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The Complexity of Translation Membership for Macro Tree Transducers [article]

Kazuhiro Inaba, Sebastian Maneth
2009 arXiv   pre-print
Macro tree transducers (mtts) are a useful formal model for XML query and transformation languages. In this paper one of the fundamental decision problems on translations, namely the "translation membership problem" is studied for mtts. For a fixed translation, the translation membership problem asks whether a given input/output pair is element of the translation. For call-by-name mtts this problem is shown to be NP-complete. The main result is that translation membership for call-by-value mtts
more » ... call-by-value mtts is in polynomial time. For several extensions, such as addition of regular look-ahead or the generalization to multi-return mtts, it is shown that translation membership still remains in PTIME.
arXiv:0910.2315v1 fatcat:kj4456duwzhnlpqz3mtx6sqdqu

Bidirectionalizing graph transformations

Soichiro Hidaka, Zhenjiang Hu, Kazuhiro Inaba, Hiroyuki Kato, Kazutaka Matsuda, Keisuke Nakano
2010 SIGPLAN notices  
Bidirectional transformations provide a novel mechanism for synchronizing and maintaining the consistency of information between input and output. Despite many promising results on bidirectional transformations, these have been limited to the context of relational or XML (tree-like) databases. We challenge the problem of bidirectional transformations within the context of graphs, by proposing a formal definition of a well-behaved bidirectional semantics for UnCAL, i.e., a graph algebra for the
more » ... ph algebra for the known UnQL graph query language. The key to our successful formalization is full utilization of both the recursive and bulk semantics of structural recursion on graphs. We carefully refine the existing forward evaluation of structural recursion so that it can produce sufficient trace information for later backward evaluation. We use the trace information for backward evaluation to reflect in-place updates and deletions on the view to the source, and adopt the universal resolving algorithm for inverse computation and the narrowing technique to tackle the difficult problem with insertion. We prove our bidirectional evaluation is well-behaved. Our current implementation is available online and confirms the usefulness of our approach with nontrivial applications. Keywords bidirectional transformation, view updating, graph query and transformation, structural recursion † † The same notion is called driving (Glück and Klimov 1993; Glück and Sørensen 1994) in (Abramov and Glück 2002) .
doi:10.1145/1932681.1863573 fatcat:luhkqdfnljglbm3pkztihcnini

Understanding Action Sequences based on Video Captioning for Learning-from-Observation [article]

Iori Yanokura, Naoki Wake, Kazuhiro Sasabuchi, Katsushi Ikeuchi, Masayuki Inaba
2020 arXiv   pre-print
2 Naoki Wake, Kazuhiro Sasabuchi and Katsushi Ikeuchi are with Applied Robotics Research, Mi- crosoft, TABLE I : I K-fold cross-validation result of video captioning [31] on our dataset  ...  Method 0.5 0.75 0.95 Uniform sampling 0.5 0.15 0.01 0.00 Velocity-based splitting (ours) 0.59 0.57 0.56 Iori Yanokura and Masayuki Inaba are with Department of MechanoInformatics, University  ... 
arXiv:2101.05061v1 fatcat:mv7k3ndpsnfuppbbukzer3hmxi

Unsafe Order-2 Tree Languages Are Context-Sensitive [chapter]

Naoki Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Inaba, Takeshi Tsukada
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
To show that, Inaba and Maneth decomposed higher-order (safe) transducers (whose image is the set of higher-order safe languages) into macro tree transducers, and transformed the transducers so that the  ...  implies that the word languages generated by order-3 grammars are context-sensitive. 1 Our techniques to prove the context-sensitiveness of order-2 tree languages are quite different from those used in Inaba  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54830-7_10 fatcat:vcf7ueu5wzbqvjucwk3mci6ufe

