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The Complexity of Translation Membership for Macro Tree Transducers
[article]

2009
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

Macro tree transducers (mtts) are a useful formal model for XML query and transformation languages. In this paper one of the fundamental decision problems on translations, namely the "translation membership problem" is studied for mtts. For a fixed translation, the translation membership problem asks whether a given input/output pair is element of the translation. For call-by-name mtts this problem is shown to be NP-complete. The main result is that translation membership for call-by-value mtts

arXiv:0910.2315v1
fatcat:kj4456duwzhnlpqz3mtx6sqdqu
## more »

... call-by-value mtts is in polynomial time. For several extensions, such as addition of regular look-ahead or the generalization to multi-return mtts, it is shown that translation membership still remains in PTIME.##
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Bidirectionalizing graph transformations

2010
*
SIGPLAN notices
*

Bidirectional transformations provide a novel mechanism for synchronizing and maintaining the consistency of information between input and output. Despite many promising results on bidirectional transformations, these have been limited to the context of relational or XML (tree-like) databases. We challenge the problem of bidirectional transformations within the context of graphs, by proposing a formal definition of a well-behaved bidirectional semantics for UnCAL, i.e., a graph algebra for the

doi:10.1145/1932681.1863573
fatcat:luhkqdfnljglbm3pkztihcnini
## more »

... ph algebra for the known UnQL graph query language. The key to our successful formalization is full utilization of both the recursive and bulk semantics of structural recursion on graphs. We carefully refine the existing forward evaluation of structural recursion so that it can produce sufficient trace information for later backward evaluation. We use the trace information for backward evaluation to reflect in-place updates and deletions on the view to the source, and adopt the universal resolving algorithm for inverse computation and the narrowing technique to tackle the difficult problem with insertion. We prove our bidirectional evaluation is well-behaved. Our current implementation is available online and confirms the usefulness of our approach with nontrivial applications. Keywords bidirectional transformation, view updating, graph query and transformation, structural recursion † † The same notion is called driving (Glück and Klimov 1993; Glück and Sørensen 1994) in (Abramov and Glück 2002) .##
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Understanding Action Sequences based on Video Captioning for Learning-from-Observation
[article]

2020
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

2
Naoki
Wake,

arXiv:2101.05061v1
fatcat:mv7k3ndpsnfuppbbukzer3hmxi
*Kazuhiro*Sasabuchi and Katsushi Ikeuchi are with Applied Robotics Research, Mi- crosoft, TABLE I : I K-fold cross-validation result of video captioning [31] on our dataset ... Method 0.5 0.75 0.95 Uniform sampling 0.5 0.15 0.01 0.00 Velocity-based splitting (ours) 0.59 0.57 0.56 Iori Yanokura and Masayuki*Inaba*are with Department of MechanoInformatics, University ...##
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Unsafe Order-2 Tree Languages Are Context-Sensitive
[chapter]

2014
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

To show that,

doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54830-7_10
fatcat:vcf7ueu5wzbqvjucwk3mci6ufe
*Inaba*and Maneth decomposed higher-order (safe) transducers (whose image is the set of higher-order safe languages) into macro tree transducers, and transformed the transducers so that the ... implies that the word languages generated by order-3 grammars are context-sensitive. 1 Our techniques to prove the context-sensitiveness of order-2 tree languages are quite different from those used in*Inaba*...##
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Compact representation for answer sets of n-ary regular queries

2010
*
Theoretical Computer Science
*

An n-ary query over trees takes an input tree t and returns a set of n-tuples of the nodes of t. In this paper, a compact data structure is introduced for representing the answer sets of n-ary queries defined by tree automata. Despite that the number of the elements of the answer set can be as large as |t| n , our representation allows storing the set using only O(|t|) space. Several basic operations on the sets are shown to be efficiently executable on the representation. The finite state

doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2010.05.026
fatcat:d4jzttyhbnfttc7bgehteg3imu
## more »

