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This paper examines the evolution of income inequality over the past half a century and considers whether economic globalisation has been responsible for the rising degree of income inequality. It is argued that the minimisation of the degree of income inequality cannot and should not be the sole objective of the economic policy makers and that the maximisation of social welfare is a much more important objective. It is possible for the degree of income inequality to increase at the same timedoi:10.2139/ssrn.2617550 fatcat:hzstcti6tvcfjpxsg2uvn5t5m4
more »... at everyone is better off. While economic globalisation may sometimes worsen the degree of income inequality, it has enabled hundreds of millions of people around the World to be lifted up from poverty. Moreover, there are many remedial measures that can be used by economic policy makers to alleviate the negative effects of economic globalisation on the degree of income inequality.
21.2 (24) First use of substances in mainland China 0.01 G6 months ago 48.1 (550) 36.0 (41) 6-12 months ago 19.3 (221) 30.7 (35) 1-2 years ago 13.5 (154) 16.7 (19) LAU ...doi:10.1007/s11524-007-9206-2 pmid:17610070 pmcid:PMC2231849 fatcat:3jzy6tmkzbbvhinkgcbgcjzpae
© American Society for Clinical PathologyHematopathology / ORIGINAL ARTICLE Am J Clin Pathol 2004;122:794-801 © American Society for Clinical Pathology Lau et al / CD163 EXPRESSION IN PARAFFIN-EMBEDDED ...doi:10.1309/qhd6yfn81kqxuuh6 pmid:15491976 fatcat:tkuap44jxbfkvlfaenxtdi2hke
The late Mr. Lee Kuan Yew was the founding father of the nation of Singapore. He was also a philosopher king in the mold of Plato's Republic, a grand strategist, an incorruptible czar, and the ultimate pragmatist. In every century, one can find only a handful of people like him-who had a vision for his country and was also able to achieve it, leaving lasting footprints in the world.doi:10.2139/ssrn.2657648 fatcat:t47eegwxlrcvxhkr2odusvuepu
However, a meta-production function approach, first introduced by Lau and Yotopoulos (1989) and extended by Boskin and Lau (1992) , based on the transcendental logarithmic production function introduced ... Boskin, Guo and Lau (2015) have recently estimated the degrees of returns to scale for the Group-of-Seven (G-7) Countries using the meta-production function approach. ...doi:10.2139/ssrn.2686469 fatcat:wc4igeuoqbdjno7vrhj73biopm
One important indicator of national economic strength, in addition to real GDP, is its innovative capacity. Sustained investment in research and development (R&D) is essential for the occurrence of innovation in an economy. The stock of real R&D capital, defined as the cumulative past real expenditure on R&D, less depreciation of ten percent per year, is a useful summary measure of the current potential capacity of innovation. It is compared across the Group-of-Seven (G-7) Countries, the fourdoi:10.2139/ssrn.2686445 fatcat:jw4lm2zr7rgohk7qljvlwkzqte
more »... st Asian Newly Industrialized Economies (EANIEs) and China on both an aggregate and a per capita basis. Indicators of success in innovation, such as the number of patent applications submitted and the number of patents granted, both domestically and abroad, each year, are also compared across the same set of economies. The real R&D capital stock can be shown to have a direct and positive causal relationship to the number of patents granted--the higher the level of the real R&D capital stock of an economy, the higher is the number of domestic and U.S. patents granted to it. Among R&D expenditures, different categories may be distinguished: basic research, applied research and development. The share of basic research in total R&D expenditures is also compared across the same set of economies, as "break-through" discoveries and innovations can only consistently occur in an economy with a strong foundation of basic research.
