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Automated Discontinuity Detection and Reconstruction in Subsurface Environment of Mars Using Deep Learning: A Case Study of SHARAD Observation

Vanshika Gupta, Sharad Kumar Gupta, Jungrack Kim
2020 Applied Sciences  
Although SHARAD has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface, the interpretation of the radar echo of SHARAD is a challenging task considering the vast stocks of datasets and the  ...  In this study, we aim to develop a deep learning (DL) approach to reconstruct the subsurface discontinuities in the subsurface environment of Mars employing the echoes of the Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD  ...  SHARAD Data Products Introduction to SHARAD sensors MARSIS, equipped in Mars Express System Characteristics SHARAD Specification Carrier frequency 20 MHz System Characteristics SHARAD Specification  ... 
doi:10.3390/app10072279 fatcat:f6xqyc7wsja65parv5ft2mqy2m

Propagation of slow electromagnetic disturbances in plasma [article]

Sharad Kumar Yadav, Ratan Kumar Bera, Deepa Verma, Amita Das and Predhiman Kaw
2020 arXiv   pre-print
This has been clearly illustrated in the simulations carried out by Sharad et al., [8, 26] using Eq.(1).  ...  It has been shown in simulations by Sharad et. al. [8] [9] [10] that once the pulse enters a high density region remains trapped inside it.  ... 
arXiv:2002.09778v1 fatcat:avz6wuut4fgppdnf572bcsvete

A single cut to pyroptosis

Yoon Lim, Sharad Kumar
2015 OncoTarget  
A single cut to pyroptosis Yoon Lim and Sharad Kumar Pyroptosis is a form of inflammatory cell death mediated by inflammatory caspases.  ... 
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.6142 pmid:26485769 pmcid:PMC4741905 fatcat:pzdeuc6adbeilkntq3bnygpiem

Adaptive High Beam Control in Vehicles using Image Processing

Saurabh Shukla, Sharad Khurana, Aman Kumar, Mrityunjaya Kumar, Malini M. Patil
2019 Zenodo  
The numbers of accidents occurring in night are increasing day by day because of the improper illumination on the bended streets and also because of the blindness caused to the driver by high intensity beam coming from the front coming vehicle.With the end goal to give improved evening time security measures, this work means to plan and assemble a headlight by adjusting a traditional static headlamp by keeping in mindthe expenses and unwavering quality. Also, to switch the headlight to dipper
more » ... adlight to dipper when there's a vehicle approaching from front reaches within a defined range.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3346796 fatcat:yoqc2f26bnbfbhyaj2psttczby

