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Computer Virus Propagation Models [chapter]

Giuseppe Serazzi, Stefano Zanero
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The availability of reliable models of computer virus propagation would prove useful in a number of ways, in order both to predict future threats, and to develop new containment measures.  ...  We also introduce a new model, which extends the Random Constant Spread modeling technique, allowing us to draw some conclusions about the behavior of the Internet infrastructure in presence of a self-replicating  ...  Acknowledgments We thank David Moore of CAIDA, and Stuart Staniford of Silicon Defense, for allowing us to reproduce their measurements of Code Red v2 expansion.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24663-3_2 fatcat:usg6e6caingebiz2glhbsvj2me

Breaking tolerance in cancer immunotherapy: time to ACT

Willem W Overwijk
2005 Current Opinion in Immunology  
Recent data suggest that this might be because most current clinical immunotherapeutic strategies rely on a tolerized tumorreactive T-cell repertoire, resulting in a weak T-cell response that cannot induce  ...  New insights from animal models and clinical trials suggest a rationale for combination approaches in which the ineffective endogenous anti-tumor immune response is enhanced through a combination of adoptive  ...  each obstacle with a specific countermeasure.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.coi.2005.01.011 pmid:15766680 fatcat:7kkfkil74vathas3swdamsgzdy

A Survey of Security Challenges, Attacks Taxonomy and Advanced Countermeasures in the Internet of Things

Shapla Khanam, Ismail Bin Ahmedy, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, Mohamed Hisham Jaward, Aznul Qalid Bin Md Sabri
2020 IEEE Access  
] To deactivate the network or to make service unavailable to the user By removing node physically or deactivating a node by sending kill command Shutting down a network node makes service unavailable  ...  In this case, an attacker or intruder whose intention is to place his/herself as a neighbor of other nodes in the network may convince other nodes that it is a normal node.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3037359 fatcat:pw4fsmelmjgc5anm7hp537l63e

How dendritic cells and microbes interact to elicit or subvert protective immune responses

Karolina Palucka, Jacques Banchereau
2002 Current Opinion in Immunology  
We wish to thank Virginia Pascual for critical reading of the manuscript.  ...  For example, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) targets LCs, which serve as replication sites and transport the virus into the draining lymph node [87] .  ...  Evolution has found, however, a countermeasure to these microbial attacks in the form of cross-priming and cross-presentation.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0952-7915(02)00365-5 pmid:12088675 fatcat:pst2dqexxfbc5nxxnnhe7xrunq

Immunological Control of Viral Infections in Bats and the Emergence of Viruses Highly Pathogenic to Humans

Tony Schountz, Michelle L. Baker, John Butler, Vincent Munster
2017 Frontiers in Immunology  
After all, if bat IFN responses are "always on, " why does Tacaribe virus kill bats? Has persistent iFn aCtiVity in Bats driVen tHe eVoLUtion oF VirUses patHoGeniC to HUMans?  ...  There are exceptions, including slowly replicating viruses, such as rabies virus.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01098 pmid:28959255 pmcid:PMC5604070 fatcat:nsinx7rp2vaard27wecrlkiwmm

Human Herpesvirus and the Immune Checkpoint PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway: Disorders and Strategies for Survival

Takayuki Murata
2021 Microorganisms  
The immune system has evolved as a complex and efficient means of coping with extrinsic materials, such as pathogens and toxins, as well as intrinsic abnormalities, such as cancers.  ...  This review is focused on human herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), which cause various types of disorders, and their relationships with  ...  Interestingly, EBV has already developed a countermeasure to the miRNA to evade immunity in that EBNA2 decreases miR-34a expression.  ... 
doi:10.3390/microorganisms9040778 pmid:33917804 fatcat:ws4v3f5ibjei5k2fewjxiq6pcy

Spatiotemporal Distributions and Dynamics of Human Infections with the A H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus

Yongxue Chen, Yongxian Wen
2019 Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine  
Theoretical analysis shows that the endemic will be formed to a large extent once the H7N9 avian influenza virus exists in poultry.  ...  In 2013 in mainland China, a novel avian influenza virus H7N9 began to infect humans and had aroused severe fatality in the infected humans, followed by the annual outbreaks.  ...  Our another countermeasure is to kill all the poultry in the outbreak region.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2019/9248246 fatcat:hzbtdyhntned3mrngbdcsr6d3a

Antibody-Based Strategies to Prevent and Treat Influenza

Zachary Shriver, Jose M. Trevejo, Ram Sasisekharan
2015 Frontiers in Immunology  
However, until recently, antibody-based strategies to combat infectious agents have been hampered due to the fact that most antibodies have been found to be strain specific, with the virus evolving resistance  ...  Passive immunization using antibodies is a promising alternative to other antiviral treatment options.  ...  Such a dualtargeting strategy may also be useful for other viruses such as influenza.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00315 pmid:26217334 pmcid:PMC4500096 fatcat:hdvwbm6ferehta4xnzum27khsy

Security and Privacy Issues in Medical Internet of Things: Overview, Countermeasures, Challenges and Future Directions