LAU, E. SHESHINSKI, AND J. E. ... The indirect utility function has the form: 4.35) ax a2 v aZ aZaq 6See Jorgenson and Lau . is a scalar. By (4.39), (aU/aZj)/(aU/aZ1) is homogeneous of degree zero in X. Q.E.D. 5. ...doi:10.2307/1913900 fatcat:6xtredj2ijfctpjqtlm45hinpy
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
We present a novel approach to learning predictive sequential models, called similarity-based alignment and generalization, which incorporates in the induction process a specific form of domain knowledge derived from a similarity function between the points in the input space. When applied to Hidden Markov Models, our framework yields a new class of learning algorithms called SimAlignGen. We discuss the application of our approach to the problem of programming by demonstrationthe problem ofdoi:10.1007/11564096_66 fatcat:xqvfylza3fdixbcktfljs647mi
more »... ning a procedural model of user behavior by observing the interaction an application Graphical User Interface (GUI). We describe in detail the SimIOHMM, a specific instance of SimAlignGen that extends the known Input-Output Hidden Markov Model (IOHMM). Empirical evaluations of the SimIOHMM show the dependence of the prediction accuracy on the introduced similarity bias, and the computational gains over the IOHMM.
Technical support procedures are typically very complex. Users often have trouble following printed instructions describing how to perform these procedures, and these instructions are difficult for support personnel to author clearly. Our goal is to learn these procedures by demonstration, watching multiple experts performing the same procedure across different operating conditions, and produce an executable procedure that runs interactively on the user's desktop. Most previous programming bydoi:10.1145/964442.964464 dblp:conf/iui/LauBCO04 fatcat:x24ektoqx5hvhfzdzb32jbx6g4
more »... monstration systems have focused on simple programs with regular structure, such as loops with fixed-length bodies. In contrast, our system induces complex procedure structure by aligning multiple execution traces covering different paths through the procedure. This paper presents a solution to this alignment problem using Input/Output Hidden Markov Models. We describe the results of a user study that examines how users follow printed directions. We present Sheepdog, an implemented system for capturing, learning, and playing back technical support procedures on the Windows desktop. Finally, we empirically evalute our system using traces gathered from the user study and show that we are able to achieve 73% accuracy on a network configuration task using a procedure trained by non-experts.
The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Napgroup, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watchdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125752 pmid:25970511 pmcid:PMC4430242 fatcat:bbbgkhkcafemjgrd6e3wdj7e5e
more »... or 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wakegroup. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.
1 Pareto-Improving Economic Reforms through Dual-Track Liberalization Lawrence J. ... We documented elsewhere (Lau, Qian and Roland, 1996) the Chinese experience with the dual-track strategy for liberalization. ...doi:10.2139/ssrn.82129 fatcat:ioq2q6yn6zbizhk3vsv73oobie
This paper describes the submissions of the Natural Language Processing (NLP) team from the Australian Research Council Industrial Transformation Training Centre (ITTC) for Cognitive Computing in Medical Technologies to the TREC 2021 Clinical Trials Track. The task focuses on the problem of matching eligible clinical trials to topics constituting a summary of a patient's admission notes. We explore different ways of representing trials and topics using NLP techniques, and then use a commonarXiv:2202.07858v1 fatcat:fyionxlnlbb6xjsnhc5bjrwo64
more »... eval model to generate the ranked list of relevant trials for each topic. The results from all our submitted runs are well above the median scores for all topics, but there is still plenty of scope for improvement.
Methods-MoCA norms were collected from 794 functionally independent and stroke-and dementia-free persons aged ≥65 years. magnetic resonance imaging was used to exclude healthy controls with significant brain pathology and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Cutoff scores at 16th, 7th, and 2nd percentiles by age and education were derived for the MoCA and MoCA 5-minute Protocol. MoCA performance in 919 patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack was classified using the single and norm-deriveddoi:10.1161/strokeaha.115.011226 pmid:26470772 fatcat:modwrvdrnveqbm6kityjvgzp6i
more »... toff scores. Results-The norms for the Hong Kong version of the MoCA total and domain scores and the total score of the MoCA 5-minute protocol are described. Only 65.1% and 25.7% healthy controls and 45.2% and 19.0% patients scored above the conventional cutoff scores of 21/22 and 25/26 on the MoCA. Using classification with norm-derived cutoff scores as reference, locally derived cutoff score of 21/22 yielded a classification discrepancy of ≤42.4%. Discrepancy increased with higher age and lower education level, with the majority being false positives by single cutoffs. With the 25/26 cutoff of the original MoCA, discrepancy further increased to ≤74.3%. Conclusions-Conventional single cutoff scores are associated with substantially high rates of misclassification especially in older and less-educated patients with stroke. These results caution against the use of one-size-fits-all cutoffs on the MoCA.
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