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Languages Ordered by the Subword Order [chapter]

Dietrich Kuske, Georg Zetzsche
2019 Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology  
We consider a language together with the subword relation, the cover relation, and regular predicates.  ...  For such structures, we consider the extension of first-order logic by threshold-and modulo-counting quantifiers.  ...  Introduction The subword relation (sometimes called scattered subword relation) is a simple example of a well-quasi ordering [7] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-17127-8_20 dblp:conf/fossacs/KuskeZ19 fatcat:umgwvovfnzftrdsn7375axk6wa

Languages ordered by the subword order [article]

Dietrich Kuske, Georg Zetzsche
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We consider a language together with the subword relation, the cover relation, and regular predicates.  ...  For such structures, we consider the extension of first-order logic by threshold- and modulo-counting quantifiers.  ...  Then the function r : Σ * → N ∞ : u → |{v ∈ L | (u, v) ∈ R}| is effectively realizable. 23:14 Languages ordered by the subword order -long version Proof.  ... 
arXiv:1901.02194v1 fatcat:akjmbq7rgzdplpi2fmyl54dq6m

Knowledge-driven Subword Grammar Modeling for Automatic Speech Recognition in Tamil and Kannada [article]

Madhavaraj A, Bharathi Pilar, Ramakrishnan A G
2022 arXiv   pre-print
rules of the languages.  ...  Most of the data-driven subword dictionary creation algorithms are computation driven, and hence do not guarantee morpheme-like units and so we have used the linguistic knowledge of the languages and manually  ...  In our case, since each word is split into 2 to 4 subwords, only by increasing the subword LM order to 6, we would match the performance and learn the grammar context of the 3 𝑟𝑑 order word-level LM.  ... 
arXiv:2207.13333v1 fatcat:pqdh7jet7vebbjz24n7j2sv3te

Page 1649 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 85d [page]

1985 Mathematical Reviews  
In the paper cited above the authors showed that, for “square- free” DOL languages, the subword complexity is bounded from above by cnlogn, for some constant c > 0.  ...  1649 Authors’ summary: “We consider random access machines which read the input integer by integer (not bit by bit).  ... 

On well quasi orders of free monoids

Lucian Ilie, Arto Salomaa
1998 Theoretical Computer Science  
Of particular languagetheoretic interest is the quasi order u <"t' (resp. u <,qu) of u being a subword (resp. a Par&h subword) of u, as well as their inverses.  ...  A quasi order being a well quasi order is connected to arbitrary languages being confluent. @ 1998-Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved  ...  Acknowledgements We thank the referee for useful comments, especially as regards notations and Lemmas 4.1 and 4.4.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0304-3975(98)00036-x fatcat:63lqzb6fdrenpnvxm37b2ic4wa

MorphoSaurus in ImageCLEF 2006: The Effect of Subwords On Biomedical IR [chapter]

Philipp Daumke, Jan Paetzold, Kornel Marko
2007 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The use of subwords instead of full words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries that are needed to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain.  ...  Subwords are organized in language specific lexica that were partly manually and partly automatically generated and currently cover six European languages.  ...  In order to compare the subword approach with traditional automated stemming routines we added two further fields (stem t and stem d) containing the annotations processed by the Porter Stemmer 3 .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74999-8_80 fatcat:dndb6uhz2revficb6xgeaacqju

Deep Transformer based Data Augmentation with Subword Units for Morphologically Rich Online ASR [article]

Balázs Tarján, György Szaszák, Tibor Fegyó, Péter Mihajlik
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Recent studies showed that a considerable part of the knowledge of neural network Language Models (LM) can be transferred to traditional n-grams by using neural text generation based data augmentation.  ...  Therefore, we propose a new method called subword-based neural text augmentation, where we retokenize the generated text into statistically derived subwords.  ...  Moreover, as suffixes express grammatical relations usually provided by word order in English, morphologically rich languages tend to be more permissive in choosing word order, leading to higher variation  ... 
arXiv:2007.06949v3 fatcat:vrpfo4tkevdadolddzcrpumrga

Complexity in Convex Languages [chapter]

Janusz Brzozowski
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Similarly, we define suffix-, factor-, and subword-convex languages, where by subword we mean subsequence.  ...  There are several advantages of studying the class of convex languages and its subclasses together. These classes are all definable by binary relations, in fact, by partial orders.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada under Grant No. OGP000871.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13089-2_1 fatcat:zaikqi3zffas5hnirzepaw2khu