Mohamed Elhoseny, Navod Neranjan Thilakarathne, Mohammed I. Alghamdi, Rakesh Kumar Mahendran, Akber Abid Gardezi, Hesiri Weerasinghe, Anuradhi Welhenge
2021 Sustainability  
Nevertheless, pertaining to the current state of security and privacy, we also examine and discuss a number of attack use cases, countermeasures and solutions, recent challenges, and anticipated future  ...  As a novel technological paradigm, this IoT is being served in many application domains including healthcare, surveillance, manufacturing, industrial automation, smart homes, the military, etc.  ...  A node in the network system provides the victim node with multiple identities, allowing the victim node to perform a single operation multiple times.  ... 
doi:10.3390/su132111645 fatcat:lbbmpfeumzcchaec47t4hrjbwi

Monkeypox Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques Induces Massive Expansion of Natural Killer Cells but Suppresses Natural Killer Cell Functions

Haifeng Song, Nicole Josleyn, Krisztina Janosko, Jeff Skinner, R. Keith Reeves, Melanie Cohen, Catherine Jett, Reed Johnson, Joseph E. Blaney, Laura Bollinger, Gerald Jennings, Peter B. Jahrling (+1 others)
2013 PLoS ONE  
NK cells both in the blood and lymph nodes massively proliferated in response to MPXV infection as measured by Ki67 expression.  ...  Our data suggest a dynamic model by which NK cells respond to MPXV infection of rhesus macaques.  ...  Acknowledgements we would like to thank the staff at the Integrated Research Facility and the NIAID Emerging Viral Pathogens Section for their efforts in the execution of this study, in particular to Marisa  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077804 pmid:24147080 pmcid:PMC3798392 fatcat:7byoorrlkvd5noztd234yitxte

Social Media Response and Crisis Communications in Active Shootings during COVID-19 Pandemic

M Ahmed Rusho, Md Ashraf Ahmed, Arif Mohaimin Sadri
2021 Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives  
As a low-cost alternative to the traditional approaches 8 of responding to such crisis, data-driven approaches can help to identify more tailored response 9 strategies and guide towards more informed decision-making  ...  Additionally, the infographics 26 could serve as a data dictionary in future active shooting scenarios to maximize peer influence. 27 28 29 30 33 safety.  ...  However, the authors are solely 466 responsible for the findings presented in this study. 468 Author Contribution Statement 469 The authors confirm that all authors contributed to the paper as follows  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.trip.2021.100420 fatcat:5pgc73e35fhnpewb4iphwjjkjq

Livestock Challenge Models of Rift Valley Fever for Agricultural Vaccine Testing

Andrea Louise Kroeker, Shawn Babiuk, Bradley S. Pickering, Juergen A. Richt, William C. Wilson
2020 Frontiers in Veterinary Science  
for infection, and to develop a variety of vaccines as countermeasures.  ...  There is a risk that RVFV could also appear in the Americas, similar to the West Nile virus.  ...  for infection, and to develop a variety of vaccines as countermeasures.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fvets.2020.00238 pmid:32528981 pmcid:PMC7266933 fatcat:wjpzo2d3gzc5hkopivgwvc4gbm

APOBEC3 Proteins in Viral Immunity

Spyridon Stavrou, Susan R. Ross
2015 Journal of Immunology  
Immature myeloid DCs can be productively infected by HIV-1; these cells may also be used by HIV-1 as a "Trojan horse" to allow for the transmission of virus to the lymph nodes, thus bringing it in the  ...  In addition to the sequence heterogeneity found in polymorphic alleles within a given species, the number of APOBEC3 genes in different species varies as a result of expansion or contraction of the locus  ... 
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1501504 pmid:26546688 pmcid:PMC4638160 fatcat:s543l2xrrrhwragdsuwsie5sxa

Influenza A Virus Vaccination: Immunity, Protection, and Recent Advances Toward A Universal Vaccine

Christopher E. Lopez, Kevin L. Legge
2020 Vaccines  
Despite being an important countermeasure to combat influenza virus and being highly efficacious when matched to circulating influenza viruses, current preventative strategies of vaccination against influenza  ...  Particular emphasis will be placed on how each platform induces cross-protection against heterologous influenza viruses, as well as how this immunity compares to and contrasts from the "gold standard"  ...  to influenza virus and promote killing of infected cells to limit the spread of the virus.  ... 
doi:10.3390/vaccines8030434 pmid:32756443 pmcid:PMC7565301 fatcat:xy46sgnfrjbf5gdeewpnpb26wq

Immune Modulation and Immune-Mediated Pathogenesis of Emerging Tickborne Banyangviruses

Mendoza, Ebihara, Yamaoka
2019 Vaccines  
mechanisms may aid in the development of a new class of therapeutics.  ...  Of interest are the tickborne banyangviruses: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), Heartland virus (HRTV), and Guertu virus (GTV).  ...  medical countermeasures such as therapeutics and vaccines.  ... 
doi:10.3390/vaccines7040125 pmid:31547199 pmcid:PMC6963857 fatcat:ch4xw33pgvh73h4dhsauomwixe
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