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Learning Purposeful Behaviour in the Absence of Rewards [article]

Marlos C. Machado, Michael Bowling
2016 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper we present an algorithm capable of learning purposeful behaviour in the absence of rewards.  ...  In the reinforcement learning framework, goals are encoded as reward functions that guide agent behaviour, and the sum of observed rewards provide a notion of progress.  ...  This work was supported by grants from Alberta Innovates Technology Futures and the Alberta Innovates Centre for Machine Learning (AICML).  ... 
arXiv:1605.07700v1 fatcat:6ob7d5uhnvegxntmnmlkcbzb3m

Honeybees learn the sign and magnitude of reward variations

M. Gil, R. J. De Marco
2009 Journal of Experimental Biology  
In this study, we asked whether honeybees learn the sign and magnitude of variations in the level of reward.  ...  We designed an experiment in which bees first had to forage on a three-flower patch offering variable reward levels, and then search for food at the site in the absence of reward and after a long foraging  ...  Núñez (University of Buenos Aires) for designing and constructing the rate-feeders used in the experiment.  ... 
doi:10.1242/jeb.032623 pmid:19684218 fatcat:mq5nc6giyvd6lcqbhlws4sqsga

Page 23 of New Zealand Physical Educator Vol. 26, Issue 1 [page]

1993 New Zealand Physical Educator  
In the latter case, behaviours which are seen to be rewarded are more likely to be repeated.  ...  Of these, the Social Learning Theory has received the most empirical support. According to this theory, aggression is viewed as a learned social behaviour.  ... 

Relevance of Skinner's Theory of Reinforcement on Effective School Evaluaution and Management
English

O. Austin Omomia, T. A. Omomia
2014 European Journal of Psychological Studies  
Skinner's theory of reinforcement emphasizes on the relevance of reward and punishment. This has impacted, to a large extent on the promotion of teaching and learning.  ...  And learners should be rewarded in order to improve their educational outcomes.  ...  The Theory of Reinforcement and Teacher Evaluation According to Skinner, the purpose of instruction is to alter behaviour in the desired direction.  ... 
doi:10.13187/ejps.2014.6.174 fatcat:gwud6lkaevdurfe6ixa63nemii

Exploration and learning in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): the role of action–outcome contingencies

Eugenia Polizzi di Sorrentino, Gloria Sabbatini, Valentina Truppa, Anna Bordonali, Fabrizio Taffoni, Domenico Formica, Gianluca Baldassarre, Marco Mirolli, Eugenio Guglielmelli, Elisabetta Visalberghi
2014 Animal Cognition  
These findings demonstrate that the opportunity to experience action-outcome contingencies in the absence of extrinsic rewards promotes capuchins' exploration and facilitates learning processes.  ...  The role of the contingency between action and outcome for learning has been mainly investigated in instrumental learning settings and much less in free exploration contexts.  ...  2 -Cognitive Systems, Interaction, Robotics'', of the European Commission.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10071-014-0740-5 pmid:24638875 fatcat:bevn4f4kizeezm7gsbycimxu7e

Applying the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy v1: a study of coder training

Caroline E Wood, Michelle Richardson, Marie Johnston, Charles Abraham, Jill Francis, Wendy Hardeman, Susan Michie
2014 Translational Behavioral Medicine  
The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of user training in improving reliable, valid and confident application of BCTTv1 to code BCTs in intervention descriptions.  ...  Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) has been used to detect active ingredients of interventions.  ...  Acknowledgments: The present work was carried out as part of the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy project funded by the Medical Research Council via its Methodology panel [G0901474/1].  ... 
doi:10.1007/s13142-014-0290-z pmid:26029276 pmcid:PMC4444702 fatcat:ohlu5sxmvnhmpezjmbm4zphjkm

Reinforcing motor re-training and rehabilitation through games: a machine-learning perspective

Maurizio Schmid
2009 Frontiers in Neuroengineering  
As a result, if this were the case of rehabilitation programs for humans, the absence of reward mechanisms can lead to a "less adaptive" behaviour where no changes in the parameters of the planner appear  ...  If, instead, some measure of long-term reward is used to let the planner modify its behaviour, the latter will adapt its parameters based on how much the reward differs from the reward it was expecting  ... 
doi:10.3389/neuro.16.003.2009 pmid:19430596 pmcid:PMC2679159 fatcat:jwanrhhpbjbvfeaeoovfc7vziq

Action Discovery and Intrinsic Motivation: A Biologically Constrained Formalisation [chapter]

