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The Rules of Inference

Lee Epstein, Gary King
2002 The University of Chicago Law Review  
To remedy this situation both for the producers and consumers of empirical work, this Article adapts the rules of inference used in the natural and social sciences to the special needs, theories, and data  ...  For just as long, however, they appear to have been proceeding with little awareness of, much less compliance with, many of the rules of inference, and without paying heed to the key lessons of the revolution  ...  But people who talk about legal "theory" have a strange idea of what "theory" means. In most fields, a theory has to be testable; it is a hypothesis, a prediction, and therefore subject to proof.  ... 
doi:10.2307/1600349 fatcat:nq567szm4vasrdd2rywui3hgje

Unsupervised law article mining based on deep pre-trained language representation models with application to the Italian civil code

Andrea Tagarelli, Andrea Simeri
2021 Artificial Intelligence and Law  
To our knowledge, this is the first study proposing an advanced approach to law article prediction for the Italian legal system based on a BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers)  ...  One key aspect of our LamBERTa framework is that we conceived it to address an extreme classification scenario, which is characterized by a high number of classes, the few-shot learning problem, and the  ...  To address this chal- lenge, Shao et al. [51] propose a BERT framework to model semantic relationships to infer the relevance between two cases by aggregating paragraph-level dependen- cies.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10506-021-09301-8 fatcat:emqt5cqekffu5d6mttoljse5xm

Social Security as a Public Interest: A Multidisciplinary Inquiry into the Foundations of the Regulatory Welfare State

Gijsbert Vonk
2010 European Journal of Social Security  
Th e concept seems to be particularly relevant in case law when courts feel a need to create room for exceptions to established legal rules.  ...  A proposal for an articulation of such principles was included in the legal contribution of Part A of this study.  ... 
doi:10.1177/138826271001200101 fatcat:5gp6tyr4t5e65csxtclyc23qsq

Towards a New Model of Consumer Protection: The Problem of Inflated Transaction Costs

Jeff Sovern
2005 Social Science Research Network  
Finally, the Article argues that lawmakers should adopt a norm barring the unnecessary inflation of consumer transaction costs and describes tests that lawmakers can employ to implement such a norm.  ...  Firms also benefit by taking advantage of predictable consumer behaviors, such as the tendency of consumers not to seek rebates, to overload when provided with too much information, and to ignore dull  ...  REV. 215, 273 (1990) ("[T]erms are often written in fine print to economize on paper and handling, and expressed obscurely or in legal or technical jargon, which raises the cost of becoming acquainted  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.648052 fatcat:x5i34p4b7nd2zcdkrylofqcpjm

The Wik Decision: Judicial Activism or Conventional Ruling?

Pamela O'Connor
1997 Agenda - A Journal of Policy Analysis and Reform  
annually except for 1992/93.  ...  The terminal's productivity improved, allowing PKCT to cut its handling charges from $5.58 a tonne to $4.27.  ...  The author wishes to thank the editor and two anonymous referees fo r helpful com ments.  ... 
doi:10.22459/ag.04.02.1997.06 fatcat:4tujlqyuvjburd2r3eblorsaqm

Front Matter

1980 Economic development and cultural change  
to circumvent the law, and Romania is no exception.  ...  Kock’s former inference was contradicted by McClelland, Schrage, Andrews, and Wainer and Rubin.° His later inference was supported by Wainer and Rubin.  ... 
doi:10.1086/edcc.28.3.1153681 fatcat:j6webfierrdnvlwo6z7ttyyrs4

Higher education reforms in Romania. Between the Bologna process and national challenges

Cristina Sin
2015 European Journal of Higher Education  
the original author(s) and source are credited.  ...  the original author(s) and source are credited.  ...  The institutional and programme data are managed by the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ARACIS) that has also the legal power to propose to the Ministry the accreditation or  ... 
doi:10.1080/21568235.2015.1044553 fatcat:hinotaz6bnawnoaiqsalwdpi3q

Pension Funds, the Requirement of Providing the Minimum Guaranteed Return and Excessive Legislative Restrictions of Pension Fund Investments

Tanja Markovič Hribernik, Igor Jakopanec
2012 South East European Journal of Economics and Business  
We intend to demonstrate in this article, on a case study basis and using a combination of empirical data from two Slovenian pension funds and a hypothetical one, that by precisely matching the investments  ...  To reduce the exposure of the pension fund's members to financial risks, legislation in Slovenia and some other countries promises a so-called minimum guaranteed return and at the same time hinders the  ...  Acknowledgements The reviewers' constructive and helpful comments towards improving the quality of the paper are acknowledged.  ... 
doi:10.2478/v10033-012-0011-9 fatcat:ofz2s2nthjb2zevgfef3ye6hr4

