australia and Brazil. Author Contributions  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051467 pmid:23251542 pmcid:PMC3518466 fatcat:rwqc6tkzvncgzkjppvq57oki2u

Damage to the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Learning from Observed Outcomes

Dharshan Kumaran, David E. Warren, Daniel Tranel
2015 Cerebral Cortex  
Individuals learn both from the outcomes of their own internally generated actions ("experiential learning") and from the observation of the consequences of externally generated actions ("observational  ...  We explored the necessity of the vmPFC for observational learning by testing a group of patients with damage to the vmPFC as well as demographically matched normal comparison and brain-damaged comparison  ...  Notes The authors thank Christopher Kovach, Joel Bruss, and Robin Berman for their assistance with this project, and Ed Wasserman and Thomas Zentall for discussions on observational learning.  ... 
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhv080 pmid:25911415 pmcid:PMC4810001 fatcat:kpry7gr6sffa3aqvxurpj4ywm4
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