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can be achieved using a new and simple idea without introducing any model parameter'' [Paik, 2008, paragraph 9 ]. ... However, incorrect implementations of the D8-LTD method are used in the investigation of Paik  . ...doi:10.1029/2008jf001193 fatcat:qbzfopxpjbdvrpwdlwow2xauuy
., Paik and Kumar, 2008] . ... F04001 PAIK: NONDISPERSIVE FLOW PATH RETRIEVAL direction can be on either the clockwise or the counterclockwise side of the determined flow direction. ...doi:10.1029/2007jf000964 fatcat:avaceehegvdptfom3lwrgtd6li
One of them is the replacement of the GD8 (global eight-direction) method (Paik, 2008) with the improved GD8 method (Shin and Paik, 2017) . ... Rapid stream network formation at the early stage (Paik and Kumar, 2008) accelerates the sediment yield. ...doi:10.5194/hess-25-2459-2021 fatcat:wceuey6iyvev3fhjhpmi3cizgi
This is consistent with earlier OCN studies [Paik , 2011] . ... Results from earlier studies suggest that the minimum TEE objective by itself does not generate concave longitudinal channel profiles [Paik , 2011 [Paik , , 2012 . ...doi:10.1029/2018wr022977 fatcat:m2tqljdpofht7k4s3drjrb7i2y
Supplemental Material, Supplemental_material for The development process of the Korean coastal mountain range: Examination from spatial distribution of knickzones by Jongmin Byun and Kyungrock Paik in ...doi:10.25384/sage.13365793.v1 fatcat:erwcrvq2sfbb7m5m6mu3k6mxyy
Urban infrastructure networks play a major role in providing reliable flows of multitude critical services demanded by citizens in modern cities. We analyzed here a database of 125 infrastructure networks, roads (RN); urban drainage networks (UDN); water distribution networks (WDN), in 52 global cities, serving populations ranging from 1,000 to 9,000,000. For all infrastructure networks, the node-degree distributions, p(k), derived using undirected, dual-mapped graphs, fit Pareto distributions.arXiv:1902.01266v1 fatcat:n5egckzv7vezpfzd5uxxay6jci
more »... Variance around mean gamma reduces substantially as network size increases. Convergence of functional topology of these urban infrastructure networks suggests that their co-evolution results from similar generative mechanisms. Analysis of growing UDNs over non-concurrent 40 year periods in three cities suggests the likely generative process to be partial preferential attachment under geospatial constraints. This finding is supported by high-variance node-degree distributions as compared to that expected for a Poisson random graph. Directed cascading failures, from UDNs to RNs, are investigated. Correlation of node-degrees between spatially co-located networks are shown to be a major factor influencing network fragmentation by node removal. Our results hold major implications for the network design and maintenance, and for resilience of urban communities relying on multiplex infrastructure networks for mobility within the city, water supply, and wastewater collection and treatment.
River networks play a key role in the spatial organization of human settlements. Both river networks and human settlements have been found to exhibit regular self-similar patterns, but little is known about the generalized spatial patterns of human settlements embedded within river networks. Here based on night light data, we find a universal fractal structure at the global scale, with both robust Hortonian scaling relationships with the extent of human settlements and statistically significantdoi:10.1029/2017ef000746 fatcat:goocs64yungtjnnlikgolz7ocy
more »... power law scaling of the power spectra of human area functions. Globally, we find consistent patterns of power law preferential downstream clustering of human settlements across all six populated continents, typically up to 40% of the maximum flow length. This downstream clustering suggests an optimum distribution of humans in large river basins for trade, transport, and natural resource utilization but with attendant implications for human impacts on rivers. Recognition of such spatial patterns helps generalize assessments of human impacts on rivers, with direct implications for management of water quality and biological diversity in river networks. Plain Language Summary Where do people live in relation to rivers? Human societies evolved alongside rivers, but how are modern human societies related to rivers? We conducted a global analysis to assess the linkages between river geomorphologic structure and human settlement patterns. We found globally consistent patterns of preferential downstream clustering of human settlements. Across all six populated continents, human settlements are clustered near the outlets of major river basins, with settlement density decreasing exponentially with distance upstream. This downstream clustering suggests an optimum distribution of humans in large river basins for trade, transport and resource utilization. However, there are also attendant implications for human impacts on rivers. Recognition of such spatial patterns helps generalize management of river water quantity, quality, and biological.