Campaign Finance Disclosure for the Digital Age: Examining Disclosure Obligations for Online Political Advertising and Online Platforms

Ashley Nicole Fox
In addition to clarifying existing sponsorship disclaimer and reporting requirements, policymakers should establish record-keeping and publication requirements placed on online platforms, rebut key points  ...  However, policymakers should also work with platforms and each other to explore alternatives, such as an automated distribution-based approach currently being considered in Washington State.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my parents, Brett and Traci Fox; my partner, Mason Dufresne; and innumerable friends and family members for their unending support.  ... 
doi:10.17615/fv7v-2170 fatcat:wvccg3i5e5e67fzxvf42akn3jm

ICAS 2013 Committee ICAS Advisory Chairs ICAS 2013 Technical Program Committee

Lisbon, Michael Bauer, Michael Grottke, Bruno Dillenseger, Michael Bauer, Michael Grottke, Bruno Dillenseger, Jemal Abawajy, Javier Alonso, Richard Anthony, Tsz-Chiu Au, Mark Balas (+72 others)
We are grateful to the members of the ICAS 2013 organizing committee for their help in handling the logistics and for their work to make this professional meeting a success.  ...  Active and passive approaches are usually combined to capture a useful user interface design.  ...  OpenCloudware is funded by the French FSN (Fonds national pour la Société Numérique), and is supported by Pôles Minalogic, Systematic and SCS.  ... 

The Holdout creditor problem

Sebastian Grund
2018 unpublished
With regard to the policy response to the holdout creditor problem, this thesis advances two proposals.  ...  Instead, holdout creditors seek to obtain a preferential treatment by the sovereign issuer with a view at making a financial profit.  ...  The ratio legis behind the anti-holdout laws is to avert distressed-debt speculation and enforcement rather than providing sovereigns with a free ticket to repudiate debt as they wish.  ... 
doi:10.25365/thesis.56441 fatcat:xmk2snee2ngcdojf4tjlheey4y

Corpus linguistics for the exploration of legal precedent

Evan David Brown, Aaron John Quigley, Miguel Nacenta
A deterioration of legal research skills has become a critical issue for lawyers.  ...  A side-effect is the marginalisation of trained law librarians and their curation skills which contributes to the problem.  ...  to be more readable in small viewports.  ... 
doi:10.17630/10023-18188 fatcat:nv2wfkjq7nglpigdxuaqj47esa

Arbitratiness and Discrimination in the Administration of the Death Penalty: A Legal and Empirical Analysis of the nebraska Experience (1973-1999) (comments)

Catherine M. Grosso
The second consideration is one's normative judgment concerning the degree of inconsistency that is acceptable from a moral and legal perspective.  ...  D and V had a confrontation in the bar, and after returning to the carnival, D hit V repeatedly with a mallet handle, breaking his arm.  ...  D and Co-P then decided to kill V because she would otherwise be able to identify them. D walked her out into a field in a choke hold and fell on top of her. Co-P then shot V twice in the head.  ... 
doi:10.17613/tbk5-vf60 fatcat:jegbza3q7bhjhirs77nyia5oum

Sutherland_columbia_0054D_16099.pdf [article]

The secondary sources for these codes are the State of the Union addresses and a corpus of laws passed by state legislatures.  ...  I utilize the codes from these naturally distinct text corpora to study the nationalization of the political agenda, and how nationalized elections relate to the production of salient laws.  ...  Every state is different, and the same policy proposal to legalize gay marriage, for example, may be extremely liberal in Alabama, whereas in New York we might consider the same policy to be status quo  ... 
doi:10.7916/d8-de23-bb09 fatcat:6tytx5yqyba3xllisblfqmaxny

REVISTA ECONOMICĂ Journal of economic-financial theory and practice CNCSIS reference: B+, Code 478 Frequency: 6 issues/year Editor Deputy Editor Scientific Committee Editorial Board THE IMPACT OF SEMANTIC WEB TO BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

Dan Popescu, Liviu Mihăescu, Dan Popescu, H Lucian, Liviu Mihăescu, Lucian, Acad Văcărel, -Romanian Academy, Prof Lucian-Liviu, Albu, Ciumara, Francesco D'esposito (+37 others)
Business Intelligence are high-level decisions support applications, their role being to provide to management, based on information from the company, a picture of its situation at some time but also on  ...  The purpose of this research is to identify, describe and analyse if there is the impact on the Semantic Web solutions for Business Intelligence and how it manifests.  ...  The mobile access to business data tends to become a rule rather than an exception Liu (2010).  ...