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A Clustering Based Approach for Realistic and Efficient Data-Driven Crowd Simulation [article]

Mingbi Zhao
2015 arXiv   pre-print
Unlike existing example-based models in which current states are matched to states extracted from crowd videos directly, our approach adopts a hierarchical mechanism to generate the steering behaviors  ...  In this paper, we present a data-driven approach to generate realistic steering behaviors for virtual crowds in crowd simulation.  ...  Rather than specifying behavior rules manually, our approach can generate a wide variety of steering behaviors based on pedestrian behaviors from crowd videos. • An unsupervised method is proposed to automatically  ... 
arXiv:1506.04480v2 fatcat:hkc6ovqu2vfsrhm5vdvn4n7qwa

Destination Flow for Crowd Simulation [chapter]

Stefano Pellegrini, Jürgen Gall, Leonid Sigal, Luc Van Gool
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Behaviors like "wait at the tram stop" or "stroll-around" are not explicitly modeled, but learned from real examples.  ...  We present a crowd simulation that captures some of the semantics of a specific scene by partly reproducing its motion behaviors, both at a lower level using a steering model and at the higher level of  ...  In this layer, behaviors like "wait at the tram stop", "stroll-around" or "go and grab a coffee" are not explicitly scripted but learned from real examples.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33885-4_17 fatcat:f7wi64cdpvfv3mrnsyip6g2k6q

Towards urban crowd visualization

I. Rivalcoba, L. Toledo, I. Rudomín
2019 Scientific Visualization  
The present work incorporates steering pedestrian behaviors using real data collected from several sources such as GPS traces and surveillance systems, all these data allows virtual characters to adapt  ...  stage we integrate the WRLD3D plug-in with real data collected from GPS traces, then we use a hybrid approach done by incorporating steering pedestrian behaviors with the goal of simulating the subtle  ...  without needing large amounts of data, we extracted from videos the steering movements of pedestrians and store them as examples to create a knowledge base of learned steering behaviors.  ... 
doi:10.26583/sv.11.2.04 fatcat:gco5e35wzvgxbbbvvnp5dxvr3a

Crowd Simulation in 3D Virtual Environments [chapter]

Somnuk Phon-Amnuaisuk, Ahmad Rafi, Thien-Wan Au, Saiful Omar, Nyuk-Hiong Voon
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Complex behaviors emerging from these interactions are from local rules and without any central control. These behaviors reveal the complexity of the domain without explicitly programming the system.  ...  Simulation is a good approach in this kind of domain since complex global behaviors emerge from the local interactions.  ...  In this work, crowd behaviors are simulated by adapting ideas from the Boids framework. The crowd movement in a 3D virtual environment is navigated using steering forces.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-49397-8_14 fatcat:4d4o274owjaebjilqpicsgelii

Generating a multiplicity of policies for agent steering in crowd simulation

Cory D. Boatright, Mubbasir Kapadia, Jennie M. Shapira, Norman I. Badler
2014 Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds  
Pedestrian steering algorithms range from completely procedural to entirely data-driven, but the former grossly generalize across possible human behaviors and suffer computationally, whereas the latter  ...  Our approach seeks the balanced middle ground by deriving a collection of machine-learned policies based on the behavior of a procedural steering algorithm through the decomposition of the space of possible  ...  Next, the various machine-learned models must be fit to the data. Finally, these models are used Examples from our set of contexts.  ... 
doi:10.1002/cav.1572 fatcat:u7xmmlxwxrhm7bqjdzeouyosxu

A modular framework for adaptive agent-based steering

Shawn Singh, Mubbasir Kapadia, Billy Hewlett, Glenn Reinman, Petros Faloutsos
2011 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games on - I3D '11  
Figure 1 : Snapshots of a bottleneck and a doorway scenario, showing progress from left to right. The hybrid approach efficiently handles large crowds and challenging space-time scenarios.  ...  We also show that the frequency of updates for each phase of the framework can be "decimated" by a surprisingly large amount before resulting steering behaviors degrade.  ...  This may seem arbitrary, but it is arguably a good model of human-like steering as well, since real pedestrians are more likely to use basic crowd steering behaviors in crowded environments instead of  ... 
doi:10.1145/1944745.1944769 dblp:conf/si3d/SinghKHRF11 fatcat:w5esqe77brctfesoeu7xunpjl4

Path patterns

He Wang, Jan Ondřej, Carol O'Sullivan
2016 Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games - I3D '16  
Figure 1 : (a) A video screenshot from a train station; (b) 1000 tracklets (randomly selected from 19999); (c-g) The five orientation subdomains of the top pattern as location-orientation distributions  ...  Unsupervised clustering by non-parametric Bayesian inference is used to learn the patterns, which themselves provide a rich visualization of the crowd's behaviour.  ...  Guy et al. [2012] use a dynamic system to model crowd dynamics and compute an entropy metric based on individual motion randomness distributions learned from the data.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2856400.2856410 dblp:conf/si3d/WangOO16 fatcat:74h2nshn2zaz3hkzjk3v3pye4e

