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Knowledgeable or Educated Guess? Revisiting Language Models as Knowledge Bases [article]

Boxi Cao, Hongyu Lin, Xianpei Han, Le Sun, Lingyong Yan, Meng Liao, Tong Xue, Jin Xu
<span title="2021-06-17">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Previous literatures show that pre-trained masked language models (MLMs) such as BERT can achieve competitive factual knowledge extraction performance on some datasets, indicating that MLMs can potentially  ...  Our findings shed light on the underlying predicting mechanisms of MLMs, and strongly question the previous conclusion that current MLMs can potentially serve as reliable factual knowledge bases.  ...  Related Work The great success of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) raises the question of whether PLMs can be directly used as reliable knowledge bases.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2106.09231v1">arXiv:2106.09231v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kmfjzrpq65hf3lc5h23x2rwsge">fatcat:kmfjzrpq65hf3lc5h23x2rwsge</a> </span>
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Knowledgeable or Educated Guess? Revisiting Language Models as Knowledge Bases

Boxi Cao, Hongyu Lin, Xianpei Han, Le Sun, Lingyong Yan, Meng Liao, Tong Xue, Jin Xu
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Association for Computational Linguistics"> Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers) </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
Previous literatures show that pre-trained masked language models (MLMs) such as BERT can achieve competitive factual knowledge extraction performance on some datasets, indicating that MLMs can potentially  ...  Our findings shed light on the underlying predicting mechanisms of MLMs, and strongly question the previous conclusion that current MLMs can potentially serve as reliable factual knowledge bases 1 . *  ...  Related Work The great success of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) raises the question of whether PLMs can be directly used as reliable knowledge bases.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.146">doi:10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.146</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ng5mh2gwrfcptmac4k4oawdfia">fatcat:ng5mh2gwrfcptmac4k4oawdfia</a> </span>
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Mathematics in the making: Mapping verbal discourse in Pólya's "Let Us Teach Guessing" lesson

Mary P. Truxaw, Thomas C. DeFranco
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/cdf5siztfvfzhinvik32ldeh3m" style="color: black;">Journal of Mathematical Behavior</a> </i> &nbsp;
The results of the analysis reveal an inductive model of teaching that represents recursive cycles rather than linear steps.  ...  "First, guess; then prove... Finished mathematics consists of proofs, but mathematics in the making consists of guesses" (Pólya, 1966).  ...  In sequences 17 and 18, Pólya facilitated a discussion about whether the answer (26 parts) has been proven or, rather, was based on a reasonable guess (see Figure 2-F-3) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmathb.2007.05.002">doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2007.05.002</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2kx3riplibbbtm4kh4jcv5akoy">fatcat:2kx3riplibbbtm4kh4jcv5akoy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200709140122/http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.553.6235&amp;rep=rep1&amp;type=pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/7e/2c/7e2c28f63f9c8e44ce704bd3b3e5dee03d99dd57.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmathb.2007.05.002"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Computerized Classification Testing Under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model With Ability-Based Guessing

Wen-Chung Wang, Sheng-Yun Huang
<span title="2011-02-18">2011</span> <i title="SAGE Publications"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2yqga3ewqbcl7flziftijznjfy" style="color: black;">Educational and Psychological Measurement</a> </i> &nbsp;
his or her knowledge afterward.  ...  Logistic Response DOI: 10.1177/0013164410392372 http://epm.sagepub.com Model With Ability-Based @SAGE Guessing Wen-Chung Wang’ and Sheng-Yun Huang’ Abstract The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164410392372">doi:10.1177/0013164410392372</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sktk4b6qq5bz5bc725r3rmmley">fatcat:sktk4b6qq5bz5bc725r3rmmley</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/details/sim_educational-and-psychological-measurement_2011-12_71_6/page/925" title="read fulltext microfilm" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Archive [Microfilm] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://archive.org/serve/sim_educational-and-psychological-measurement_2011-12_71_6/__ia_thumb.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164410392372"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> sagepub.com </button> </a>

Arbitral Decision Making in Family Property Disputes - Lotteries, Crystal Balls, and Wild Guesses

John Wade
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tol7woxlqjeg5bmzadeg6qrg3e" style="color: black;">Social Science Research Network</a> </i> &nbsp;
The wife with the kids or the tattooed galoot. Some say we don't have enough of the facts We need to know more so we can cover our backs.  ...  But every year whether or not the crop is flash He must give her 10 kilos of premium grade hash! (Dennis Farrar, Family Arbitration Course, July, 2001, Melbourne)  ...  (4) Legal Education Revisited Pre-law, law school and continuing legal education have been subjected to constant criticism for a century in Australia and elsewhere.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.446721">doi:10.2139/ssrn.446721</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/75cvqz7sa5b3lpnlv6n37nmqrq">fatcat:75cvqz7sa5b3lpnlv6n37nmqrq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110414011740/http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1107&amp;context=law_pubs" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/25/14/2514b25224dc03bad0d32ca3a549c539b10bee60.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.446721"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ssrn.com </button> </a>

The Development and Validation of the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS)

