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A 60-year-old man visited our hospital because of the incidentally found mass of the rib on chest radiography. Chest X-ray showed expansile bony hypertrophy on left 5th rib and bone setting of the computed tomography scan of chest revealed 4.2×2.5 cm sized, elongated bony expansion with geographic radiolucent lesion in the medullary cavity and cortical thinning. Technetium-99m bone scintigraphy showed diffusely increased radioactivity along the left 5th rib. We present this case to discussdoi:10.12771/emj.2012.35.1.58 fatcat:snl3lpllyzbg3gkfligm6bxege
more »... a possible differential diagnosis in this type of lesion. (Ewha Med J 2012;35(1):58-61)
Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in upper and lower respiratory specimens and coinfection with other respiratory pathogens in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were investigated. From the study subjects (N = 258) retrospectively enrolled when confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive, nasopharyngeal (NPS), oropharyngeal swabs (OPS), and sputum specimens were restored for retesting SARS-CoV-2 and detecting respiratory pathogens. Majority of thedoi:10.1101/2020.12.18.20248449 fatcat:z2djxsxmjbg3xarh46hvzgbwtq
more »... y subjects (95.7%, N = 247) were confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 positive using NPS/OPS specimens, suggesting that the upper respiratory specimen is most valuable in detecting SARS-CoV-2. Coinfection rates in COVID-19 patients (N = 258) with respiratory pathogens were 9.7% (N = 25); 8.5% (N = 22) respiratory viruses and 1.2% (N = 3) Mycoplasma pneumoniae, an atypical bacterium. Of the respiratory virus coinfection cases (N = 22), 20 (90.9%) were co-infected with a single respiratory virus and 2 (0.8%) (metapneumovirus/adenovirus and rhinovirus/bocavirus 1/2/3/4) with two viruses. Respiratory viruses in single viral coinfection cases with SARS-CoV-2 were as follows: non-SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses (229E, NL63, and OC43, N = 5, 1.9%), rhinovirus (N = 4, 1.6%), metapneumovirus (N = 3, 1.2%), influenza A (N = 3, 1.2%), respiratory syncytial virus A and B (N = 3, 1.2%), and adenovirus (N = 2, 0.8%). No mixed coinfections with respiratory viruses and M. pneumoniae were found. In conclusion, the diagnostic value of utilizing NPS/OPS specimen is excellent, and, as the first report in Korea, coinfection with respiratory pathogens were detected at a rate of 9.7% in patients with COVID-19.
Journal of Life Science
유근피 추출물이 대식세포 면역조절에 미치는 영향
유근피 추출물이 대식세포 면역조절에 미치는 영향
The root bark of Ulmus macrocarpa has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as edema, infection and inflammation. Nevertheless, the biological activities and underlying mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effects remain unclear. In this study, as part of our ongoing screening program to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of new compounds from traditional medicinal resources, we investigated the effects of U. macrocarpa water extract (UME) on immunedoi:10.5352/jls.2016.26.1.50 fatcat:flrsbfhjvraqpbemjmfllmp7si
more »... lation in a murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model. As immune response parameters, the productions of as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines such tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 were evaluated. Although the release of IL-1β remained unchanged in UME-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, the productions of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased, along with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL-10 expression at concentrations with no cytotoxicity. UME treatment also induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κ B), and phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) indicating that UME activated macrophages through the activation of NF-κB, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, pre-treatment with UME significantly attenuated the production of NO, but not TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10, in lipopolysaccharidestimulated RAW 264.7 cells suggesting that UME may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. These findings suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of UME may be attributed partly to its ability to modulate immune functions in macrophages. 면역조절(immunomodulation)은 다양한 질병으로부터 인 체 방어를 위한 가장 중요한 예방 및 치료 전략의 하나이다. 면역계를 담당하고 있는 다양한 세포 중, 대식세포(macrophage)는 인체 내에서 거의 모든 조직에 분포하고 이물질, 노폐 물 또는 생체 내 불필요한 세포 등을 포식하여 소화하는 기능 을 갖는 면역 반응의 핵심적인 역할을 하는 세포이다[10, 16]. 대식세포는 tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α와 interleukin (IL) 들과 같은 다양한 종류의 cytokine 이나 일산화질소(nitric oxide, NO) 및 활성산소종(reactive oxygen species, ROS) 등을 nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/ Akt 및 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) 등과 같 은 세포 내 다양한 신호 전달계의 활성을 통하여 생산함으로 서 면역 반응을 자극할 수 있다[22, 32]. 이와 같은 세포 내 반응은 그람음성세균 표층의 peptidoglycan을 둘러싸는 외막 의 중요 구성성분인 lipopolysaccharide (LPS)와 같은 세균성 산물이 대식세포 세포막의 Toll-like receptors (TLRs)와 같은 pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)에 결합함으로서 발생할 수도 있다[21, 34]. 최근, 생체 방어 반응을 향상시킬 수 있는 다양한 물질들이 미생물, 균류 및 식물 등에서 분리되고 있으며, 특히 면역 증강 을 위한 원천 자원으로 다양한 약용 식물들이 큰 관심을 모으