Ribophagy: new receptor discovered

Donna Denton, Sharad Kumar
2018 Cell Research  
Autophagy can promote the lysosomal degradation of specific cytoplasmic substrates recognized by cargo receptors. A recent study published in Science identifies a ribosome receptor required for the autophagic targeting of ribosomes to the lysosome. Autophagy is the catabolic process that delivers cytoplasmic contents engulfed in a double-membrane vesicle, the autophagosome, to the lysosome for degradation and recycling. The targeting of cytoplasmic materials to the autophagosome was originally
more » ... ome was originally thought to promote non-selective bulk degradation, but it is now apparent that many forms of autophagy can target selective substrates dependent on specific cargo receptors. 1 First described in yeast following nitrogen starvation, ribophagy refers to the autophagy-mediated selective engulfment of ribosome for delivery to the vacuole. 2, 3 Recent studies have identified ribophagy in mammalian cells 4 and the findings by Wyant et al. 5 highlighted here report the identification of a putative ribosome receptor, nuclear fragile X mental retardation-interacting protein 1 (NUFIP1), required for the selective autophagy of ribosomes. (Fig. 1) The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central mediator in regulating the response to nutrients and growth signaling, and is a key regulator of autophagy. 6 The localization of mTORC1 to the lysosome promotes its activation and suppresses autophagy. To understand the relationship between mTORC1 activation and the lysosome, Wyant et al. 5 compared the lysosomal proteome under conditions that inhibit mTOC1 signaling, nutrient starvation, and Torin1 inhibition. By isolating highly pure lysosomes (LysoIP) followed by mass spectrometry, they identified 828 proteins, including known lysosomal proteins, and over 40% were present under all conditions. Several identified proteins increased upon Torin1 treatment, including NUFIP1. Previous studies have shown that NUFIP1 and its binding partner zinc finger HIT domain-containing protein 3 (ZNHIT3) are involved in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex formation (in the assembly of the box C/D small nucleolar RNPs). 7-9 While ZNHIT3 was similarly increased in the lysosomal proteome upon Torin1 treatment, other components of the RNP complex were not identified, prompting the investigation of a lysosome-dependent function of NUFIP1-ZNHIT3. The increase of NUFIP1 and ZNHIT3 in the lysosome in response to mTORC1 inhibition occurred without a change in the total cellular level due to their redistribution from the nucleus. As mTOCR1 inhibition also strongly induces autophagy, the authors examined the contribution of autophagy to this localization. The Torin1mediated lysosomal accumulation of NUFIP1 and ZNHIT3 was dependent on autophagy as it could be prevented by genetically blocking autophagy by using Atg7-null cells. During autophagy, cargo receptors are important for the engulfment of selective substrates and contain an LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif to associate with the LC3 family members. Identification of putative LIR motifs in NUFIP1 prompted the investigation of the relationship between NUFIP1 and LC3 proteins. Following Torin1 treatment, NUFIP1 co-localized with LC3B-positive autophagosomes and NUFIP1 interacted with LC3B, but not with other LC3 family member GABARAP, dependent on the presence of ZNHIT3. Mutagenesis of an LIR motif of NUFIP1 abolished the binding to LC3B, and the mutant NUFIP1 or ZHNIT3 was no longer associated with lysosomes following Torin1 treatment. In addition to the nuclear role of NUFIP1 in ribosomal RNA modification, it has also been reported to localize in the cytoplasm associated with ribosomes. 10 With the identification of an interaction with LC3B, the authors investigated the possibility that NUFIP1-ZNHIT3 may also associate with ribosomes. They detected NUFIP1-ZNHIT3 in ribosome-containing cell fractions that correlated with the large ribosomal subunit under conditions of mTORC1 inhibition. The interaction between NUFIP1 and ribosomes was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Having established that NUFIP1-ZNHIT3 binds both LC3 and ribosomes under conditions of mTORC1 inhibition, Wyant et al. examined the consequence of these interactions. They found a decrease in ribosomal proteins following mTORC1 inhibition that required Atg7 function. In the absence of NUFIP1, there was no longer a decrease in ribosomal proteins following mTORC1 inhibition, whereas autophagy induction still occurred. This could be rescued by re-expression of wild-type NUFIP1 but not the LIR motif mutant. Furthermore, while maintaining nuclear localization of NUFIP1 prevented ribosome degradation, the presence of NUFIP1 in the cytoplasm did not trigger ribosomal loss without mTORC1 inhibition, suggesting that mTORC1 inhibition is required to promote the association between NUFIP1 and ribosomes. Importantly, NUFIP1-deficient cells showed reduced survival following nutrient starvation that could not be rescued by expression of the LC3B-binding-deficient mutant. Thus, under nutrient limitation, NUFIP1 targeting of ribosomes to the lysosome provides metabolites that contribute to cell survival. Based on the description by Galluzzi et al., 1 "Autophagy receptors are proteins that bind autophagy substrates, allow for their recognition by the autophagy machinery, and get degraded within lysosomes in the course of functional autophagic responses", Wyant et al. 5 have identified a receptor for ribophagy. Their findings reveal that ribosomes in mammalian cells can be degraded by autophagy requiring the specific cargo receptor NUFIP1. This can be triggered by a well-established signal of non-selective autophagy induction, mTOCR1 inhibition. This raises several questions about the broader role of ribophagy: whether it is simultaneously induced in parallel with other selective/non-selective autophagy pathways, and whether there are other unique components of the autophagy pathway downstream of mTORC1 inhibition that promote ribophagy? Also,
doi:10.1038/s41422-018-0054-2 pmid:29875395 fatcat:5ebdojvfozbtzcjkarpanti7cq

Variceal Banding: A Lesser-Known Complication

Ashish Kumar Jha, Vishwa Mohan Dayal, Baraq Ahmed, Uday Kumar, Sharad Kumar
2016 Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology  
doi:10.1016/j.jceh.2015.10.004 pmid:27194903 pmcid:PMC4862014 fatcat:v4xp52n2xbdfblujmkbjbxtwle