Mikki H. Phan, Joseph R. Keebler, Barbara S. Chaparro
<span title="2016-09-27">2016</span> <i title="SAGE Publications"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/k6uawgfngbgzve6intld73x7vu" style="color: black;">Human Factors</a> </i> &nbsp;
As a result, it is not known how applicable the GUESS will be in evaluating serious games (e.g., educational).  ...  Also, the majority of the existing questionnaires are based on a limited number of video game titles or genres (e.g., educational).  ...  Removed FINAL VERSION OF THE GUESS Instructions: Based on your experience playing this game, please rate the following statements on a scale from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree".  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720816669646">doi:10.1177/0018720816669646</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27647156">pmid:27647156</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/v6x7hkaqhbe3hmvawdobgmbfau">fatcat:v6x7hkaqhbe3hmvawdobgmbfau</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200306040710/https://soar.wichita.edu/bitstream/handle/10057/11604/d15018_PHAN_Mikki_SP15%20SEQUESTER.pdf;jsessionid=60AF37ECA44A0BF9091A7ABAF834DCC3?sequence=1" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/01/6b/016b14dc8c01129575bc91773af11913a8dc0572.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720816669646"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> sagepub.com </button> </a>

Street-fighting mathematics: the art of educated guessing and opportunistic problem solving

<span title="2010-10-01">2010</span> <i title="American Library Association"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/pjjljho22jhnrmpk3k2jxhxzv4" style="color: black;">ChoiceReviews</a> </i> &nbsp;
Gaussian integral revisited As the first application, let's revisit the Gaussian integral from Section 1.3, ∞ −∞ e −αx 2 dx. (2.1) Is the integral √ πα or π/α?  ...  As you extend the computation to larger values of N, do the refined estimates of S approach our educated guess of 1/10?  ...  To explain the pattern, tidy the polynomial as follows: x 9 − 14x 7 + 49x 5 − 36x 3 = −36x 3 In this arrangement, the sum 49/36 appears as the negative of the first interesting coefficient.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.48-0924">doi:10.5860/choice.48-0924</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/iq2kb5in5neuzi2ba75er74iuu">fatcat:iq2kb5in5neuzi2ba75er74iuu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190430001440/http://oapen.org/download?type=document&amp;docid=1003996" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/34/b2/34b279c0f217a71eb98f6a885d3d635a095c81c9.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.48-0924"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Teacher competencies in supporting reading in English as a foreign language

Melanie Ellis
<span title="2019-11-14">2019</span> <i title="Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej w Lublinie"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/wgfppp7rdvbebf6uhlzvskquoi" style="color: black;">Lublin Studies in Modern Languages and Literature</a> </i> &nbsp;
Descriptors taken from the European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages, EPOSTL, are used are used as criteria to analyze the qualitative data.  ...  New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">Based  ...  would be students in a language teacher education programme.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.17951/lsmll.2019.43.3.73-87">doi:10.17951/lsmll.2019.43.3.73-87</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rujehvw6dnbbfgppuayhtkp2uy">fatcat:rujehvw6dnbbfgppuayhtkp2uy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200214053006/https://journals.umcs.pl/lsmll/article/download/8920/6916" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/82/c8/82c8cc39bd6ad8b251b70d955e9162ef728465bf.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.17951/lsmll.2019.43.3.73-87"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Computer science education based on fundamental ideas [chapter]

Andreas Schwill
<span title="">1997</span> <i title="Springer US"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/kss7mrolvja63k4rmix3iynkzi" style="color: black;">IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology</a> </i> &nbsp;
We sketch a pedagogical 'theory' based on Bruner's educational psychology that might set computer science education for students and teachers on a well-founded basis and integrate different approaches  ...  Or: How many questions are necessary in order to guess a number using binary search?  ...  Language Language plays an important role, not only for programming (programming languages), for specification (specification languages), for verification (logic calculi), in data bases (query languages  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35081-3_36">doi:10.1007/978-0-387-35081-3_36</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/si5o7frw2nh3xnozcr6tfpm26m">fatcat:si5o7frw2nh3xnozcr6tfpm26m</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20030426144302/http://ddi.cs.uni-potsdam.de:80/didaktik/Forschung/Israel97.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/01/5e/015e1d3fc2cf97cc59d0a704f3a8a17b56fcf182.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35081-3_36"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Adaptive Robot Language Tutoring Based on Bayesian Knowledge Tracing and Predictive Decision-Making

Thorsten Schodde, Kirsten Bergmann, Stefan Kopp
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/7xksc3amu5cnpkat46emdjrxxe" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 2017 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction - HRI &#39;17</a> </i> &nbsp;
Being implemented in a robot language tutor, the model enables the robot tutor to trace the learner's knowledge and to decide which skill to teach next and how to address it in a game-like tutoring interaction  ...  The approach is based on a dynamic probabilistic model that represents the interrelations between the learner's skills, her observed behaviour in tutoring interaction, and the tutoring action taken by  ...  In Section 3 an extension of Bayesian Knowledge Tracing is presented as well as a model to select the next tutoring actions based on the predicted effects they may have on the learner's knowledge state  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2909824.3020222">doi:10.1145/2909824.3020222</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/hri/SchoddeBK17.html">dblp:conf/hri/SchoddeBK17</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vism2vgfojae5krlodxj2n42ai">fatcat:vism2vgfojae5krlodxj2n42ai</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180726115719/https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/download/2906869/2910974/p128-schodde.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b7/e4/b7e4b8e8e4a8a998fe3eb71d6f7a26cc89a515fa.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2909824.3020222"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Some challenges and grand challenges for computational intelligence