... e finite state automaton is a well-known model for representing properties for trees and strings. The class of queries definable by finite state automata is called regular and is widely used both in theory and in practice. A number of query formalisms are shown to be equivalent or subsumed by regular queries. Examples of such formalisms include, regular expression pattern [1], monadic second-order logic [2], µ-calculus [3], Core XPath [4], monadic Datalog [5], Boolean attribute grammar [6], etc. In this paper, we are interested in the space complexity of the n-ary queries defined by tree automata. An n-ary query over trees takes an input tree t and returns a set of n-tuples of the nodes of t. The number of elements in the answer set of an n-ary query may be as large as |t| n where |t| is the number of the nodes of t. Also, usually, storing a set of |t| n elements requires at least c|t| n space where c is the space required to store a single element (in this case, one n-tuple of nodes). The O(|t| n ) space consumption is unavoidable if the elements are chosen in a perfectly random manner; it is a well-known consequence from information theory. Note, however, we are interested in more practical, less random queries. Queries defined by tree automata have much more structure than random ones. By exploiting the structural characteristics of regular queries, we can represent the answer sets in some compressed form. Let us explain the idea by an example. Consider the regular query "select all pair of nodes (x, y) such that x is in the left subtree of the root node and y is in the right subtree of the root node" with the input tree t as in Figure 1 . Then the answer set consists of nine elements: {(, v 6 )}. Obviously, if an input tree has n nodes both in the left and the right subtrees, the size of the answer set will be n 2 , which is quadratic in the number 2n + 1 of the nodes. Our approach for avoiding the quadratic blow-up is to represent the answer set by a symbolic expression, instead of computing the concrete list of elements. For this example, we can represent the answer set by the expression {v 1 , v 2 , v 3 } × {v 4 , v 5 , v 6 } where × denotes the product of two sets. Counting the number of variables v i and the operator, the length of the expression is 7 instead of 9. Analogously, for the general case with n nodes in both the left and the right subtrees, the answer set can be represented by an expression of length 2n + 1, which consumes only linear space with respect to the size of the input tree. The contribution of our work is in establishing the expression-based compact representation as illustrated above. In fact, only two operators-· ∪ (disjoint union) and * (a slight variant of product)-are necessary for achieving the linear-size representation of the answer sets of regular queries. We show that for any fixed n-ary regular query and an input tree t, the answer set can always be represented by an expression on · ∪ and * with every leaf expression being a singleton set of an input node. By sharing common sub-expressions, such an expression can always be represented##
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Hemagglutination with Equine Arteritis Virus

1997
*
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
*

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) grown on RK 13 cell cultures was tested for hemagglutination (HA) with erythrocytes from a variety of species at 4°C, room temperature and 37°C. HA was observed at all temperatures with erythrocytes from mouse and chicken but not with those of cattle, horse, rabbit, guinea pig, mongolian gerbil, goose or chick embryo. Chickens showed an individual variation in agglutinability of their erythrocytes, requiring selection of birds to obtain erythrocytes for HA. The HA

doi:10.1292/jvms.59.943
pmid:9362047
fatcat:it3yx4ezozgjzp3gurbanxjgj4
## more »

... es for HA. The HA activity was enhanced by treatment of virus materials with Tween 80 followed by treatment with ether. The HA reaction was inhibited by specific antiserum. Higher HA-inhibiting (HI) antibody titers were obtained by the incubation of serum-HA antigen mixture at 4°C for 24 hr. HI antibody titers of individual horse sera showed a significant positive correlation with their neutralizing antibody titers. -KEY WORDS: equine arteritis virus, hemagglutination, hemagglutination-inhibition.##
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Toward Bidirectionalization of ATL with GRoundTram
[chapter]

2011
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

ATL is a language for describing model transformations currently in uni-direction. In our previous work we have shown that transformations of graph structures given in some form can be bidirectionalized and have implemented a system called GRoundTram system for bidirectional graph transformations. We say a transformation t is bidirectionalized when we obtain a backward transformation t ′ so that the pair (t, t ′ ) of transformations satisfies certain wellbehavedness properties. Bidirectional

doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21732-6_10
fatcat:pufzh3ioyjcrtm2rsfcpyfgumu
## more »