Compact representation for answer sets of n-ary regular queries

Kazuhiro Inaba, Haruo Hosoya
2010 Theoretical Computer Science  
An n-ary query over trees takes an input tree t and returns a set of n-tuples of the nodes of t. In this paper, a compact data structure is introduced for representing the answer sets of n-ary queries defined by tree automata. Despite that the number of the elements of the answer set can be as large as |t| n , our representation allows storing the set using only O(|t|) space. Several basic operations on the sets are shown to be efficiently executable on the representation. The finite state
more » ... e finite state automaton is a well-known model for representing properties for trees and strings. The class of queries definable by finite state automata is called regular and is widely used both in theory and in practice. A number of query formalisms are shown to be equivalent or subsumed by regular queries. Examples of such formalisms include, regular expression pattern [1], monadic second-order logic [2], µ-calculus [3], Core XPath [4], monadic Datalog [5], Boolean attribute grammar [6], etc. In this paper, we are interested in the space complexity of the n-ary queries defined by tree automata. An n-ary query over trees takes an input tree t and returns a set of n-tuples of the nodes of t. The number of elements in the answer set of an n-ary query may be as large as |t| n where |t| is the number of the nodes of t. Also, usually, storing a set of |t| n elements requires at least c|t| n space where c is the space required to store a single element (in this case, one n-tuple of nodes). The O(|t| n ) space consumption is unavoidable if the elements are chosen in a perfectly random manner; it is a well-known consequence from information theory. Note, however, we are interested in more practical, less random queries. Queries defined by tree automata have much more structure than random ones. By exploiting the structural characteristics of regular queries, we can represent the answer sets in some compressed form. Let us explain the idea by an example. Consider the regular query "select all pair of nodes (x, y) such that x is in the left subtree of the root node and y is in the right subtree of the root node" with the input tree t as in Figure 1 . Then the answer set consists of nine elements: {(, v 6 )}. Obviously, if an input tree has n nodes both in the left and the right subtrees, the size of the answer set will be n 2 , which is quadratic in the number 2n + 1 of the nodes. Our approach for avoiding the quadratic blow-up is to represent the answer set by a symbolic expression, instead of computing the concrete list of elements. For this example, we can represent the answer set by the expression {v 1 , v 2 , v 3 } × {v 4 , v 5 , v 6 } where × denotes the product of two sets. Counting the number of variables v i and the operator, the length of the expression is 7 instead of 9. Analogously, for the general case with n nodes in both the left and the right subtrees, the answer set can be represented by an expression of length 2n + 1, which consumes only linear space with respect to the size of the input tree. The contribution of our work is in establishing the expression-based compact representation as illustrated above. In fact, only two operators-· ∪ (disjoint union) and * (a slight variant of product)-are necessary for achieving the linear-size representation of the answer sets of regular queries. We show that for any fixed n-ary regular query and an input tree t, the answer set can always be represented by an expression on · ∪ and * with every leaf expression being a singleton set of an input node. By sharing common sub-expressions, such an expression can always be represented
doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2010.05.026 fatcat:d4jzttyhbnfttc7bgehteg3imu

Hemagglutination with Equine Arteritis Virus

Tomohiro KUBOTA, Yuji INABA, Kazuhiro UWATOKO, Hiroomi AKASHI, Yoshio FUKUNAGA
1997 Journal of Veterinary Medical Science  
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) grown on RK 13 cell cultures was tested for hemagglutination (HA) with erythrocytes from a variety of species at 4°C, room temperature and 37°C. HA was observed at all temperatures with erythrocytes from mouse and chicken but not with those of cattle, horse, rabbit, guinea pig, mongolian gerbil, goose or chick embryo. Chickens showed an individual variation in agglutinability of their erythrocytes, requiring selection of birds to obtain erythrocytes for HA. The HA
more » ... es for HA. The HA activity was enhanced by treatment of virus materials with Tween 80 followed by treatment with ether. The HA reaction was inhibited by specific antiserum. Higher HA-inhibiting (HI) antibody titers were obtained by the incubation of serum-HA antigen mixture at 4°C for 24 hr. HI antibody titers of individual horse sera showed a significant positive correlation with their neutralizing antibody titers. -KEY WORDS: equine arteritis virus, hemagglutination, hemagglutination-inhibition.
doi:10.1292/jvms.59.943 pmid:9362047 fatcat:it3yx4ezozgjzp3gurbanxjgj4

Toward Bidirectionalization of ATL with GRoundTram [chapter]

Isao Sasano, Zhenjiang Hu, Soichiro Hidaka, Kazuhiro Inaba, Hiroyuki Kato, Keisuke Nakano
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
ATL is a language for describing model transformations currently in uni-direction. In our previous work we have shown that transformations of graph structures given in some form can be bidirectionalized and have implemented a system called GRoundTram system for bidirectional graph transformations. We say a transformation t is bidirectionalized when we obtain a backward transformation t ′ so that the pair (t, t ′ ) of transformations satisfies certain wellbehavedness properties. Bidirectional
more » ... s. Bidirectional model transformation is used to reflect the changes in the target model back to the source model, and vice versa. In this paper, as a first step toward realizing practical bidirectional model transformations, we present bidirectionalization of core part of the ATL by encoding it in the UnQL language, which is used as a transformation language in the GRound-Tram system. We give the algorithm for the encoding, based on which we have implemented the system for bidirectionalizing the core ATL in OCaml language.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21732-6_10 fatcat:pufzh3ioyjcrtm2rsfcpyfgumu