Putative functions of caspase-2

Loretta Dorstyn, Sharad Kumar
2009 F1000 Biology Reports  
Caspase-2 is the most evolutionarily conserved of caspase family members, yet its physiological function has remained unclear and is a matter of considerable debate. Newly published data now suggest that caspase-2 is required for cell cycle regulation, repair of damaged DNA, and in suppressing Myc-induced lymphomagenesis. Additionally, loss of Casp2 in mice leads to features of premature ageing. These findings suggest that caspase-2 has non-apoptotic functions in addition to its
more » ... its context-dependent roles in cell death.
doi:10.3410/b1-96 pmid:20948596 pmcid:PMC2948275 fatcat:ctolhfzktveunddkmxzawkpbb4

A Highly Thermostable Xylanase fromStenotrophomonas maltophilia: Purification and Partial Characterization

Abhay Raj, Sharad Kumar, Sudheer Kumar Singh
2013 Enzyme Research  
Seven xylanolytic bacterial strains were isolated from saw-dust dump soil. The bacterial strain X6 was selected on the basis of the highest xylanase activity with no cellulase contamination. It was identified asStenotrophomonas maltophiliaby biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach. Xylanase production studies byS. maltophiliaon different commercial xylans and agro-industrial residues suggested that wheat bran was the best carbon source for xylanase production (26.4 ± 0.6 IU/mL).
more » ... (26.4 ± 0.6 IU/mL). The studies with inorganic and organic nitrogen sources suggested yeast extract as the best support for xylanase production (25 ± 0.6 IU/mL). Maximum xylanase production was observed at initial medium pH = 8.0 (23.8 ± 0.4 IU/mL) with production at pH = 7.0 and pH = 9.0 being almost comparable. Xylanase produced byS. maltophiliawas purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. The final purification was 5.43-fold with recovery of 19.18%. The molecular weight of the purified xylanase protein was ~142 kDa. Both crude and purified xylanase had good stability at pH = 9.0 and 80°C with activity retention greater than 90% after 30 min incubation. The enzyme stability at high temperature and alkaline pH make it potentially effective for industrial applications.
doi:10.1155/2013/429305 pmid:24416589 pmcid:PMC3876469 fatcat:2uklafvfrbcxnncuqntdkjh64i

A Scientific Validation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Attributes of Trichosanthes dioica

Prashant Kumar Rai, Sharad Kumar Gupta, Amrita Kumari Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Geeta Watal
2013 ISRN Pharmacology  
The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) which has been traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. This plant commonly known as "Sespadula" in English has not been explored scientifically so far for its glycemic potential except by our research group. The study was conducted with variable doses on normal, mild, and severe diabetics models, and several biochemical
more » ... veral biochemical parameters including blood glucose level (BGL) were assessed. Maximum fall in BGL of 23.8% in normal rats and of 31.3% in mild diabetic rats was observed during their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) with the dose of 1000 mg kg−1. In severely diabetic animals after 4 weeks treatment with FBG, postprandial glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced by 28.7, 30.7, 57.2, and 18.5%, whereas high density lipoprotein, total protein, hemoglobin, and body weight were increased by 33.0, 36.7, 15.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Moreover, urine sugar was reduced from +4 to +1. Thus, the study scientifically validates the traditional use of T. diocia in diabetes management and could be developed as an effective oral agent for treating diabetes mellitus and complications associated with it.
doi:10.1155/2013/473059 pmid:23984089 pmcid:PMC3747504 fatcat:i6f2g6zt55dq3dpwsdsygovr7m

A bizarre presentation of dermatitis artefacta
Niezwykły obraz dermatitis artefacta

Ashok Kumar Khare, Ankita Srivastava, Lalit Kumar Gupta, Asit Mittal, Manisha Balai, Sharad Mehta
2016 Przegląd Dermatologiczny  
doi:10.5114/dr.2016.60633 fatcat:qtmbioyjmngmzp4eubfqnvtsme

Characterization of a NewProvidenciasp. Strain X1 Producing Multiple Xylanases on Wheat Bran

Abhay Raj, Sharad Kumar, Sudheer Kumar Singh, Mahadeo Kumar
2013 The Scientific World Journal  
Kumar, and M. Kumar gratefully acknowledge the support and encouragement provided by the Director of CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2013/386769 pmid:24348154 pmcid:PMC3856158 fatcat:b2xtxovlhza6taqyvg4yo7y7pi