... s. Bidirectional model transformation is used to reflect the changes in the target model back to the source model, and vice versa. In this paper, as a first step toward realizing practical bidirectional model transformations, we present bidirectionalization of core part of the ATL by encoding it in the UnQL language, which is used as a transformation language in the GRound-Tram system. We give the algorithm for the encoding, based on which we have implemented the system for bidirectionalizing the core ATL in OCaml language.##
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Compact Representation for Answer Sets of n-ary Regular Queries
[chapter]

2009
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

An n-ary query over trees takes an input tree t and returns a set of n-tuples of the nodes of t. In this paper, a compact data structure is introduced for representing the answer sets of n-ary queries defined by tree automata. Despite that the number of the elements of the answer set can be as large as |t| n , our representation allows storing the set using only O(|t|) space. Several basic operations on the sets are shown to be efficiently executable on the representation. The finite state

doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02979-0_13
fatcat:wyc4exggsbguxbmmjo4h4yzo6a
## more »

... e finite state automaton is a well-known model for representing properties for trees and strings. The class of queries definable by finite state automata is called regular and is widely used both in theory and in practice. A number of query formalisms are shown to be equivalent or subsumed by regular queries. Examples of such formalisms include, regular expression pattern [1], monadic second-order logic [2], µ-calculus [3], Core XPath [4], monadic Datalog [5], Boolean attribute grammar [6], etc. In this paper, we are interested in the space complexity of the n-ary queries defined by tree automata. An n-ary query over trees takes an input tree t and returns a set of n-tuples of the nodes of t. The number of elements in the answer set of an n-ary query may be as large as |t| n where |t| is the number of the nodes of t. Also, usually, storing a set of |t| n elements requires at least c|t| n space where c is the space required to store a single element (in this case, one n-tuple of nodes). The O(|t| n ) space consumption is unavoidable if the elements are chosen in a perfectly random manner; it is a well-known consequence from information theory. Note, however, we are interested in more practical, less random queries. Queries defined by tree automata have much more structure than random ones. By exploiting the structural characteristics of regular queries, we can represent the answer sets in some compressed form. Let us explain the idea by an example. Consider the regular query "select all pair of nodes (x, y) such that x is in the left subtree of the root node and y is in the right subtree of the root node" with the input tree t as in Figure 1 . Then the answer set consists of nine elements: {(, v 6 )}. Obviously, if an input tree has n nodes both in the left and the right subtrees, the size of the answer set will be n 2 , which is quadratic in the number 2n + 1 of the nodes. Our approach for avoiding the quadratic blow-up is to represent the answer set by a symbolic expression, instead of computing the concrete list of elements. For this example, we can represent the answer set by the expression {v 1 , v 2 , v 3 } × {v 4 , v 5 , v 6 } where × denotes the product of two sets. Counting the number of variables v i and the operator, the length of the expression is 7 instead of 9. Analogously, for the general case with n nodes in both the left and the right subtrees, the answer set can be represented by an expression of length 2n + 1, which consumes only linear space with respect to the size of the input tree. The contribution of our work is in establishing the expression-based compact representation as illustrated above. In fact, only two operators-· ∪ (disjoint union) and * (a slight variant of product)-are necessary for achieving the linear-size representation of the answer sets of regular queries. We show that for any fixed n-ary regular query and an input tree t, the answer set can always be represented by an expression on · ∪ and * with every leaf expression being a singleton set of an input node. By sharing common sub-expressions, such an expression can always be represented##
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Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials

2014
*
Scientific Reports
*

Microspheres with high sphericity exhibit unique functionalities. In particular, their high symmetry makes them excellent omnidirectional optical resonators. As such perfect micrometre-sized spheres are known to be formed by surface tension, melt cooling is a popular method for fabricating microspheres. However, it is extremely difficult to produce crystalline microspheres using this method because their surfaces are normally faceted. Only microspheres of polymers, glass, or ceramics have been

doi:10.1038/srep05186
pmid:24898213
pmcid:PMC4046134
fatcat:gjdrbxv5hncsxp6tzi4bdbejb4
## more »