Objectives : To establish the relationship between alcohol use and job stress among firemen, and to develop a comprehensive health promotion program including stress management and the prevention of problem drinking. Methods : Data was collected from July to August, 2000. Study subjects included 97 rescue workers, 97 emergency medical personnel, 179 fire extinguishers, 116 administrators and 49 others. Results : The firemen displayed higher scores of stress due to promotion-related pressuresdoi:10.35371/kjoem.2001.13.4.401 fatcat:y7zt7cevhnb2dhh6cky2b76xti
more »... salary. We found significant differences in job internal factors, job role, interpersonal relationship, organizational norm, work environment and stress outcome among the various jobs. Job internal factors, job stress factors, personal characteristics, coping skills, and stress outcome were higher in heavy drinkers compared with the light and moderate drinkers. Job internal factors and smoking habit showed a positive correlation with the amount of drinking, although coping skill, exercise frequency and monthly income showed a negative relation with the amount consumed. Conclusion : This study suggested that alcohol drinking is associated with job stress. This suggests that a comprehensive health promotion program including stress management and problem drinking prevention and control should be developed.
Hemifacial spasm is defined as unilateral, involuntary, irregular twitching of all or parts of the muscles innervated by facial nerves. Here, we present a case of recurrent hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression (MVD) treated with pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment with good results. A 35-year-old woman suffered from recurrent hemifacial spasm after MVD that was refractory to medical treatment and botulinum toxin injections. We attempted a left facial nerve block twice. Then, wedoi:10.3344/kjp.2013.26.1.62 pmid:23342210 pmcid:PMC3546213 fatcat:oojr7eziurgqbkespzgu7mmdhu
more »... pplied PRF at a maximum temperature of 42 o C for 120 sec. Some response was observed, so we applied PRF two additional times. The frequency of twitch decreased from 3−4 Hz to < 0.5 Hz, and subjective severity on a visual analogue scale also decreased from 10/10 to 2−3/10. PRF treatment might be an effective medical treatment for refractory hemifacial spasm and has fewer complications and is less invasive compared with those of surgery. (Korean J Pain 2013; 26: 62-64)
Journal of Life Science
Ulmus Macrocarpa 열수 추출물에 의한 비장세포 수명 연장
Ulmus Macrocarpa 열수 추출물에 의한 비장세포 수명 연장
Ulmus macrocarpa has been used in Korean medicinal food material to physical disorder or tonic material. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate splenocyte life span expansion effects of Ulmus macrocarpa water extract (UMWE) in general cell culture condition. Splenocytes were handled in the presence of 100 μg/ml UMWE for several different time conditions. Live cells were detected with Hoechst 33,342 dye and cell survival molecules were identified through Western blot. Changes in leveldoi:10.5352/jls.2015.25.10.1176 fatcat:t2rkou6hgnetxctdpnksefdie4
more »... f cytokine synthesis were evaluated by ELISA. UMWE showed an effect on increased splenocyte survival. UMWE elevated slightly PI3K phosphorylation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation used at 48 hr and 96 hr. Moreover, Bcl-2 was elevated at 48 hr and 96 hr in UMWE-treated splenocytes. UMWE decreased caspase-3 level at 48 hr and 96 hr. ICAD protein increased at 48 hr culturing time. Hematopoietin IL-2 cytokine was down-regulated, however IL-4 hematopoietin cytokine was up-regulated in UMWE treated cell culture media. Increased IFN-γ levels were verified in the supernatant of UMWEtreated cells in all periods (48 hr and 96 hr). Increased patterns in the production of IL-12 cytokine occurred as compared with control after 48 and 96 hr in UMWE-treated-cell cultures. These results suggested that UMWE can prolong splenocyte life span by controlling various signal factors and cytokines.