Edward A. Feigenbaum
<span title="2003-01-01">2003</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/r72grtxx6jad5hjzl7fxcunwhi" style="color: black;">Journal of the ACM</a> </i> &nbsp;
The intent here is to "educate" a knowledge base in the same way that we receive most of our education.  ...  In natural language processing, though our computational artifacts can not yet "read and understand as well as a human," computational linguists have developed superb models for the processing of human  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/602382.602400">doi:10.1145/602382.602400</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fbhsjnheanajplncheq6f56ndy">fatcat:fbhsjnheanajplncheq6f56ndy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809134214/http://psy.haifa.ac.il/~ep/Lecture%20Files/AI/Secure/Download/Challenges%20for%20AI%20(p32-a_feigenbaum).pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ee/73/ee7384f216fe8272f9677b03147b986574e53372.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/602382.602400"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Some Aspects of Developing Background Knowledge in Second Language Acquisition Revisited

Galina Zashchitina, Natalia Moysyak
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="Bulgarian Comparative Education Society (BCES)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/d72vqyx3r5gx3aom3tnjfxn7cy" style="color: black;">BCES Conference Books</a> </i> &nbsp;
The article stresses that a lack of prior and cultural knowledge may become a put-off factor for a second language student thus hindering the entire process of learning as failing to understand and master  ...  Different research-supported views on co-dependence of culture and meaning in learning a language as well as the significance of integrating authentic use of literature into the learning process are also  ...  of the world, including one's store of concepts and expectations based on prior experience; 3) knowledge of discourse structure, or the understanding of how various kinds or types of discourse (such as  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://doaj.org/article/f7de022a4ab74e2ea9975dfb128497b7">doaj:f7de022a4ab74e2ea9975dfb128497b7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/l6iubrkgrngffktagsajnj35um">fatcat:l6iubrkgrngffktagsajnj35um</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200925155956/https://bces-conference-books.org/onewebmedia/2017.265-270.Galina.Zashchitina_Natalia.Moysyak.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ce/42/ce428e5b9e0bbf0241400785cd5f3deeccfc26a1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a>

The Impact of Motivation on Reading Comprehension

Mohammad Reza Ahmadi
<span title="2017-03-01">2017</span> <i title="CASRP: Center of Advanced Scientific Research and Publications"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ibfli2ahave2tbrubbp3qcowsi" style="color: black;">International Journal of Research in English Education</a> </i> &nbsp;
Motivation is one of the important factors which impact greatly on language learning.  ...  In this paper, the researcher explains the terms reading motivation, different types of motivation, reading comprehension, and different models of reading comprehension.  ...  It is based on interest in learning a second language due to their need to learn about or connect with the people who use it or the aim or intention to take part in the second language using the similar  ... 
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Guest Editorial Special Issue on Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Mechanisms of Language Learning

Malte Schilling, Katharina J. Rohlfing, Paul Vogt, Chen Yu, Michael Spranger
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ebf5qcn4yrdcnjbbdfccmlscme" style="color: black;">IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
While past research on children's language learning was mainly based on child information-such as the number of words a child knows-they focus on the influence of detailed vocabulary knowledge for future  ...  Xie et al. in "Integrating image-based and knowledge-based representation learning" provide supporting brain evidence that highlights the emergence of representations used in language from regularities  ...  To study this, he uses a variety of techniques, ranging from agent-based modeling, child-robot interaction, and psycholinguistic experiments to ethnographic research of childrens language acquisition in  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tcds.2020.2991470">doi:10.1109/tcds.2020.2991470</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wxdugpevvjh45nwstfglwypiya">fatcat:wxdugpevvjh45nwstfglwypiya</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201108131140/https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/7274989/9113770/09114350.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e7/c6/e7c6856ed839dc9b58091ab98fddc907a39dc30e.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tcds.2020.2991470"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

Eunice Tang, Edsoulla Chung, Eddy Li, Steven Yeung
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="The International Academic Forum (IAFOR)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ktwrg6v4ovbc3oc6sop4uoaewy" style="color: black;">IAFOR Journal of Education</a> </i> &nbsp;
Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.  ...  As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion  ...  Discussion Aspects of Word Knowledge In most Asian countries, explicit or direct teaching of vocabulary is common in English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.22492/ije.4.1.01">doi:10.22492/ije.4.1.01</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/e3kgesoey5aybjfi422gzsdzxi">fatcat:e3kgesoey5aybjfi422gzsdzxi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180719153332/http://iafor.org/archives/journals/iafor-journal-of-education/10.22492.ije.4.1.01.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/fb/26/fb26e16c990af6d996a2037a5d0de39ca0e205c7.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.22492/ije.4.1.01"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>
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