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Leap-Of-Thought: Teaching Pre-Trained Models to Systematically Reason Over Implicit Knowledge [article]

Alon Talmor, Oyvind Tafjord, Peter Clark, Yoav Goldberg, Jonathan Berant
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this work, we provide a first demonstration that LMs can be trained to reliably perform systematic reasoning combining both implicit, pre-trained knowledge and explicit natural language statements.  ...  To what extent can a neural network systematically reason over symbolic facts?  ...  This teaches the model to retrieve real world facts from its internal implicit knowledge; and (b) 100K examples from the RULETAKER [4] reasoning dataset, teaching the model to reason over a set of assertions  ... 
arXiv:2006.06609v3 fatcat:3pe5332vh5clhf7mthj27wepxi

Trusting RoBERTa over BERT: Insights from CheckListing the Natural Language Inference Task [article]

Ishan Tarunesh, Somak Aditya, Monojit Choudhury
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Our analysis further reveals inconsistencies of the models on examples derived from the same template or distinct templates but pertaining to same reasoning capability, indicating that generalizing the  ...  models' behavior through observations made on a CheckList is non-trivial.  ...  Acknowledgement We would like to thank Pratik Joshi for contribution to coreference templates.  ... 
arXiv:2107.07229v1 fatcat:alncgdgmb5ct3eipjgjmh5ztd4

A survey of methods for revealing and overcoming weaknesses of data-driven Natural Language Understanding

Viktor Schlegel, Goran Nenadic, Riza Batista-Navarro
2022 Natural Language Engineering  
This structured survey provides an overview of the evolving research area by categorising reported weaknesses in models and datasets and the methods proposed to reveal and alleviate those weaknesses for  ...  novel NLU approaches, to further understand the implications of their improvements with respect to their model's acquired capabilities.  ...  Leap-of-thought: Teaching pre-trained models to systematically reason over implicit knowledge.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1351324922000171 fatcat:tq6p3w6cordcbb2g4o2iyr6acy

Future organizational design: the scope for the IT-based enterprise

2000 ChoiceReviews  
Adhocracies are ill equipped to handle ordinary, routine tasks, and, if they want to move in such a direction, they must transform their structures-for instance, to Professional Bureaucracies (for consulting  ...  Although this is all necessary to solve one-of-a-kind problems, it is devastating for any attempt to compete in the field of routinized work.  ...  However, even with the best intentions on my side, readers may at places be confronted with leaps of thought that remain invisible to one who has been steeped in this material for years.  ... 
doi:10.5860/choice.37-3427 fatcat:t2c3spyrrfffta7c3vi7z54q4u

Relational World Knowledge Representation in Contextual Language Models: A Review

Tara Safavi, Danai Koutra
2021 Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing   unpublished
Leap-of-thought: cessing (Volume 1: Long Papers), pages 3241–3251, Teaching pre-trained models to systematically rea- Online. Association for Computational Linguistics.  ...  Pre- knowledge into pre-trained models with adapters. In training is (almost) all you need: An application Findings of the Association for Computational Lin- to commonsense reasoning.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/2021.emnlp-main.81 fatcat:pw52ssv6nfbbpms7ebneirez5u

THE PROTESTANT ERA By Paul Tillich. Translated and with a concluding essay by James Luther Adams. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948. Pp. 323. $4.00

Albert C. Outler
1948 Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture  
With these words Friedrich Schleiermacher, over a century ago, raised a protest against the Protestantism and the prevailing mentality of his time and pointed forward to a new Protestant realization.  ...  This does not mean that Tillich recommends, any more than Schleiermacher did, a return to the Reformation.  ...  The leap of thought does not involve a breaking of the ties with existence; even in the act of its greatest freedom, thought remains bound to fate.  ... 
doi:10.2307/3160337 fatcat:t5x2rtdtrzcbnl7ygrk7vtmci4

