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LMS vs XMSS: Comparison of Stateful Hash-Based Signature Schemes on ARM Cortex-M4 [chapter]

Fabio Campos, Tim Kohlstadt, Steffen Reith, Marc Stöttinger
2020 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
LMS vs XMSS: Comparison on ARM Cortex-M4 259 signature schemes. Every signature scheme requires a hash function to reduce a message to a small representation that can be easily signed.  ...  Stateful hash-based signature schemes are among the most efficient approaches for post-quantum signature schemes.  ...  The work presented in this paper has been partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the project "QuantumRISC" (16KIS1034) [29] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-51938-4_13 fatcat:pygss22unza6vbcq2veq5lk6lm

A Configurable Hardware Implementation of XMSS [article]

Jan Philipp Thoma, Tim Güneysu
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Due to its conservative security properties, the eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme (XMSS) is an outstanding candidate for a quantum-secure DSS which has already been standardized by NIST and IETF.  ...  In particular, we provide a full design exploration regarding the choice of parameters and hash functions to identify configurations for optimal performance and area utilization.  ...  The scheme is closely related to Leighton-Micali Signatures (LMS) which is also standardized by the IETF [16] , tough LMS does not have such minimal requirements for security.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/ThomaG21 fatcat:ojqvdla4jnhkvfg7rxjvtp62gy

On the Role of Hash-based Signatures in Quantum-Safe Internet of Things: Current Solutions and Future Directions [article]

Sabah Suhail, Rasheed Hussain, Abid Khan, Choong Seon Hong
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we investigate applications of one of the post-quantum signatures called Hash-Based Signature (HBS) schemes for the security of IoT devices in the quantum era.  ...  We give a succinct overview of the evolution of HBS schemes with emphasis on their construction parameters and associated strengths and weaknesses.  ...  For instance, in [11] , the authors proposed a hybrid method by combining the stateless signature scheme such as HORS-T and the stateful signature schemes (e.g., XMSS and LMS) at the root level and the  ... 
arXiv:2004.10435v1 fatcat:bx6g5lidlbatpdgd3omwfk22i4

Post-Quantum Secure Architectures for Automotive Hardware Secure Modules [article]

Wen Wang, Marc Stöttinger
2020 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
We analyzed the candidates in NIST's PQC standardization process, and proposed new sets of hardware accelerators for the future generation of the automotive HSMs.  ...  A future design of a common automotive HSM is desired by the automotive industry which not only fits to the increasing performance demand, but also further defends against future attacks by attackers exploiting  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The work presented in this paper has been partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the project "QuantumRISC" (16KIS1034) [27] .  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/WangS20 fatcat:hm26x7msyjcb3mysorm7qkqfiu

Post-Quantum LMS and SPHINCS+ Hash-Based Signatures for UEFI Secure Boot [article]

Panos Kampanakis, Peter Panburana, Michael Curcio, Chirag Shroff, Md. Mahbub Alam
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
In this work, we investigate two quantum-safe, hash-based signature schemes published by the Internet Engineering Task Force and submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology for use  ...  We also analyze and evaluate potential challenges for integration in existing technologies and we discuss considerations for vendors embarking on a journey of image signing with hash-based signatures.  ...  Quynh Dang kindly caught our inaccurate overstating of the signing performance of our customized parameter sets.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/KampanakisPCSA21 fatcat:b237xomnxvdlpkqw7cf5uefzme

Coalition and Threshold Hash-Based Signatures [article]

John Kelsey, Stefan Lucks
2022 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
We show how to construct a threshold version of stateful hash-based signature schemes like those defined in XMSS (defined in RFC8391) and LMS (defined in RFC8554).  ...  We prove the security of our schemes in a straightforward way, reducing their strength to that of the underlying hash-based signature scheme.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Bart Preneel, Vincent Rijmen, Frank Piessens, Nigel Smart, Nicky Mouha, Andreas Hülsing, Dan Bernstein, Luís Brandão, Carl Miller, Daniel Apon, Michael Davidson  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/KelseyL22 fatcat:adxrkd5xtfa2zc6n7x57dybfiu

Side-Channel Protections for Picnic Signatures

Diego F. Aranha, Sebastian Berndt, Thomas Eisenbarth, Okan Seker, Akira Takahashi, Luca Wilke, Greg Zaverucha
2021 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
We carefully analyze the side-channel risk of hashing operations, and give optimizations that reduce the CPU cost of protecting hashing in Picnic by a factor of five.  ...  This class of signature schemes includes Picnic, an alternate candidate in the third round of the NIST post-quantum standardization project.  ...  The stateful hash-based signature schemes XMSS and LMS are known to be relatively resistant to side-channel attacks, as they basically use pseudorandom keys for each signature.  ... 
doi:10.46586/tches.v2021.i4.239-282 fatcat:guzutmudgjbbtnlt5e3dlhl7hq

Post-quantum cryptography for ECU security use cases [chapter]

Fabio Campos, Michael Meyer, Steffen Sanwald, Marc Stöttinger, Yi Wang
As a consequence, attackers would be able to spoof the cryptographic signature of over-the-air updates for electronic control units and inject manipulated firmware/software into the vehicle to execute  ...  Due to the Mosca theorem the chance is 50% that quantum computers with enough computation power exist by 2031 and can break all standard asymmetric cryptographic signature and encryption schemes.  ...  The most prominent representatives of hashbased signature schemes are SPHINCS, LMS, and XMSS-LMS and XMSS is currently standardized by IETF [14, 24] .  ... 
doi:10.13154/294-6673 fatcat:ofqga4ympzgfrhj6wvfeu7vyly

On the Transition to Post-Quantum Cryptography in the Industrial Internet of Things

Sebastian Paul
First, we propose cryptographic agility as one of the most important prerequisites for the transition to PQC.  ...  In fact, several standardization bodies are in the midst of standardizing PQC as the next generation of cryptography, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).  ...  Eventually, these works led to the construction of two practical stateful hash-based signature schemes: XMSS [Hül+18] and LMS [MCF19] .  ... 
doi:10.26083/tuprints-00021368 fatcat:sh7lyimvzbdpzfbvw5crl6567i