... ceramics have been available, while single-crystalline microspheres, which should be useful in optical applications, have been awaiting successful production. Here we report the fabrication of single-crystalline semiconductor microspheres that have surfaces with atomic-level smoothness. These microspheres were formed by performing laser ablation in superfluid helium to create and moderately cool a melt of the anisotropic semiconductor material. This novel method provides cooling conditions that are exceptionally suited for the fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres. This finding opens a pathway for studying the hidden mechanism of anisotropy-free crystal growth and its applications. M icrocavities with high Q values and small mode volumes have attracted much attention because of their potential application in nonlinear optical devices or quantum optics 1 . Among these microcavities, whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators of microspheres provide the highest Q values when compared with other structures such as microdisks and Fabry-Perot cavities. Since the versatility of dye-doped polymers allows us to fabricate microspheres with high-sphericity, the production of WGMs by three-dimensional confinement have been intensively studied 2 . However, the available light frequency range is usually limited because of the difficulty in fabricating high-quality spheres with small size or high refractivity when using polymers. Even though the WGMs in semiconductor materials overcome this difficulty 3 , single-crystalline microspheres are extremely difficult to fabricate because faceted surfaces normally appear, reflecting the atomic arrangements. Recently, the pulsed heating method was invented to fabricate aggregated submicron-sized spheres of semiconductors and metals in large numbers 4 . This pioneering method is useful for efficient fabrication of many spherical particles with a narrow distribution of sizes. However, obtaining particles with high sphericity and micron sizes, which are crucial for optical purposes in highly efficient lasing and so on, remains a challenge. In the present study, we discovered single-crystalline micrometre-sized spheres of materials with anisotropic crystal structures that tend to grow in shapes with low symmetry, such as ZnO and CdSe, after laser ablation in superfluid helium. These microspheres possessed surfaces with atomic-level smoothness and stability in ambient condition. Furthermore, the microspheres showed very high sphericity, which means that melts of the material that were generated initially, whose shapes were determined by surface tension, were ideally cooled to grow in crystalline form, thus preserving the highly spherical shapes. Extreme conditions such as high pressure or high temperature are keys to fabricating novel materials 5 . Laser ablation in fluids, a method that involves both ultrahigh pressure and ultrahigh temperature, has been used to create new nanostructures 6 . Superfluid helium exhibits low temperatures, ultralow viscosity, high thermal conductivity, and good transparency in the visible region. It is also chemically inactive and can be used to provide a neutral environment for laser ablation 7,8 . Thus, we expect fabrication of unique structures to be feasible under such extreme conditions. We first tried the technique on anisotropic materials, whose nanostructures usually##
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The Effect of Fume-Silica on Investment

1968
*
Nihon Hotetsu Shika Gakkai Zasshi
*

Tadao Kudo**, Seiko Mashita**,
Susumu Sato** and Toshisuke

doi:10.2186/jjps.12.431
fatcat:55ptbzrkhfcpzlfei4c5j7l4dq
*Inaba*** * Dept . of Prosthetic Dentistry, Nihon Univer- sity School of Dentistry.(Chief: Prof. ...##
###
Hemagglutination with Crane Herpesvirus

1998
*
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
*

A crane herpesvirus (CrHV) grown in chickn embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells was tested for hemagglutination (HA) with erythrocytes from a variety of species at 4°C, room temperature and 37°C. HA was observed at all temperatures with erythrocytes from mouse, ddY and BALB/c strains, but not with those from cattle, sheep and chicken. Mice, ddY strain, showed an individual variation in agglutinability of their erythrocytes and erythrocytes from BALB/c gave a higher HA titer. The HA activity was

doi:10.1292/jvms.60.539
pmid:9592733
fatcat:lvdabsrr4zcw7g5qoh2fbsyxeq
## more »

