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Abstracting Knowledge from Annotated Chinese-Chess Game Records [chapter]

Bo-Nian Chen, Pangfang Liu, Shun-Chin Hsu, Tsan-sheng Hsu
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We hope to exploit this approach to collect automatically a great diversity of Chinese-Chess knowledge that is currently in text format. 1  ...  Expert knowledge is crucial for improving the strength of computer Chinese-Chess programs.  ...  Chinese-Chess Annotation Abstraction Algorithm This processing algorithm (Fig. 1) is a novel pattern matching strategy, designed especially for Chinese-Chess annotation abstraction.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_9">doi:10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_9</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/dzunetkhqnfodaiqfoc3ifjh7q">fatcat:dzunetkhqnfodaiqfoc3ifjh7q</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120915214408/http://ntur.lib.ntu.edu.tw/bitstream/246246/155128/1/07.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/05/3e/053e6f955518e6ae255c8874e11f6cfe856411e5.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75538-8_9"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Games solved: Now and in the future

H.Jaap van den Herik, Jos W.H.M. Uiterwijk, Jack van Rijswijck
<span title="">2002</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/weoplee4x5anpi62cco5v4higa" style="color: black;">Artificial Intelligence</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this article we present an overview on the state of the art in games solved in the domain of twoperson zero-sum games with perfect information.  ...  Second, we conclude that there is a trade-off between knowledge-based methods and brute-force methods.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the work performed by all researchers mentioned in this article.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00152-7">doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00152-7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/q7oiqyi6xrd4jev74ocrfmv5ry">fatcat:q7oiqyi6xrd4jev74ocrfmv5ry</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170706033836/http://liacs.leidenuniv.nl/~bonsanguemm/StudSem/KI_Games.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/82/96/8296bc0ab855841088b31190c9f2923951853d7b.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00152-7"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Computer Go

Martin Müller
<span title="">2002</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/weoplee4x5anpi62cco5v4higa" style="color: black;">Artificial Intelligence</a> </i> &nbsp;
This survey describes the typical components of a Go program, and discusses knowledge representation, search methods and techniques for solving specific subproblems in this domain.  ...  Along with a summary of the development of computer Go in recent years, areas for future research are pointed out.   ...  Acknowledgements The first version of this paper was written while the author was a postdoctoral researcher at NTT Communication Science Laboratories in Atsugi, Japan.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00121-7">doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00121-7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/giptz75cynb6dkrvdoztarecfq">fatcat:giptz75cynb6dkrvdoztarecfq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20030511010747/http://yoyo.monash.edu.my:80/~wilfred/cse3309/computerGOpdf.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/76/30/7630641e7084288560d720c373d114d1d0218fed.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-3702(01)00121-7"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

A STRATEGIC METAGAME PLAYER FOR GENERAL CHESS-LIKE GAMES

Barney Pell
<span title="">1996</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/gm6q54qw4jf5nj2lkrr2jruol4" style="color: black;">Computational intelligence</a> </i> &nbsp;
The class includes the games of chess, checkers, noughts and crosses, Chinese-chess, and Shogi.  ...  It also played without access to its opening book or endgame database, although it is unlikely that the experimental results would have been much altered had it been using them.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8640.1996.tb00258.x">doi:10.1111/j.1467-8640.1996.tb00258.x</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/z6uvmpif3bad3j2luc4nb6tcbm">fatcat:z6uvmpif3bad3j2luc4nb6tcbm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170324112348/https://www.aaai.org/Papers/AAAI/1994/AAAI94-212.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/bd/05/bd0525e65d23293db327b2e965e3bbf31543dd2d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8640.1996.tb00258.x"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

The Game Is Not over Yet—Go in the Post-AlphaGo Era

Attila Egri-Nagy, Antti Törmänen
<span title="2020-11-13">2020</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/fbul63ph45fgpdmfbjk7polj6i" style="color: black;">Philosophies</a> </i> &nbsp;
The game of Go was the last great challenge for artificial intelligence in abstract board games.  ...  As in chess, the fall of the human world champion did not lead to the end of the game. Now, we have renewed interest in the game due to new questions that emerged in this development.  ...  Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript: AI the field of artificial intelligence, or a software package with artificial intelligence capabilities AG, AGZ, AZ AlphaGo, AlphaGo  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies5040037">doi:10.3390/philosophies5040037</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/dsm72oixp5bdhcha7orgayrzuu">fatcat:dsm72oixp5bdhcha7orgayrzuu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201115175857/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/philosophies/philosophies-05-00037/article_deploy/philosophies-05-00037.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/0f/9f/0f9f4b1ac8b34cefae7ec6f91c485ee23ac824b2.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies5040037"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Graph-based data mining

