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Towards a New Step of Logic Paradigm [chapter]

Kazuhiro FUCHI
1990 Deductive and Object-Oriented Databases  
Deductive and Object-Oriented Databases W. Kim, J.-M. Nicolas, and S. Nishio (Editors) It is desirable to answer queries posed to deductive databases by computing fixpoints because such computations are directly amenable to set-oriented fact processing. However, the classical fixpoint procedures based on bottom-up reasoning -the naive and semi-naive methods -are rather primitive and often inefficient. In this article, we rely on bottom-up meta-interpretation for formalizing a new fixpoint
more » ... ure that performs a different kind of reasoning: We specify a top-down query answering method, which we call the Backward Fixpoint Procedure. Then, we reconsider query evaluation methods for recursive databases. First, we show that the methods based on rewriting on the one hand, and on resolution on the other hand, implement the Backward Fixpoint Procedure. Second, we interpret the rewriting of the Alexander and Magic Set methods as a specialization of the Backward Fixpoint Procedure. Finally, we argue that this rewriting is also needed for implementing efficiently the resolution-based methods. Thus, the methods based on rewriting and the methods based on resolution implement the same top-down evaluation of the original database rules by means of auxiliary rules processed bottom-up. The naive and semi-naive methods are based on rather primitive deduction techniques and are often inefficient. Indeed, both methods perform forward reasoning, i.e., they proceed bottom-up from the database rules and facts. Therefore, they do not use the constants occurring in the queries for restricting the search space. In contrast, such a restriction is a byproduct of backward -or top-down -reasoning. The rewriting of the Alexander [RLK 86] and Magic Set [BMSU 86, BR 87] methods aims at achieving the same restriction on the search space with bottom-up reasoning. 26 In this paper, we show that it is possible to keep the advantages of processing queries through fixpoint computations, without necessarily sticking to the basic principle of the naive and semi-naive methods. We specify a new fixpoint query answering procedure, the 'Backward Fixpoint Procedure', which is based on top-down -or backward -reasoning. In other words, we apply fixpoint theory to databases with another operator than the classical immediate consequence operator of van Emden and Kowalski. The Backward Fixpoint Procedure is a sound and complete query answering method for recursive databases. We rely on bottom-up meta-interpretation for formalizing the Backward Fixpoint Procedure, i.e., we specify a top-down evaluation of the database rules in a meta-language by means of rules intended for bottom-up processing. Meta-interpretation is a technique commonly used in Functional and Logic Programming. As we show below, bottom-up metainterpretation permits one to obtain a surprisingly simple specification for the Backward Fixpoint Procedure. Then, we reconsider evaluation methods for recursive databases from the viewpoint of fixpoint computation. Several methods have been proposed for evaluating queries on recursive databases. Those that ensure termination on all recursive databases defining finitely many facts -e.g., function-free databases -follow one or the other of two approaches. The methods of the first type rewrite the database rules and process the rewritten rules bottom- up. The Alexander [RLK 86] and Magic Set [BMSU 86, BR 87] methods are based on this principle. The second approach is an extension of SLD-Resolution [LLO 87] that consists of storing the encountered queries and the proven answers. The ET* and ET mt algorithms [DIE 87], OLDT-Resolution [TS 86], QSQ and SLDAL-Resolution [VIE 87], and the RQA/FQI procedure [NEJ 87], are methods of the second type. We investigate both types of methods. We show that the methods based on rewriting as well as the methods based on resolution implement the Backward Fixpoint Procedure. In other words, they express the same top-down reasoning principle in different formalisms. Similarities between rewriting-based and resolution-based methods were already observed by many authors. In particular, Beeri and Ramakrishnan showed in [BR 87] that the same strategies -called 'sideway information passing strategies' -can be applied to optimize both types of methods. Moreover, Ramakrishnan noticed in [RAM 88] that the same propagation of constants is possible with rewriting-based and resolution-based methods. This point was investigated more formally by Ullman in [ULL 89]. Commonalities in the inferences of both types of methods were often cited -e.g., in [DR 86, BEE 89, VIE 89]. Recently, Seki established a one-to-one mapping between the inferences performed by methods of both types [SEK 89 ]. These observations and results are precursors of the study we present here. Examining efficient implementations of the Backward Fixpoint Procedure, we investigate a technique called specialization. Specializing meta-interpreters is a classical way of obtaining efficient procedures from formal specifications. We show that the rewriting of the Alexander and Magic Set methods can be interpreted as a specialization of the Backward Fixpoint Procedure. We argue that this rewriting is also needed in efficient implementations of resolution-based methods. This motivates features of the implementation of SLDAL-Resolution which is reported in [LV 89]. Thus, efficient implementations of methods of both kinds have to rely on the same rewriting of the database rules and to process the rewritten rules bottom-up. Relying on the meta-interpreter for the Backward Fixpoint Procedure, we give in [BRY 89] simple soundness and completeness proofs for the Alexander and Magic Set methods, and for the ET* and ET interp algorithms, OLDT-Resolution, QSQ and SLDAL-Resolution, and the RQA/FQI procedure. Thus, bottom-up meta-interpretation appears to be a useful formalism for theoretical investigations of query answering procedures. Corollary 7.1: The algorithms ET* and ET interp , OLDT-Resolution, QSQ, SLDAL-Resolution, and the RQA/FQI procedure are sound and complete query answering methods for (possibly recursive) Horn databases. They are terminating query answering methods for databases defining finitely many facts -e.g., function-free databases. The fixpoint formalism is useful to understand the differences between some resolutionbased methods. In this formalism, the resolution-based methods are viewed as computing a fixpoint on answers and queries. In [DIE 87] an incomplete algorithm, called ET, is considered for defining the complete methods ET* and ET interp . The algorithm ET corresponds to the procedure QSQ as it is defined in [VIE 86] -QSQ is corrected in [NEJ 87] and [VIE 87]. The reason for incompleteness is that queries are generated only during the first round. During the subsequent rounds, the fixpoint is performed on answers only. Completeness requires treating answers and queries similarly, i.e., computing a fixpoint on both answers and queries.
doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-88433-6.50008-3 fatcat:jgqxvfczlvgargtfqxaz6engrm