... activity was inhibited by the sera obtained from naturally infected cranes, experimentally infected duck and immunized rabbit with CrHV. HI antibody titers of these sera showed a closely positive correlation with their neutralizing antibody titers. -KEY WORDS: crane herpesvirus, hemagglutination, hemagglutination-inhibition.##
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Marker-Directed Optimization of UnCAL Graph Transformations
[chapter]

2012
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

Buneman et al. proposed a graph algebra called UnCAL (Unstructured CALculus) for compositional graph transformations based on structural recursion, and we have recently applied to model transformations. The compositional nature of the algebra greatly enhances the modularity of transformations. However, intermediate results generated between composed transformations cause overhead. Buneman et al. proposed fusion rules that eliminate the intermediate results, but auxiliary rewriting rules that

doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32211-2_9
fatcat:m5ce2ttaujbw7e5cwiffjiiydu
## more »

... iting rules that enable the actual application of the fusion rules are not apparent so far. UnCAL graph model includes the concept of markers, which correspond to recursive function call in the structural recursion. We have found that there are many optimization opportunities at rewriting level based on static analysis, especially focusing on markers. The analysis can safely eliminate redundant function calls. Performance evaluation shows its practical effectiveness for non-trivial examples in model transformations.##
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The Complexity of Tree Transducer Output Languages

2008
*
Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science
*

Two complexity results are shown for the output languages generated by compositions of macro tree transducers. They are in NSPACE(n) and hence are context-sensitive, and the class is NP-complete.

doi:10.4230/lipics.fsttcs.2008.1757
dblp:conf/fsttcs/InabaM08
fatcat:zvz3suwthfhqjnhsy3jgwyaucm
##
###
Bidirectionalizing graph transformations

2010
*
Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming - ICFP '10
*

Bidirectional transformations provide a novel mechanism for synchronizing and maintaining the consistency of information between input and output. Despite many promising results on bidirectional transformations, these have been limited to the context of relational or XML (tree-like) databases. We challenge the problem of bidirectional transformations within the context of graphs, by proposing a formal definition of a well-behaved bidirectional semantics for UnCAL, i.e., a graph algebra for the

doi:10.1145/1863543.1863573
dblp:conf/icfp/HidakaHIKMN10
fatcat:towkjjz2fvchji45qam2rcy76y
## more »

... ph algebra for the known UnQL graph query language. The key to our successful formalization is full utilization of both the recursive and bulk semantics of structural recursion on graphs. We carefully refine the existing forward evaluation of structural recursion so that it can produce sufficient trace information for later backward evaluation. We use the trace information for backward evaluation to reflect in-place updates and deletions on the view to the source, and adopt the universal resolving algorithm for inverse computation and the narrowing technique to tackle the difficult problem with insertion. We prove our bidirectional evaluation is well-behaved. Our current implementation is available online and confirms the usefulness of our approach with nontrivial applications. Keywords bidirectional transformation, view updating, graph query and transformation, structural recursion † † The same notion is called driving (Glück and Klimov 1993; Glück and Sørensen 1994) in (Abramov and Glück 2002) .##
###
GRoundTram: An integrated framework for developing well-behaved bidirectional model transformations

2013
*
Progress in Informatics
*

Bidirectional model transformation is useful for maintaining consistency between two models, and has many potential applications in software development including model synchronization, round-trip engineering, and software evolution. Despite these attractive uses, the lack of a practical tool support for systematic development of well-behaved and efficient bidirectional model transformation prevents it from being widely used. In this paper, we solve this problem by proposing an integrated

doi:10.2201/niipi.2013.10.7
fatcat:eswkuhlov5h4tausieayjs24fm
## more »

... an integrated framework called GRoundTram, which is carefully designed and implemented for compositional development of well-behaved and efficient bidirectional model transformations. GRoundTram is built upon a well-founded bidirectional framework, and is equipped with a user-friendly language for coding bidirectional model transformation, a new tool for validating both models and bidirectional model transformations, an optimization mechanism for improving efficiency, and a powerful debugging environment for testing bidirectional behavior. GRoundTram has been used by people of other groups and their results show its usefulness in practice.
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