또한, 단위도의 비선형성과 수리기하의 지수 값이 밀접한 관련이 있음도 알려졌다(Paik and Kumar, 2004). ... 전술했듯이, 선행연구(Paik et al., 2010; Jung et al., 2013)에서 강수기간이 아니라면 동일한 날짜 에 하천을 따라 기록된 유량은 빈도가 비슷할 것이라는 가정 하에 수리기하 분석을 실시했었다. ...doi:10.3741/jkwra.2015.48.8.685 fatcat:wy7iq7u2l5b5xjhbc6p3utn3d4
., minimize total energy dissipation (Paik & Kumar, 2010; Rodr ıguez-Iturbe et al., 1992b) have been proposed, given a fixed drainage area delineated by topography, under the assumption of uniform forcing ... the main channel length, L, and its corresponding drainage area A: L / A h (1) with the exponent h for rivers found to be universally in a small range, h 5 0.6 6 0.1 (Crave & Davy, 1997; Hack, 1957; Paik ...doi:10.1002/2017wr021555 fatcat:wklyzdbbdjf23f4rji4e24ejmm
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
토사유출량의 공간분포 산정결과 평가를 위한 RUSLE와 LISEM의 비교
토사유출량의 공간분포 산정결과 평가를 위한 RUSLE와 LISEM의 비교
Various models have been developed for the estimation of spatial distribution of sediment yield. However, they often generate distinct results because of differences in their development purposes and calculation processes. Therefore, it is challenging to verify the simulation result without ground measurements of spatially varying sediment fluxes. Here, we postulate that applying multiple models to a same watershed and checking whether they provide similar spatial distributions can be andoi:10.9798/kosham.2012.12.5.199 fatcat:iphhdh47evd43m7lc4crm5xjgq
more »... t method of evaluating the performance of the models. To test this idea, we apply two models of LISEM and GIS-based RUSLE for a small watershed in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, where actual sediment yield was measured at the outlet. Two models result in similar spatial patterns in the distribution of sediments yield. LISEM results show more evenly distributed sediment yield. This difference is partly due to the difference in model structures and due to the ranges of parameters chosen between the two models. Compared to RUSLE, there are limited references for model parameter values of LISEM in Korean practices. Helped by physically-based model structure, LISEM is expected to simulate sediment yield in a more reasonable manner, compared to RUSLE, once the appropriate ranges of model parameters are suggested in the future.
, Kyungrock Palanisamy, Bakkiyalakshmi Palenzuela, José A. ... Oyoshi, Kei Ozbay, Gulnihal Pablos, Miriam Pacheco-Vega, Raul Paci, Agnese Paço, Teresa Afonso Do Padowski, Julie Padulano, Roberta Pagano, Alessandro Page, Declan Page, Mark Paice, Robyn Paik ...doi:10.3390/w10010060 fatcat:ejhwi5x2tvhpxo5u4yi2m2mh54
This paper was edited by Travis O'Brien and reviewed by Kyungrock Paik and Sebastian G. Mutz. ... O'Brien, and Kyungrock Paik for their constructive comments. Financial support. This open-access publication was funded by the University of Freiburg. Review statement. ... ., 2015; Paik and Kim, 2021) . However, feedbacks between topography, precipitation, and erosion may even make it difficult to distinguish between cause and effect (Molnar and England, 1990) . ...doi:10.5194/gmd-15-2063-2022 fatcat:6ydf5ia7wfa3rcxhz7r37wsqxu
We thank one anonymous reviewer, Hubert Savenije, Kyungrock Paik, and Greg Tucker for very constructive reviews that helped to improve this manuscript. A. ... This steadystate assumption is very common in landscape evolution models (Ahnert, 1970; Paik, 2011) . ... With respect to the steady state assumption of the sediment fluxes, this assumption is very common in geomorphology (Ahnert, 1970; Paik, 2011) . ...doi:10.5194/hess-17-225-2013 fatcat:2niu6y7csbhftiqvaeu64r5kmu
Proceedings of the 3rd 2017 International Conference on Sustainable Development (ICSD 2017)
However, the effects of many uncertain factors, such as hydrology, hydraulic, engineering structures and human factors (Jiang Zhang et al. 2007; Kyungrock Paik 2008; R. O. ...doi:10.2991/icsd-17.2017.5 fatcat:m7k5zp2m75a5dntzspzrvstuhu
DATA & STUDY AREAS The contents of this section are mainly based on the data & study areas sections of following published papers: (1) Soohyun Yang, Kyungrock Paik, Gavan S. ... Paik, Gavan S. ...doi:10.25394/pgs.9964232 fatcat:xryyc3m6ebevrlnvao6aaeevyi
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