D.J. Cook, L.B. Holder
<span title="">2000</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/i6odselg2vhytkiryfsdh6fpjy" style="color: black;">IEEE Intelligent Systems and their Applications</a> </i> &nbsp;
The relational domains we used in our tests included illegal chess endgames, tic-tac-toe endgames, and musical excerpts.  ...  Discovered substructures allow abstraction from detailed structures in the original data.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/5254.850825">doi:10.1109/5254.850825</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/uhmbej7osncgndxkc7rbyvvtmi">fatcat:uhmbej7osncgndxkc7rbyvvtmi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170808033541/http://www.eecs.wsu.edu/~holder/courses/CptS570/fall07/papers/Cook00.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/71/a9/71a9043ff29861063194bd62b032eedcd0c374ba.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/5254.850825"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Strategy Generation and Evaluation for Meta-Game Playing

Barney Pell
<span title="2011-01-26">2011</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/dlce7tvip5e5rlsv2ty3chnfpu" style="color: black;">Künstliche Intelligenz</a> </i> &nbsp;
Meta-Game Playing (Metagame) is a new paradigm for research in game-playing in which we design programs to take in the rules of unknown games and play those games without human assistance.  ...  Strong performance in this new paradigm is evidence that the program, instead of its human designer, has performed the analysis of each specific game.  ...  In fact, the version of Chinook used in the experiment (without opening or endgame databases) required 15-ply of search to find the winning sequence.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-010-0082-7">doi:10.1007/s13218-010-0082-7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ngz2pwwy4bguvpgwditnvgzbfm">fatcat:ngz2pwwy4bguvpgwditnvgzbfm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20051220160809/http://www.barneypell.com:80/papers/pell-thesis.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/7f/71/7f714eedbd682c26deb19d6bf88593086efc685e.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-010-0082-7"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Best Reply Search for Multiplayer Games

Maarten P. D. Schadd, Mark H. M. Winands
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/e3irxgosbfdlvgbpxbgqltq3va" style="color: black;">IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games</a> </i> &nbsp;
We test BRS in the games of Chinese Checkers, Focus and Rolit TM . In all games, BRS is superior to the max n algorithm. We show that BRS also outperforms paranoid in Chinese Checkers and Focus.  ...  In BRS, only the opponent with the strongest counter move is allowed to make a move. More turns of the root player can be searched resulting in long-term planning.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) in the framework of the project TACTICS, grant number 612.000.525.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2011.2107323">doi:10.1109/tciaig.2011.2107323</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/igmwto3kzvdevncqetoqvlacla">fatcat:igmwto3kzvdevncqetoqvlacla</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809090744/https://project.dke.maastrichtuniversity.nl/games/files/articles/BestReplySearch.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/12/73/12732c384cfbe175c11e50e07ac8a752db845af1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2011.2107323"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Temporal-difference search in computer Go

David Silver, Richard S. Sutton, Martin Müller
<span title="2012-02-21">2012</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/h4nnd7sxwzcwhetu5qkjbcdh6u" style="color: black;">Machine Learning</a> </i> &nbsp;
Temporal-difference learning is one of the most successful and broadly applied solutions to the reinforcement learning problem; it has been used to achieve master-level play in chess, checkers and backgammon  ...  We introduce a new approach to highperformance search in Markov decision processes and two-player games.  ...  Prior approaches to shape knowledge representation Commercial computer Go programs rely heavily on the use of pattern databases to represent shape knowledge (Müller 2002) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10994-012-5280-0">doi:10.1007/s10994-012-5280-0</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/mee7ubiorvhslofqjmsdh5ixeu">fatcat:mee7ubiorvhslofqjmsdh5ixeu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20181030065928/https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10994-012-5280-0.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/9a/27/9a27a651d28909a8413a69bfc0c6996a338c39f1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10994-012-5280-0"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

