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Reasoning and learning by analogy: Introduction

Dedre Gentner, Keith J. Holyoak
1997 American Psychologist  
The operation of these constraints is apparent in laboratory experiments on analogy and in naturalistic settings, including politics, psychotherapy, and scientific research.  ...  The use of analogy in human thinking is examined from the perspective of a multiconstraint theory, which postulates 3 basic types of constraints: similarity, structure, and purpose.  ...  His mother then put her hand in front of Aaron's face and received a kiss from him. 1 Aaron's reaction provides a small example of thinking by analogy--trying to reason and learn about a new situation  ... 
doi:10.1037//0003-066x.52.1.32 pmid:9017931 fatcat:4bzjeopywrhhrga6t2vdnqpg5m

Reasoning by Analogy in Description Logics Through Instance-based Learning

Claudia d'Amato, Nicola Fanizzi, Floriana Esposito
2006 Semantic Web Applications and Perspectives  
This work presents a method founded in instancebased learning for inductive (memory-based) reasoning on ABoxes.  ...  entailed by the knowledge base.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was partially supported by the regional interest projects DIPIS (DIstributed Production as Innovative System) and DDTA (Distretto Digitale Tessile Abbigliamento) in the context  ... 
dblp:conf/swap/dAmatoFE06 fatcat:5uooqnhmangvtbfnofw7p4pj44

Students Learn Better Through Reasoning by Analogy, But How? : A Comparative Approach

Ayse Kutlu, Adil Kutlu
2014 Journal of Educational and Social Research  
This study gives the importance of reasoning by analogy and making the learning process interesting and also making the learning a success through comparing the explanations and views of Paul Thagard and  ...  The results demonstrate that the teachers should use reasoning by analogy in learning process to make students interested and better learned for fruitful outcomes overall.  ...  Mintzes and his colleagues (1997) together with TWA model have generated six models of analogies such as: General analogy, bridge analogy, multiple analogies, anecdotal analogies, case-based reasoning  ... 
doi:10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n2p30 fatcat:m7xlvk6zjnantnfc47nljc2vbe

When reasoning modifies memory: Schematic assimilation triggered by analogical mapping

Michael S. Vendetti, Aaron Wu, Ebi Rowshanshad, Barbara J. Knowlton, Keith J. Holyoak
2014 Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition  
An important mental process that may have the potential to reorganize memory is reasoning by analogy.  ...  The present findings suggest that such assimilation can be triggered by analogical reasoning and can result in impairment of the ability to recognize aspects of a source analog previously encoded into  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0036350 pmid:24707788 fatcat:hkn2igp5gvehxirtzcncqeu3i4

Fostering 5th Grade Students' Understanding of Science via Salience Analogical Reasoning in On-line and Classroom Learning Environments

Ming-Hua Chuang, Hsiao-Ching She
2013 Educational Technology & Society  
reasoning with on-line learning (condition 2), and relational salience analogical reasoning with on-line learning (condition 3).  ...  This study highlights the idea that on-line learning benefits students more than classroom learning, surface salience analogical reasoning is as efficient as relational salience analogical reasoning, and  ...  Supported by constant thinking and reasoning, the analogical reasoning ability of students will refine and mature continuously.  ... 
dblp:journals/ets/ChuangS13 fatcat:v3tfuikzhbbihhc7conc7qfh6y

Few-shot Visual Reasoning with Meta-analogical Contrastive Learning [article]

Youngsung Kim, Jinwoo Shin, Eunho Yang, Sung Ju Hwang
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We further meta-learn our analogical contrastive learning model over the same tasks with diverse attributes, and show that it generalizes to the same visual reasoning problem with unseen attributes.  ...  as possible with analogical learning.  ...  Here, by replacing class with task, K-shot and N -task reasoning framework can be defined.  ... 
arXiv:2007.12020v1 fatcat:bkkp6kl6wff7xcugc67rpnqvj4

Analogical Reasoning with Deep Learning-Based Symbolic Processing

Hiroshi Honda, Masafumi Hagiwara
2021 IEEE Access  
In our proposed systems, the reasoning ability is enhanced by combining both analogical reasoning for rules and unification.  ...  TRANSFER LEARNING One of the studies related to analogical reasoning is transfer learning.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3109443 fatcat:nx6knlvebzestaiom3pt7zei2u

The enhancement of mathematical analogical reasoning ability of university students through concept attainment model

L M Angraini, Y S Kusumah, J A Dahlan
2018 Journal of Physics, Conference Series  
of the mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the students who gets the conventional learning as a whole and based on PMK; (2) There is no interaction between the learning that is used and PMK on  ...  This study aims to see the enhancement of mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the university students through concept attainment model learning based on overall and Prior Mathematical Knowledge  ...  Instruments for measuring mathematical analogical reasoning are adopted from several sources and then developed by researchers.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1013/1/012111 fatcat:iwipyl4svbaqhdb5ywqztt4n2a