Compact Representation for Answer Sets of n-ary Regular Queries [chapter]

Kazuhiro Inaba, Haruo Hosoya
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
An n-ary query over trees takes an input tree t and returns a set of n-tuples of the nodes of t. In this paper, a compact data structure is introduced for representing the answer sets of n-ary queries defined by tree automata. Despite that the number of the elements of the answer set can be as large as |t| n , our representation allows storing the set using only O(|t|) space. Several basic operations on the sets are shown to be efficiently executable on the representation. The finite state
more » ... e finite state automaton is a well-known model for representing properties for trees and strings. The class of queries definable by finite state automata is called regular and is widely used both in theory and in practice. A number of query formalisms are shown to be equivalent or subsumed by regular queries. Examples of such formalisms include, regular expression pattern [1], monadic second-order logic [2], µ-calculus [3], Core XPath [4], monadic Datalog [5], Boolean attribute grammar [6], etc. In this paper, we are interested in the space complexity of the n-ary queries defined by tree automata. An n-ary query over trees takes an input tree t and returns a set of n-tuples of the nodes of t. The number of elements in the answer set of an n-ary query may be as large as |t| n where |t| is the number of the nodes of t. Also, usually, storing a set of |t| n elements requires at least c|t| n space where c is the space required to store a single element (in this case, one n-tuple of nodes). The O(|t| n ) space consumption is unavoidable if the elements are chosen in a perfectly random manner; it is a well-known consequence from information theory. Note, however, we are interested in more practical, less random queries. Queries defined by tree automata have much more structure than random ones. By exploiting the structural characteristics of regular queries, we can represent the answer sets in some compressed form. Let us explain the idea by an example. Consider the regular query "select all pair of nodes (x, y) such that x is in the left subtree of the root node and y is in the right subtree of the root node" with the input tree t as in Figure 1 . Then the answer set consists of nine elements: {(, v 6 )}. Obviously, if an input tree has n nodes both in the left and the right subtrees, the size of the answer set will be n 2 , which is quadratic in the number 2n + 1 of the nodes. Our approach for avoiding the quadratic blow-up is to represent the answer set by a symbolic expression, instead of computing the concrete list of elements. For this example, we can represent the answer set by the expression {v 1 , v 2 , v 3 } × {v 4 , v 5 , v 6 } where × denotes the product of two sets. Counting the number of variables v i and the operator, the length of the expression is 7 instead of 9. Analogously, for the general case with n nodes in both the left and the right subtrees, the answer set can be represented by an expression of length 2n + 1, which consumes only linear space with respect to the size of the input tree. The contribution of our work is in establishing the expression-based compact representation as illustrated above. In fact, only two operators-· ∪ (disjoint union) and * (a slight variant of product)-are necessary for achieving the linear-size representation of the answer sets of regular queries. We show that for any fixed n-ary regular query and an input tree t, the answer set can always be represented by an expression on · ∪ and * with every leaf expression being a singleton set of an input node. By sharing common sub-expressions, such an expression can always be represented
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02979-0_13 fatcat:wyc4exggsbguxbmmjo4h4yzo6a

Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials

Shinya Okamoto, Kazuhiro Inaba, Takuya Iida, Hajime Ishihara, Satoshi Ichikawa, Masaaki Ashida
2014 Scientific Reports  
Microspheres with high sphericity exhibit unique functionalities. In particular, their high symmetry makes them excellent omnidirectional optical resonators. As such perfect micrometre-sized spheres are known to be formed by surface tension, melt cooling is a popular method for fabricating microspheres. However, it is extremely difficult to produce crystalline microspheres using this method because their surfaces are normally faceted. Only microspheres of polymers, glass, or ceramics have been
more » ... ceramics have been available, while single-crystalline microspheres, which should be useful in optical applications, have been awaiting successful production. Here we report the fabrication of single-crystalline semiconductor microspheres that have surfaces with atomic-level smoothness. These microspheres were formed by performing laser ablation in superfluid helium to create and moderately cool a melt of the anisotropic semiconductor material. This novel method provides cooling conditions that are exceptionally suited for the fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres. This finding opens a pathway for studying the hidden mechanism of anisotropy-free crystal growth and its applications. M icrocavities with high Q values and small mode volumes have attracted much attention because of their potential application in nonlinear optical devices or quantum optics 1 . Among these microcavities, whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators of microspheres provide the highest Q values when compared with other structures such as microdisks and Fabry-Perot cavities. Since the versatility of dye-doped polymers allows us to fabricate microspheres with high-sphericity, the production of WGMs by three-dimensional confinement have been intensively studied 2 . However, the available light frequency range is usually limited because of the difficulty in fabricating high-quality spheres with small size or high refractivity when using polymers. Even though the WGMs in semiconductor materials overcome this difficulty 3 , single-crystalline microspheres are extremely difficult to fabricate because faceted surfaces normally appear, reflecting the atomic arrangements. Recently, the pulsed heating method was invented to fabricate aggregated submicron-sized spheres of semiconductors and metals in large numbers 4 . This pioneering method is useful for efficient fabrication of many spherical particles with a narrow distribution of sizes. However, obtaining particles with high sphericity and micron sizes, which are crucial for optical purposes in highly efficient lasing and so on, remains a challenge. In the present study, we discovered single-crystalline micrometre-sized spheres of materials with anisotropic crystal structures that tend to grow in shapes with low symmetry, such as ZnO and CdSe, after laser ablation in superfluid helium. These microspheres possessed surfaces with atomic-level smoothness and stability in ambient condition. Furthermore, the microspheres showed very high sphericity, which means that melts of the material that were generated initially, whose shapes were determined by surface tension, were ideally cooled to grow in crystalline form, thus preserving the highly spherical shapes. Extreme conditions such as high pressure or high temperature are keys to fabricating novel materials 5 . Laser ablation in fluids, a method that involves both ultrahigh pressure and ultrahigh temperature, has been used to create new nanostructures 6 . Superfluid helium exhibits low temperatures, ultralow viscosity, high thermal conductivity, and good transparency in the visible region. It is also chemically inactive and can be used to provide a neutral environment for laser ablation 7,8 . Thus, we expect fabrication of unique structures to be feasible under such extreme conditions. We first tried the technique on anisotropic materials, whose nanostructures usually
doi:10.1038/srep05186 pmid:24898213 pmcid:PMC4046134 fatcat:gjdrbxv5hncsxp6tzi4bdbejb4

The Effect of Fume-Silica on Investment

Yasushi Nakazawa, Kazuhiro Mizukawa, Tadao Kudo, Seiko Mashita, Susumu Sato, Toshisuke Inaba
1968 Nihon Hotetsu Shika Gakkai Zasshi  
Tadao Kudo**, Seiko Mashita**, Susumu Sato** and Toshisuke Inaba** * Dept . of Prosthetic Dentistry, Nihon Univer- sity School of Dentistry.(Chief: Prof.  ... 
doi:10.2186/jjps.12.431 fatcat:55ptbzrkhfcpzlfei4c5j7l4dq

Hemagglutination with Crane Herpesvirus

Kazuhiro UWATOKO, Yuji INABA, Takashi SASAKI, Yoshitaka SANO, In-Jen PAN, Hiroshi SUZUKI, Shigeo YAMAGUCHI, Toshiaki TANIGUCHI
1998 Journal of Veterinary Medical Science  
A crane herpesvirus (CrHV) grown in chickn embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells was tested for hemagglutination (HA) with erythrocytes from a variety of species at 4°C, room temperature and 37°C. HA was observed at all temperatures with erythrocytes from mouse, ddY and BALB/c strains, but not with those from cattle, sheep and chicken. Mice, ddY strain, showed an individual variation in agglutinability of their erythrocytes and erythrocytes from BALB/c gave a higher HA titer. The HA activity was
more » ... activity was inhibited by the sera obtained from naturally infected cranes, experimentally infected duck and immunized rabbit with CrHV. HI antibody titers of these sera showed a closely positive correlation with their neutralizing antibody titers. -KEY WORDS: crane herpesvirus, hemagglutination, hemagglutination-inhibition.
doi:10.1292/jvms.60.539 pmid:9592733 fatcat:lvdabsrr4zcw7g5qoh2fbsyxeq