Placental Blood Flow in Pregnant SHRSP

Isao Fuchi, Kiichiro Noda, Yoshiharu Matsubara, Kazuhiro Noguchi, Kazuo Ueda, Toshiaki Sano
1982 Japanese Heart Journal  
Isao Fuchi, Kiichiro Noda*, Yoshiharu Matsubara**, Kazuhiro Noguchi**, Kazuo Ueda** and Toshiaki Sano**. *Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.  ... 
doi:10.1536/ihj.23.403 fatcat:k7i22aoccbcxxbvx53xwukknfu

Studies on Intrauterine Growth Retardation

Isao Fuchi, Kiichiro Noda, Yoshiharu Matsubara, Kazuhiro Noguchi, Kazuo Ueda, Toshiaki Sano, Kenji Sonoda
1983 Japanese Heart Journal  
doi:10.1536/ihj.24.809 fatcat:hpd3kewjzff27knb67r4f7kh4m

逆対称声道関数と母音特徴抽出
Antimetrical vocal tract area functions and vowel feature extraction

Kozo Ohta, Kazuhiro Fuchi
1983 Acoustical Science and Technology  
. ** Kozo Ohta ( Electrotechnical Laboratory , Ibaraki , 305) 紳 * Kazuhiro Fuchi ( Insしitute for New Generation Three types of vocal tract functions, ( a ) vQcal tract functions esUmated by adaptive  ... 
doi:10.20697/jasj.39.3_173 fatcat:mkijnhsparbazp3uwqpw3nxc7u