Analogical Proportions in a Lattice of Sets of Alignments Built on the Common Subwords in a Finite Language [chapter]

Laurent Miclet, Nelly Barbot, Baptiste Jeudy
2014 Studies in Computational Intelligence  
We define the locally maximal subwords and locally minimal superwords common to a finite set of words. We also define the corresponding sets of alignments.  ...  We give a partial order relation between such sets of alignments, as well as two operations between them. We show that the constructed family of sets of alignments has the lattice structure.  ...  In Σ , the set of all words on Σ, we use the order relation ≤ defined by: (u ≤ v ⇔ u is a subword of v). When u is a subword of v, v is called a superword 5 of u. For example: abc ≤ aabbcd.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54516-0_10 fatcat:4musflcg5rcvdft5lvojnaoofy

Separability by Short Subsequences and Subwords

Piotr Hofman, Wim Martens, Marc Herbstritt
2015 International Conference on Database Theory  
We study the complexity of separability of regular languages by combinations of subsequences or subwords of a given length k.  ...  The separability problem for regular languages asks, given two regular languages I and E, whether there exists a language S that separates the two, that is, includes I but contains nothing from E.  ...  We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers of ICDT 2015 for many helpful remarks. This work was supported by DFG grant MA4938/2-1.  ... 
doi:10.4230/lipics.icdt.2015.230 dblp:conf/icdt/HofmanM15 fatcat:kkzjyetwyvhxldcc57nb4o24gu

Property Testing of Regular Tree Languages [chapter]

Frédéric Magniez, Michel de Rougemont
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We consider the Edit distance with moves on the class of words and the class of ordered trees.  ...  We first exhibit a simple tester for the class of regular languages on words and generalize it to the class of ranked regular trees.  ...  Then, we do (l − 1) moves so that the components C i are in the order defined by Π.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-27836-8_78 fatcat:nn253bz6k5hkzm7ecpgzbrcwka

Character-based units for unlimited vocabulary continuous speech recognition

Peter Smit, Siva Reddy Gangireddy, Seppo Enarvi, Sami Virpioja, Mikko Kurimo
2017 2017 IEEE Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding Workshop (ASRU)  
Index Termsspeech recognition, subword-based language modeling, neural network language models, low resource, unlimited vocabulary  ...  We study character-based language models in the state-ofthe-art speech recognition framework.  ...  A properly chosen set of subword units can model any words in a language by concatenating the units.  ... 
doi:10.1109/asru.2017.8268929 dblp:conf/asru/SmitGEVK17 fatcat:h35jvktgqzbjlarp6eufwvcxce

Property Testing of Regular Tree Languages

Frédéric Magniez, Michel de Rougemont
2007 Algorithmica  
We consider the Edit distance with moves on the class of words and the class of ordered trees.  ...  We first exhibit a simple tester for the class of regular languages on words and generalize it to the class of ranked regular trees.  ...  Then, we do (l − 1) moves so that the components C i are in the order defined by Π.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00453-007-9028-3 fatcat:4oa2lbbjwnfnfcj5drz4gtidh4

Explicit left orders on free groups extending the lexicographic order on free monoids [article]

Zoran Sunic
2013 arXiv   pre-print
For every finitely generated free group we construct an explicit left order extending the lexicographic order on the free monoid generated by the positive letters.  ...  The order is defined by a left, free action on the orbit of 0 of a free group of piecewise linear homeomorphisms of the line.  ...  for every subword of the form ab or aB, subtract 1 for every subword of the form BA or Ba, and add plus or minus 1/2 depending on the last letter).  ... 
arXiv:1304.0837v1 fatcat:pkz45dlu7vb5hmrzuharlans7a

On subwords of infinite words

Lucian Ilie
1995 Discrete Applied Mathematics  
Answering an open problem in papers by Marcus and PLun ( 1994), we give here two examples of infinite (nonalmost periodic) words o such that the set of subwords appearing infinitely many times in w is  ...  Some problems are left open there, one of them ' Research supported by Project I 128 I of the Academy of Finland.  ...  In order to prove the inclusion "G", let us take a subword w of wt containing occurrences of the symbols a and b from the both sides of a maximal subword of the form ck of 01, that is w = ubickajv, for  ... 
doi:10.1016/0166-218x(95)00063-1 fatcat:hco6dkmfzracxdg32f2jrfp7i4
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