A Survey of Monte Carlo Tree Search Methods

Cameron B. Browne, Edward Powley, Daniel Whitehouse, Simon M. Lucas, Peter I. Cowling, Philipp Rohlfshagen, Stephen Tavener, Diego Perez, Spyridon Samothrakis, Simon Colton
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/e3irxgosbfdlvgbpxbgqltq3va" style="color: black;">IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games</a> </i> &nbsp;
It has received considerable interest due to its spectacular success in the difficult problem of computer Go, but has also proved beneficial in a range of other domains.  ...  Cazenave advocates the use of abstract game knowledge as an alternative to pattern-based heuristics [38] .  ...  This knowledge may be gathered either offline (e.g. from databases of expert games) or online (e.g. through self-play and learning).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2012.2186810">doi:10.1109/tciaig.2012.2186810</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/z2o6xdkkjvhf3k6hybw65o5r44">fatcat:z2o6xdkkjvhf3k6hybw65o5r44</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170921215846/http://pubs.doc.ic.ac.uk/survey-mcts-methods/survey-mcts-methods.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c3/7f/c37f1baac3c8ba30250084f067167ac3837cf6fd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tciaig.2012.2186810"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Algorithmic Combinatorial Game Theory

Erik Demaine, Rudolf Fleischer, Hong Kong, Aviezri Fraenkel, Richard Nowakowski
<span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
in Xiangqi (Chinese Chess).  ...  The strength of Antiope lies in the use of endgame databases. One type of databases store values related to Combinatorial Game Theory.  ...  At the begining of the game, there are n coins distributed in k piles. The winner gets $10 n , the loser gets to keep all the coins that he has removed from the heaps.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wcq6w4uvhregdnnq4mmh7dtsoq">fatcat:wcq6w4uvhregdnnq4mmh7dtsoq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180510181211/https://www.dagstuhl.de/Reports/02/02081.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e6/a2/e6a2f3a7d495045d1b061cce24981d244c8735b7.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a>

Knowledge-Based General Game Playing

Sebastian Haufe, Daniel Michulke, Stephan Schiffel, Michael Thielscher
<span title="2011-01-11">2011</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/dlce7tvip5e5rlsv2ty3chnfpu" style="color: black;">Künstliche Intelligenz</a> </i> &nbsp;
They rather need to be endowed with high-level cognitive abilities such as general strategic thinking and abstract reasoning.  ...  Systems able to play arbitrary, previously unknown games cannot be given game-specific knowledge.  ...  For example, there are 8 pawns of each colour in Chess and 10 identical pieces for each player in Chinese checkers.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-010-0073-8">doi:10.1007/s13218-010-0073-8</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ylia7hhcnjbtnobn7j4li5qhpm">fatcat:ylia7hhcnjbtnobn7j4li5qhpm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170812112642/http://www.qucosa.de/fileadmin/data/qucosa/documents/8874/Stephan_Schiffel_Diss.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/dd/51/dd51c3322892e31fdef7317cc3f6d748980b3929.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-010-0073-8"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

On a Resurgence of Management Simulations and Games

David C. Lane
<span title="">1995</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/fq4jrflj6zesjk7f4nb4otuwwy" style="color: black;">Journal of the Operational Research Society</a> </i> &nbsp;
Formation Se of abstract concepts & generalisations Fic. 1.  ...  These looked vaguely like chess and were played for recreational purposes”.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1057/jors.1995.86">doi:10.1057/jors.1995.86</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/5ptkkuo7wnhvndorp2embq64be">fatcat:5ptkkuo7wnhvndorp2embq64be</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/details/sim_journal-of-the-operational-research-society_1995-05_46_5/page/604" title="read fulltext microfilm" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Archive [Microfilm] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://archive.org/serve/sim_journal-of-the-operational-research-society_1995-05_46_5/__ia_thumb.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1057/jors.1995.86"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

On a Resurgence of Management Simulations and Games

David C Lane
<span title="1995-05-01">1995</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/fq4jrflj6zesjk7f4nb4otuwwy" style="color: black;">Journal of the Operational Research Society</a> </i> &nbsp;
Formation Se of abstract concepts & generalisations Fic. 1.  ...  These looked vaguely like chess and were played for recreational purposes”.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1038/sj/jors/0460505">doi:10.1038/sj/jors/0460505</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/5uknanlcenebfasfrrhqfyfgfi">fatcat:5uknanlcenebfasfrrhqfyfgfi</a> </span>
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Deciphering the Enigma of Human Creativity: Can a Digital Computer Think?

Felix T
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="OMICS Publishing Group"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/cfj7yw2qavhc5f35je6wes764m" style="color: black;">Journal of computer science and systems biology</a> </i> &nbsp;
restrictions without sacrificing the principles in future designs of heuristics.  ...  Moreover, the elusive concept of abduction advanced by philosopher Charles Peirce is actually visual thinking in disguise.  ...  Notes added in the proof Recently, a team of scientists at the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences of Dartmouth College reported the finding of the locus of mental imagery.  ... 
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