Viruses are increasingly recognized as major causes of communityacquired pneumonia (CAP). Few studies have investigated the clinical predictors of viral pneumonia, and the results have been inconsistent. In this study, the clinical predictors of viral pneumonia were investigated in terms of their utility as indicators for viral pneumonia in patients with CAP. Methods: Adult patients ($18 years old) with CAP, tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory virus, at two teachingdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114710 pmid:25531901 pmcid:PMC4273967 fatcat:v3paji5dpjbapksoazicypopim
more »... ls between October 2010 and May 2013, were identified retrospectively. Demographic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the hospital electronic medical records. Results: During the study period, 456 patients with CAP were identified who met the definition, and 327 (72%) patients were tested using the respiratory virus PCR detection test. Viral pneumonia (n560) was associated with rhinorrhea, a higher lymphocyte fraction in the white blood cells, lower serum creatinine and groundglass opacity (GGO) in radiology results, compared to non-viral pneumonia (n5250) (p,0.05, each). In a multivariate analysis, rhinorrhea (Odd ratio (OR) 3.52; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 1.58-7.87) and GGO (OR 4.68; 95% CI, were revealed as independent risk factors for viral pneumonia in patients with CAP. The sensitivity, specificity, positive-and negative-predictive values (PPV and NPV) of rhinorrhea were 22, 91, 36 and 83%: the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GGO were and 43, 84, 40 and 86%, respectively. Conclusion: Symptom of rhinorrhea and GGO predicted viral pneumonia in patients with CAP. The high specificity of rhinorrhea and GGO suggested that these could be useful indicators for empirical antiviral therapy. Continuous variables were expressed as means ¡ SDs a or medians (IQRs) b and were compared by the Student's t test a or Mann-Whitney U test b . CURB-65: Confusion-Urea-Respiratory-Blood pressure-65 score, PSI: Pneumonia severity index, ICU: Intensive care unit.
Purpose: To determine the clinical significance of voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in the pediatric population. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with invasive fungal infections administered with voriconazole from July 2010 to June 2012 were investigated retrospectively. Fourteen received TDM, and 143 trough concentrations were analyzed. All 28 patients were assessed for adverse events and treatment response six weeks into treatment, and at the end. Results: Out of 143 samples,doi:10.14776/kjpid.2014.21.1.9 fatcat:czfcv6udzzg3los4roupm4notq
more »... were within therapeutic range (1.0-5.5 mg/L). Patients administered with the same loading (6 mg/kg/dose) and maintenance (4 mg/kg/dose) dosages prior to initial TDM showed highly variable drug levels. Adverse events occurred in 9 of 14 patients (64.3%) in both the TDM and non-TDM group. In the TDM group, voriconazole-related encephalopathy (n=2, 14.3%) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation (n=8, 57.1 %) occurred with serum levels in the toxic range (>5.5 mg/L), whereas blurred-vision (n=2, 14.3%) occurred within the therapeutic range (1.18 mg/L and 3.9 mg/L). The frequency of voriconazole discontinuation due to adverse events was lower in the TDM group (0.0% vs. 18.2%, P=0.481). Overall, 57.2% of the patients in the TDM group versus 14.3% in the non-TDM group showed clinical response after 6 weeks (P=0.055), whereas 21.4% in the TDM group versus 14.3% in the non-TDM group showed response at final outcome (P=0.664). In the TDM group, >67.0% of the serum levels were within therapeutic range for the first 6 weeks; however 45.5% were within therapeutic range for the entire duration. Conclusion: Routine TDM is recommended for optimizing the therapeutic effects of voriconazole.
Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate shortterm and long-term skeletodental outcomes of Class III activator treatment. Methods: A Class III activator treatment group (AG) comprised of 22 patients (9 boys, 13 girls) was compared with a Class III control group (CG) comprised of 17 patients (6 boys, 11 girls). The total treatment period was divided into three stages; the initial stage (T1), the post-activator treatment or post-mandibular growth peak stage (T2), anddoi:10.4041/kjod.2015.45.5.226 pmid:26445717 pmcid:PMC4593867 fatcat:sgypxh3mszhfpcnbhjxkaepwwa
more »... he long-term follow-up stage (T3). Cephalometric changes were evaluated statistically via the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Friedman test. Results: The AG exhibited significant increases in the SNA angle, ANB angle, Wits appraisal, A point-N perpendicular, Convexity of A point, and proclination of the maxillary incisors, from T1 to T2. In the long-term follow-up (T1−T3), the AG exhibited significantly greater increases in the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and Convexity of A point than the CG. Conclusions: Favorable skeletal outcomes induced during the Class III activator treatment period were generally maintained until the long-term follow-up period of the post-mandibular growth peak stage. [Korean J Orthod 2015;45(5):226-235]
We investigated whether the lack of galactosyltransferase (α-Gal) expression in bone tissue is associated with reduced immune response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) against pig bone tissue. When human PBMC obtained from heparinized blood of healthy volunteers was stimulated with bone extracts of pigs with α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knock out (α-Gal KO), the proliferation of human PBMCs and production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β were significantlydoi:10.1155/2018/1597531 pmid:29967767 pmcid:PMC6008681 fatcat:yyusex56xfdjbbwhpnqsrjnmlq
more »... educed compared to those stimulated with bone extracts of wild type (WT) pigs. In addition, activation of CD4+ helper T cells and production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-17 were reduced upon stimulation with bone tissue extracts from α-Gal KO pigs. This is possibly due to the lowered activities of the NF-κB, p38, ERK, and JNK signaling pathways. Our findings can be used to evaluate the compatibility of bone tissues from α-Gal KO pigs with human bone grafting as novel natural biomaterials, thereby increasing the feasibility of future clinical applications.
세라믹 브라켓의 재접착이 전단 결합 강도에 미치는 영향 235 세라믹 브라켓은 크리스탈 구조에 따라 단결정과 다결정 브라켓으로 분류되며, 단결정 세라믹 브라 켓은 다결정보다 더 단단한 구조이지만, 한 번 스크 래치가 생기면 균열이 진행되어 다결정 세라믹 브 라켓보다 낮은 파절저항성을 보였다는 보고가 있 다. 18-20 하지만 다결정 세라믹 브라켓뿐 아니라 단결 정 세라믹 브라켓도 재접착에 이용되어 왔다. 12,14 세라믹 브라켓을 용이하고 안전하게 제거하기 위 한 노력으로, 초음파 제거 장치, 전기열 장치, 특별 히 고안된 플라이어 등이 개발되었으나 제거 시간 이 오래 걸리고 열손상의 위험이 있어 임상적으로 유용하지 않았다. 21-24 레이저를 이용하여 세라믹 브 라켓을 제거하고자 하는 시도는 1990년대 초에 처 음 대두되었다. 25 Mimura 등 26 은 다결정 세라믹 브라 켓(Transcend TM series 6000, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif.)을doi:10.4041/kjod.2009.39.4.234 fatcat:eneceymrirhnbicdrmywzltsgy
more »... 전단력으로 제거한 경우에 비해, CO2 레이 저를 조사하여 제거한 경우에서 법랑질의 파절이 없었고 치면에 거의 모든 접착제가 남아있었다고 보고하였다. 세라믹 브라켓의 재접착에 관한 연구로, Harris 등 11 은 새 브라켓과 베이스의 처리 없이 세척만을 시행한 후 재접착된 다결정 세라믹 브라켓(Transcend TM series 2000, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA)의 전단 결합 강도는 동일하였고, 재접착 전에 세라믹 브라켓 베이스를 실란으로 처리하는 것은 임상적으 로 수용할 만한 전단 결합 강도를 나타내지 않았다 고 보고하였다. 반면에, Toroglu와 Yaylali 14 은 샌드 블라스팅만을 처리한 경우에서 유의하게 낮은 전단 결합 강도를 나타내었고, 샌드블라스팅 후 실란을 처리하여 재접착된 경우와 실리카 코팅 후 실란을 처리하여 재접착된 단결정 세라믹 브라켓(Inspire 성지영, 강경화 대치교정지 39권 4호, 2009년 bond strength of the selectively grinded group with a low-speed round bur and the sandblasted group showed acceptable bond strength for clinical orthodontic treatment. (Korean J Orthod 2009;39(4):234-247)