Human and social behavior in computational modeling and analysis of egress

Xiaoshan Pan, Charles S. Han, Ken Dauber, Kincho H. Law
2006 Automation in Construction  
This paper presents a framework for studying human and social behavior from the perspectives of human decision-making and social interaction and to incorporate such behavior systematically in a dynamic  ...  Furthermore, the behaviors are usually incorporated into the computational model in an ad hoc manner.  ...  The authors would like to acknowledge the software support from AutoDesk, Inc..  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2005.06.006 fatcat:2wtayci7nza5neqy6e4l446lyi

Egocentric affordance fields in pedestrian steering

Mubbasir Kapadia, Shawn Singh, William Hewlett, Petros Faloutsos
2009 Proceedings of the 2009 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics and games - I3D '09  
In this paper we propose a general framework for local pathplanning and steering that can be easily extended to perform highlevel behaviors.  ...  The action that has the optimal value in the affordance field is the agent's steering decision.  ...  Example based approaches [Lerner et al. 2007] use video segments of real pedestrian crowds as input to a learning system that generates natural looking crowd behaviors.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1507149.1507185 dblp:conf/si3d/KapadiaSHF09 fatcat:sbphiomjijcmvkttrjnldgphvm

What's Next? The New Era of Autonomous Virtual Humans [chapter]

Mubbasir Kapadia, Alexander Shoulson, Cory D. Boatright, Pengfei Huang, Funda Durupinar, Norman I. Badler
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For example, a crowd of agents blocking an exit would require choosing an alternate route, requiring a re-plan.  ...  For example, there may be locomotion constraints imposed by the scenario author which may prevent agents to steer with a high degree of dexterity.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-34710-8_16 fatcat:vfnrgljcbbgclgudjx7oyin2ja

Perceived Realism of Crowd Behaviour with Social Forces

Stuart O'Connor, Fotis Liarokapis, Chrisina Jayne
2015 2015 19th International Conference on Information Visualisation  
Results from the experiment suggest that participants do consider crowd behaviour with social forces to be more realistic.  ...  This research could inform the development of crowd-based systems, especially those that consider viewer perception to be important, such as for example video games and other media.  ...  Whilst this gives key behaviour, these base algorithms can be extended to give more advanced behavioral features, such as social aspects or learning.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iv.2015.88 dblp:conf/iv/OConnorLJ15 fatcat:m3t5h5w2kneqjp3mdlz665riie

VELOS - A VR Environment for Ship Applications: Current Status and Planned Extensions [chapter]

A. I. Ginnis, K. V. Kostas, C. G. Politis, P. D. Kaklis
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Realistic simulations of behavioral aspects of crowd in emergency conditions require modeling of panic aspects and social conventions of inter-relations.  ...  The present paper provides a description of the enhanced crowd modeling approach employed in VELOS for the performance of ship evacuation assessment and analysis based on the guidelines provided by IMO's  ...  Acknowledgments This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund -ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17043-5_3 fatcat:wry4viaci5h5xlcgixl7z7y6w4

Sensing and Forecasting Crowd Distribution in Smart Cities: Potentials and Approaches

Alket Cecaj, Marco Lippi, Marco Mamei, Franco Zambonelli
2021 IoT  
The objective of this survey is to overview: (i) the many potential application areas of crowd sensing and prediction; (ii) the technologies that can be exploited to sense crowd along with their potentials  ...  and limitations; (iii) the data analysis techniques that can be effectively used to forecast crowd distribution.  ...  For example, in crowded touristic cities such as Venice (Italy), crowd steering upon crowd forecasting can avoid preventing tourists to find difficulties in moving along Venice's narrow streets.  ... 
doi:10.3390/iot2010003 fatcat:3iidezw7xrezthunye5ljb7yri

Page 53 of The Journal of School Health Vol. 28, Issue 2 [page]

1958 The Journal of School Health  
Jam- ming on the brakes when the pavement is wet, releasing the steering wheel when a tire blows out, or running when bitten by a snake are just a few examples of inability to utilize knowledge under sudden  ...  Unless safety instruction has meaning to the individual, his behavior is not changed. Unless he is able to utilize what he has learned, the efforts and time spent in instruc-  ... 

Context-sensitive data-driven crowd simulation

Cory D. Boatright, Mubbasir Kapadia, Jennie M. Shapira, Norman I. Badler
2013 Proceedings of the 12th ACM SIGGRAPH International Conference on Virtual-Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry - VRCAI '13  
Abstract In terms of computation, steering through a crowd of pedestrians is a challenging task.  ...  To this end, we propose a data-driven system for steering in crowd simulations by splitting the problem space into coarse features for the general world, and fine features for other agents nearby.  ...  Additionally, samples of real-life steering behavior can be used with the machine learning to fit better models. Data-Driven Techniques.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2534329.2534332 dblp:conf/vrcai/BoatrightKSB13 fatcat:dz3a7tx6q5agtco6khydwxrfbi
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