Autophagy-dependent cell death

Donna Denton, Sharad Kumar
2018 Cell Death and Differentiation  
Autophagy-dependent cell death can be defined as cell demise that has a strict requirement of autophagy. Although autophagy often accompanies cell death following many toxic insults, the requirement of autophagic machinery for cell death execution, as established through specific genetic or chemical inhibition of the process, is highly contextual. During animal development, perhaps the best validated model of autophagy-dependent cell death is the degradation of the larval midgut during
more » ... gut during larval-pupal metamorphosis, where a number of key autophagy genes are required for the removal of the tissues. Surprisingly though, even in the midgut, not all of the 'canonical' autophagic machinery appears to be required. In other organisms and cancer cells many variations of autophagy-dependent cell death are apparent, pointing to the lack of a unifying cell death pathway. It is thus possible that components of the autophagy machinery are selectively utilised or repurposed for this type of cell death. In this review, we discuss examples of cell death that utilise autophagy machinery (or part thereof), the current knowledge of the complexity of autophagy-dependent cellular demise and the potential mechanisms and regulatory pathways involved in such cell death.
doi:10.1038/s41418-018-0252-y pmid:30568239 pmcid:PMC6460387 fatcat:6gm6uhhbqrcdlgcbswgfpulkcy

Giant intrapericardial lipoma: An unusual cause of dyspnoea

Sudarshan Kumar Vijay, Sudhanshu Kumar Dwivedi, Sharad Chandra, Ram Kirti Saran
2013 Indian Heart Journal  
The pericardial lipomas are rare benign cardiac tumors. The clinical presentation of these cardiac neoplasms varies according to the site of growth. We describe here a case of massive intrapericardial lipoma leading to severe dyspnea, its diagnostic work up and briefly review the existing literature of this uncommon disorder. The patient underwent successful surgical resection of the tumor with complete alleviation of the symptoms. /locate /ihj i n d i a n h e a r t j o u r n a l 6 5 ( 2 0 1 3
more » ... a l 6 5 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 0 4 e1 0 6
doi:10.1016/j.ihj.2012.12.008 pmid:23438624 pmcid:PMC3861226 fatcat:casq4yfjy5dvvapfxzc7auhuim

Optimization of Multi-objective Response during CNC Turning Using Taguchi-fuzzy Application

Surendra Kumar Saini, Sharad Kumar Pradhan
2014 Procedia Engineering  
In present scenario CNC turning operation plays a vital role in metal based manufacturing industries. Therefore selection of optimum machining parameters, Tool geometry and cutting condition etc. for the variety of materials is an important and complicated task for the manufacturing industries in providing best quality at less cost to the customers. In this research work CNC turning operation is carried out using L 27 Taguchi orthogonal arrays on Aluminum alloy 8011with carbide insert and
more » ... de insert and influence of CNC turning process parameters like Cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut are analyzed for two output objectives like material removal rate and surface roughness. The optimum sets of turning process parameter as well as combined effect of considered response are estimated using Taguchi-Fuzzy application. In this analysis it is found that feed is the most significant process parameter followed by depth of cut and cutting speed on the selected response parameters.
doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.235 fatcat:ettrdftgerahtemhun73sb7azy

AntMeshNet

Sharad Sharma, Shakti Kumar, Brahmjit Singh
2014 International Journal of Applied Metaheuristic Computing  
Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are emerging as evolutionary self organizing networks to provide connectivity to end users. Efficient Routing in WMNs is a highly challenging problem due to existence of stochastically changing network environments. Routing strategies must be dynamically adaptive and evolve in a decentralized, self organizing and fault tolerant way to meet the needs of this changing environment inherent in WMNs. Conventional routing paradigms establishing exact shortest path
more » ... hortest path between a source-terminal node pair perform poorly under the constraints imposed by dynamic network conditions. In this paper, the authors propose an optimal routing approach inspired by the foraging behavior of ants to maximize the network performance while optimizing the network resource utilization. The proposed AntMeshNet algorithm is based upon Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm; exploiting the foraging behavior of simple biological ants. The paper proposes an Integrated Link Cost (ILC) measure used as link distance between two adjacent nodes. ILC takes into account throughput, delay, jitter of the link and residual energy of the node. Since the relationship between input and output parameters is highly non-linear, fuzzy logic was used to evaluate ILC based upon four inputs. This fuzzy system consists of 81 rules. Routing tables are continuously updated after a predefined interval or after a change in network architecture is detected. This takes care of dynamic environment of WMNs. A large number of trials were conducted for each model. The results have been compared with Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) algorithm. The results are found to be far superior to those obtained by AODV algorithm for the same WMN.
doi:10.4018/ijamc.2014010102 fatcat:odvbp6db5ngebepsyv4d2o5shi
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