The ethics of writing : Deconstruction and Pedagogy

Peter Pericles Trifonas
1997
the textuality-based machinations of deconstruction can offer a profound resistance to the instruments of domination embedded within the methodico-institutional praxeology of teaching-learning.  ...  Resisting the telos of decidability at the threshold of its own sense, the study compels "the reader"—as it does "the writer"—to push at the outer limits of their own horizons of knowledge.  ...  Acknowledgements ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge, first and foremost, my gratitude to Dr.  ... 
doi:10.14288/1.0054774 fatcat:7zxgw3jeyfgbtl4gptdhzafyie

The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge: From Certainty to Uncertainty Full Book [chapter]

Edward R. Dougherty
The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge: From Certainty to Uncertainty  
Title: The evolution of scientific knowledge : from certainty to uncertainty / Edward R. Dougherty.  ...  . | Knowledge, Theory of. Classification: LCC Q175 .D696 2016 | DDC 501--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016045264 Published by SPIE  ...  Observations lead to expectation, a probabilistic category, not to certainty. Scientific certitude is a fiction, a product of a leap of thought.  ... 
doi:10.1117/3.2263362.sup fatcat:gzcawwuhmrdutb5zgmr5ql3ydq

Strang Loops and Confessions: In Search of a Creative Writing Research Methodology and AI PI: A Novel

Nicola Mary Boyd, University, My, Nigel Krauth
2018
It is this I am trying to achieve in this dissertation, by searching for a concept of a flexible or hybrid model and seeking a metaphor for that model, a language to map the creative/academic process of  ...  of the novel; and the possibilities of providing a framework to help other postgraduates conceptualise, explain, model and map their own creative theses.  ...  Both involve the search for a narrative "truth" running through a body of information, and in isolating this truth the author is required to be bold, taking lateral leaps of thought.  ... 
doi:10.25904/1912/3481 fatcat:tmpf7xnrhvgmpbvbzvbe4r7ho4

Graduate Students' Conference CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

András Cser, Kinga Földváry, Éva Fülöp, Gabriella László, Balázs Matuszka
unpublished
The most important feature of this idea were connections that may be established between columns of the text and illustrate associative leaps of thoughts.  ...  Although the quality of the newspaper was reasonable, the Slovenské noviny failed to win over a wider audience.  ... 
fatcat:qpa7pw573rgqrl2yctu5o3fsem

The Cosmic Web: Scientific Field Models and Literary Strategies in the Twentieth Century

N. Katherine Hayles
1984
The discontinuities facilitate the abrupt leap of thought necessary for the essential paradoxes to emerge. They also create gaps that make it impos sible even to estimate where the bottom might be.  ...  Without this mo tion, the narrator asserts, the train is "static and purposeless": "A train really isn't a train if it can't go anywhere.  ...  We have seen that the same shift in perspective that allows Cantor to treat an infinite set as a "transfinite number," seeing it as a coexisting single entity, also brought in its train paradoxes of self-referentiality  ... 
doi:10.7298/c3bp-cw81 fatcat:zj4dbaydczhmvdwjm6hlu4jbl4

After modernism : Charles Olson, ecological thought and a postwar avant-garde

Philip Andrew Klobucar
1999
Ecological studies repudiated all forms of determinism in reasoning and emphasised instead a complex series of attitudes and informal speculations, non-specific to any distinct ideology or political apparatus  ...  Various ways of qualifying this development can be outlined with respect to the emergence of specific "ecological" approaches to the arts and social sciences.  ...  The text may be fragmented with many leaps of thought, but whenever it turns to new materials, it does so with an intensity of vision and specificity that only adds to the• poem's overall structural harmony  ... 
doi:10.14288/1.0090190 fatcat:h4nmm36g7rggji5wghkw62gai4

A phenomenological study of an experience of intuition and its meaning for the individual

Irene Suyin Lee
1989
Over the centuries, various positions have been taken on intuition, its value and credibility.  ...  In general, intuitive experiences were found to be highly meaningful to individuals and to have had a lasting impact on their lives.  ...  "Typically, a leap of thought occurs in the course of an investigation, often accompanied by a subjective sense of certainty, and subsequently it is submitted to verification through working out of equations  ... 
doi:10.14288/1.0053697 fatcat:eyhsqln6yfayxkh5irfmkppuum