Marker-Directed Optimization of UnCAL Graph Transformations [chapter]

Soichiro Hidaka, Zhenjiang Hu, Kazuhiro Inaba, Hiroyuki Kato, Kazutaka Matsuda, Keisuke Nakano, Isao Sasano
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Buneman et al. proposed a graph algebra called UnCAL (Unstructured CALculus) for compositional graph transformations based on structural recursion, and we have recently applied to model transformations. The compositional nature of the algebra greatly enhances the modularity of transformations. However, intermediate results generated between composed transformations cause overhead. Buneman et al. proposed fusion rules that eliminate the intermediate results, but auxiliary rewriting rules that
more » ... iting rules that enable the actual application of the fusion rules are not apparent so far. UnCAL graph model includes the concept of markers, which correspond to recursive function call in the structural recursion. We have found that there are many optimization opportunities at rewriting level based on static analysis, especially focusing on markers. The analysis can safely eliminate redundant function calls. Performance evaluation shows its practical effectiveness for non-trivial examples in model transformations.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32211-2_9 fatcat:m5ce2ttaujbw7e5cwiffjiiydu

The Complexity of Tree Transducer Output Languages

Kazuhiro Inaba, Sebastian Maneth, Marc Herbstritt
2008 Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science  
Two complexity results are shown for the output languages generated by compositions of macro tree transducers. They are in NSPACE(n) and hence are context-sensitive, and the class is NP-complete.
doi:10.4230/lipics.fsttcs.2008.1757 dblp:conf/fsttcs/InabaM08 fatcat:zvz3suwthfhqjnhsy3jgwyaucm

Bidirectionalizing graph transformations

Soichiro Hidaka, Zhenjiang Hu, Kazuhiro Inaba, Hiroyuki Kato, Kazutaka Matsuda, Keisuke Nakano
2010 Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming - ICFP '10  
Bidirectional transformations provide a novel mechanism for synchronizing and maintaining the consistency of information between input and output. Despite many promising results on bidirectional transformations, these have been limited to the context of relational or XML (tree-like) databases. We challenge the problem of bidirectional transformations within the context of graphs, by proposing a formal definition of a well-behaved bidirectional semantics for UnCAL, i.e., a graph algebra for the
more » ... ph algebra for the known UnQL graph query language. The key to our successful formalization is full utilization of both the recursive and bulk semantics of structural recursion on graphs. We carefully refine the existing forward evaluation of structural recursion so that it can produce sufficient trace information for later backward evaluation. We use the trace information for backward evaluation to reflect in-place updates and deletions on the view to the source, and adopt the universal resolving algorithm for inverse computation and the narrowing technique to tackle the difficult problem with insertion. We prove our bidirectional evaluation is well-behaved. Our current implementation is available online and confirms the usefulness of our approach with nontrivial applications. Keywords bidirectional transformation, view updating, graph query and transformation, structural recursion † † The same notion is called driving (Glück and Klimov 1993; Glück and Sørensen 1994) in (Abramov and Glück 2002) .
doi:10.1145/1863543.1863573 dblp:conf/icfp/HidakaHIKMN10 fatcat:towkjjz2fvchji45qam2rcy76y

GRoundTram: An integrated framework for developing well-behaved bidirectional model transformations

Soichiro HIDAKA, Zhenjiang HU, Kazuhiro INABA, Hiroyuki KATO, Keisuke NAKANO
2013 Progress in Informatics  
Bidirectional model transformation is useful for maintaining consistency between two models, and has many potential applications in software development including model synchronization, round-trip engineering, and software evolution. Despite these attractive uses, the lack of a practical tool support for systematic development of well-behaved and efficient bidirectional model transformation prevents it from being widely used. In this paper, we solve this problem by proposing an integrated
more » ... an integrated framework called GRoundTram, which is carefully designed and implemented for compositional development of well-behaved and efficient bidirectional model transformations. GRoundTram is built upon a well-founded bidirectional framework, and is equipped with a user-friendly language for coding bidirectional model transformation, a new tool for validating both models and bidirectional model transformations, an optimization mechanism for improving efficiency, and a powerful debugging environment for testing bidirectional behavior. GRoundTram has been used by people of other groups and their results show its usefulness in practice.
doi:10.2201/niipi.2013.10.7 fatcat:eswkuhlov5h4tausieayjs24fm
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