Despite the advances in the microsurgical technique and anatomical understanding of the anterior and middle skull base, anterior clinoidal meningiomas are still challenging lesions to resect completely and safely due to their intimate relationship with vital neurovascular structures. We report predictive factors for tumor recurrence and postoperative complications based on surgical outcome of patients with anterior clinoidal meningiomas treated at our institution. Fifty-nine consecutivedoi:10.1097/md.0000000000006594 pmid:28403097 pmcid:PMC5403094 fatcat:iz4lszygg5eipfgc5qelrl7kpm
more »... with anterior clinoidal meningioma who were surgically treated between March, 1993, and July, 2015, were reviewed retrospectively. For microsurgical tumor removal, orbitocranial or orbitozygomatic (78.0%), extended pterional (15.3%) and subfrontal approach (6.8%) were performed. The median follow-up duration was 54.1 months. Gross total resection (GTR, Simpson's grade I or II) was achieved in 38 patients (64.4%). The overall recurrence rate (new lesion in GTR cases and re-growth in non-GTR cases) was 18.6%. GTR (Hazard ratio [HR] 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.001-0.256; P = .004), absence of internal feeder (HR 0.058, 95% CI 0.004-0.759; P = .030) and benign pathology (WHO grade I, HR 0.056, 95% CI 0.005-0.674; P = .023) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free. Fourteen patients (23.7%) developed permanent complications. The most common complication was cranial nerve injury (n = 6; 10.2%), followed by postoperative hemorrhage/infarction, hydrocephalus and infection. Larger size (≥ 40 mm) was significant as an independent predictive factor for permanent complication (HR 0.139, 95% CI 0.030-0.653; P = .012). Old age (≥60 years, P = .056) and peritumoral edema (thickness ≥ 5 mm, P = .303) did not reach statistical significance in multivariate analysis. In surgical resection of anterior clinoidal meningiomas, various clinicoradiological factors were related with resection degree, complication, and progression rate. Although our results showed acceptable resection degree and morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rate, compared to the results of past, anterior clinoidal meningioma remain as neurosurgical challenges because of their close contact to critical vascular and neural structures. Abbreviations: ACP = anterior clinoid process, CT = computed tomography, GTR = gross total resection, ICA = internal carotid artery, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.
Intussusception primarily occurs in children and is uncommon in adults. Moreover, intussusception caused by intestinal tuberculosis is very rare. We report a case of intussusception induced by intestinal tuberculosis. A 53-year-old man presented to our hospital with complaints of cough and sputum for 2 weeks. We started anti-tuberculosis medication as the patient's sputum acid-fast staining was positive. After 4 days of treatment, the patient developed abdominal cramping pain. Imaging studiesdoi:10.4046/trd.2010.69.3.196 fatcat:dgijwtt2ezhtjdtooznnnezcu4
more »... owed ileo-ileal type intussusception. The patient underwent segmental resection of the small bowel and intestinal tuberculosis was confirmed on histological examination. He recovered after surgery and was discharged on anti-tuberculosis medication.
Fig. 1 . Photograph of the patient shows femoral hypoplasia, club foot, syndactyly of toes, and facial features.doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.6s.s89 pmid:24478888 pmcid:PMC3903876 fatcat:s6xucqvucrcmrpdbsi4emey6zi
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