Kevin Gurney, Nathan Lepora, Ashvin Shah, Ansgar Koene, Peter Redgrave
2012 Intrinsically Motivated Learning in Natural and Artificial Systems  
The process of learning actions is driven by transient changes in the animal's policy (repetition bias) which is, in turn, a result of unpredicted, phasic sensory information ('surprise').  ...  The notion of salience-asvalue is introduced and broken down into contributions from novelty (or surprise), immediate reward acquisition, or general task/goal attainment.  ...  Acknowledgements Written while the authors were in receipt of research funding from The Wellcome Trust, BBSRC and EPSRC.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32375-1_7 fatcat:jwqyhdwkmrfq5fcxeghnsrvmvm

Page 35 of Technology + Society Vol. 4, Issue 4 [page]

1969 Technology + Society  
assumes - for all practical purposes - either the absence or at least the negligible role of anything which cannot be attributed to all members of the human kind.  ...  While sympathizing with the general attitude expressed in the preceding statement, I would not myself go so far as denying all validity to the modern "reinforcement" or “reward" theory of learning.  ... 

Fatal attraction: Ventral striatum predicts costly choice errors in humans

J.R. Chumbley, P.N. Tobler, E. Fehr
2014 NeuroImage  
Motivated by these findings we study the biology of financially-costly approach behavior in humans. Our subjects passively learned to predict the occurrence of erotic rewards.  ...  Motivated by these findings we study the biology of financially-costly approach behavior in humans. Our subjects passively learned to predict the occurrence of erotic rewards.  ...  The former paradigm entails separately training a passive Pavlovian cue-reward association and an instrumental action-reward association, then comparing responses in the presence versus absence of the  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.11.039 pmid:24291504 fatcat:uuijnfltwzfvzbgj5gjpfyn36a

'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

T. Niewalda, I. Jeske, B. Michels, B. Gerber
2014 Biology Open  
In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual.  ...  We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory  ...  well as to Rupert Glasgow and the colleagues in our research group for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1242/bio.20148458 pmid:24907371 pmcid:PMC4154293 fatcat:f3nud3nginebfetnvgqsiwmqzi

Teacher concepts on students' obtaining self-control

Bahri Aydin
2009 Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences  
The purpose of this research is to define the possible ways of how the teachers can bring in self-control to their students.  ...  At the end of the research, teachers indicated that "assigning tasks for students", "becoming a model", "achievement of obtaining self-control in previous classes", "rewarding", "apprehending the importance  ...  These notions are undesirable behaviours, student's self-control, implementation of the rules, forming the learning environment, attending the appropriate learning activities, teachers' reactions to the  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.222 fatcat:wltjkyvhxjax3mjqx46xigspl4

Dopamine-dependent prediction errors underpin reward-seeking behaviour in humans

Mathias Pessiglione, Ben Seymour, Guillaume Flandin, Raymond J. Dolan, Chris D. Frith
2006 Nature  
Here we show that, during instrumental learning, the magnitude of reward prediction error expressed in the striatum is modulated by the administration of drugs enhancing (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine;  ...  Circles and squares representing observed choices have been left for the purpose of comparison.  ...  Draganski for assistance in the double-blind procedure, and J. Daunizeau for assistance in the statistical analysis. This work was funded by the Wellcome Trust research programme grants.  ... 
doi:10.1038/nature05051 pmid:16929307 pmcid:PMC2636869 fatcat:j6ficutvojbh7lm7t4fe72kpam

The left hemisphere learns what is right: Hemispatial reward learning depends on reinforcement learning processes in the contralateral hemisphere

Kristoffer Carl Aberg, Kimberly Crystal Doell, Sophie Schwartz
2016 Neuropsychologia  
Moreover, lesion studies indicate that learning rewarded stimuli in one hemispace depends on the integrity of the contralateral striatum.  ...  Because reward-based behavioural adaptation depends on the dopaminergic system and prediction error (PE) encoding in the ventral striatum, we hypothesized that hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine (DA)  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR) Affective Sciences financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant number: 51NF40-104897) and hosted  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.05.023 pmid:27221149 fatcat:kkow5g5tvvg67boiw463prtzoq

Response learning confounds assays of inhibitory control on detour tasks

Jayden O. van Horik, Christine E. Beardsworth, Philippa R. Laker, Mark A. Whiteside, Joah R. Madden
2019 Animal Cognition  
Conversely, we alternated the location of the barrier across trials for birds in the moving-barrier treatment and hence provided less reinforcement of their response learning.  ...  However, assays of IC are often measured across multiple trials, with the location of the reward remaining constant.  ...  Acknowledgements Rothamsted Research, North Wyke hosted the rearing and release of the pheasants. Kandace Griffin and Anna Morris helped with data collection and animal husbandry.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10071-019-01330-w pmid:31758353 fatcat:znj6rfhm4vdlvnu3yn742mnycm
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