Analogy and Relational Representations in the Companion Cognitive Architecture

Kenneth D. Forbus, Thomas Hinrich
2017 The AI Magazine  
reasoning, learning, and communication.  ...  Our two central hypotheses about how to achieve this are (1) analogical reasoning and learning are central to cognition, and (2) qualitative representations provide a level of description that facilitates  ...  Statements and opinions expressed may not reflect the position or policy of the United States government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. David Barbella  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v38i4.2743 fatcat:ex3vwybbjvg6xcg4ktdjkg646i

Analogical Reasoning in the Classroom: Insights From Cognitive Science

Michael S. Vendetti, Bryan J. Matlen, Lindsey E. Richland, Silvia A. Bunge
2015 Mind, Brain, and Education  
Reasoning by analogy is especially challenging for students, who must transfer in the context-rich and often high-pressure settings of classrooms.  ...  We first discuss what is known about the development and neurological underpinnings of analogical reasoning, and then review research directly relevant to supporting analogical reasoning in classroom contexts  ...  Support was also provided by two National Science Foundation Science of Learning Center Grants SPE 0541957 and SBE-0354420, an Institute of Education Sciences U.S.  ... 
doi:10.1111/mbe.12080 fatcat:nbp5sv6oxrcfpasbqv4hkwtmza

Individual Differences in Relational Learning and Analogical Reasoning: A Computational Model of Longitudinal Change

Leonidas A. A. Doumas, Robert G. Morrison, Lindsey E. Richland
2018 Frontiers in Psychology  
Children's cognitive control and knowledge at school entry predict growth rates in analogical reasoning skill over time; however, the mechanisms by which these factors interact and impact learning are  ...  We evaluate this hypothesis using computational simulations in a model of analogical thinking, Discovery of Relations by Analogy/Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogy (DORA/LISA; Doumas et al  ...  FUNDING The research reported here was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, SMA-1548292, and the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01235 pmid:30140242 pmcid:PMC6095010 fatcat:aj2ppazlufdhpl4ua67rpbqweq

PROFILE OF STUDENTS' ANALOGICAL REASONING IN SOLVING MATHEMATICS PROBLEMS: A STUDY BASED ON SELF-REGULATED LEARNING

Mar'atus Solehah, Masriyah Masriyah
2021 MATHEdunesa  
Analogical reasoning is an important ability for students related to reasoning activities by thinking carefully about the regularity of patterns found in mathematics.  ...  And student did the verification. Keywords: analogical reasoning, self-regulated learning, problem-solving  ...  It makes analogical reasoning an essential study in mathematics learning because analogical reasoning helps students more critically and carefully observe and analyze the patterns found in mathematics  ... 
doi:10.26740/mathedunesa.v10n2.p220-229 fatcat:hsvjzbiyejf5tpcqbvfm7cikqu

Multimedia Assisted Analogy: Learning Approach to Developing Mathematical Representation Skills

Gelar Dwirahayu, Dyah Tantri K., Afidah Afidah
2021 JPI (Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia)  
The results indicate that the mathematical representation ability of students whose learning uses the analogy approach is significantly higher than students whose learning uses a conventional approach  ...  This study aims to examine the application of mathematics learning using a multimedia-assisted analogy approach in developing mathematical representation.  ...  In learning by multimedia-assist analogy, students do more analogy with pictures and analogy symbols must convey oral ideas. The learning process is also assisted by using Student Worksheets.  ... 
doi:10.23887/jpi-undiksha.v10i1.24371 fatcat:s7bke2y3hzeh5nup6badaqe43u

The Access Paradox in Analogical Reasoning and Transfer: Whither Invariance?

Robert E. Haskell
2008 Theoria et Historia Scientiarum  
Thus, research on analogical reasoning has seldom been cited by metaphor researchers, and vise versa.  ...  This problematic is not a new one, being outlined by the epistemological learning paradox found in Plato's Meno.  ...  by which to analyze how subjects' reason about and "retrieve" an analogy after the fact.  ... 
doi:10.12775/ths.2008.009 fatcat:oecgmg57tjbldiuj5jrhb7zpfq

Companion Cognitive Systems: Design Goals and Lessons Learned So Far

Kenneth D. Forbus, Matthew Klenk, Thomas Hinrichs
2009 IEEE Intelligent Systems  
In this paper, we describe seven design goals of Companions, relate them to properties of human reasoning, and discuss their implications.  ...  Companion Cognitive Systems is a cognitive architecture inspired by natural intelligent systems.  ...  Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under an IPTO seedling and the Transfer Learning Program, and by the Office of Naval Research, under the Intelligent  ... 
doi:10.1109/mis.2009.71 fatcat:w532qfy2wbe7db76swd7we4ghm
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