Software of Industrial Process Computers
制御用計算機のソフトウェア

Kazuhiro FUCHI
1973 Journal of The Society of Instrument and Control Engineers  
doi:10.11499/sicejl1962.12.819 fatcat:pckcqwgjfjc7dezrq3hyyojrbe

Primary Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Performed for Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Patient With Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Toshikazu Fuchi, Takao Kondo, Kazuhiro Sase, Mamoru Takahashi
1999 Japanese Circulation Journal - English Edition  
. , MD; Takao Kondo, MD; Kazuhiro Sase, MD; Mamoru Takahashi, MD A 72-year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) complained of severe chest pain.  ...  63: 133 -136 (Received August 12, 1998; revised manuscript received October 8, 1998; accepted October 14, 1998) Division of Cardiology, Shimabara Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Mailing address: Toshikazu Fuchi  ... 
doi:10.1253/jcj.63.133 pmid:10084377 fatcat:ughbcotf65achlq3hvsn57eo44

Status of Computer Tools for AI Applications(Introduction,the Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Machine Industries)
AIの応用とコンピュータ技術(総論,<特集>機械工業におけるAI応用)

Kazuhiro FUCHI
1986 Journal of the Society of Mechanical Engineers  
doi:10.1299/jsmemag.89.815_1119 fatcat:q2rt3iqq3fgphgw3kv4yltp3sm

Logic Programming
ロジックプログラミング

Kazuhiro FUCHI
Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence  
doi:10.11517/jjsai.9.2_233 fatcat:6qankrq6j5c77fk23x66foyoca

Page 59 of The East Vol. 21, Issue 4 [page]

1985 The East  
Fuchi Kazuhiro—long involved in com- puter development at the Elec- trical Laboratory of the Agency of Industrial Science and Tech- nology, the Ministry of Interna- tional Trade and Industry (MIT1)— and  ...  Fuchi is now director of ICOT.  ... 

A view of the Fifth Generation and its impact [chapter]

D H D Warren
1983 The Fifth Generation Computer Project  
The general technical content of the plan seems to be largely due to people at ETL and, in particular, to Kazuhiro Fuchi.  ...  To obtain the answers, one has to turn t,o Kazuhiro Fuchi's paper "Aiming for Knowledge Information Processing Systems" (Fuchi, 1981) in the full proceedings of the Fiflh Generation Conference.  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-028572-6.50017-1 fatcat:zo6dsmzftvhkjjd5dfkjzht7qq

Artificial Intelligence and Japan's Fifth Generation

Colin Garvey
2019 Pacific Historical Review  
Kazuhiro Fuchi, "The Direction the FGCS Project Will Take," New Generation Computing 1, no. 1 (1983): 7. 85.  ...  Three subcommittees, on Basic Theory, Computer Architecture, and Social Impacts, were led by computer researchers Kazuhiro Fuchi, who would go on to become director of the project; Hideo Aiso, Fuchi's  ...  was ascendant-except in Japan, whose state-led miracle-cum-bubble economy had collapsed. 179 In the information society of the 1990s, Fuchi and his team of researchers at ICOT had to endure the indignity  ... 
doi:10.1525/phr.2019.88.4.619 fatcat:nbcloisdrjelvbp7nsrq3ifgdy

Page 95 of None Vol. 4, Issue 7 [page]

1983 None  
Inside, a group of 40 handpicked young men and their hard-driving di- rector, Kazuhiro Fuchi, pursue re- search on a revolutionary, and perhaps recklessly audacious, computer proj- ect.  ... 

Preface

Minoru Kanehisa
1993 Genome Informatics Series  
Fifty papers were presented including keynote addresses by Kazuhiro Fuchi (ICOT) and Minoru Kanehisa (Kyoto University) and invited lectures by Ross Overbeek (Argonne National Laboratory), Yoshiyuki Sakaki  ... 
doi:10.11234/gi1990.4.v fatcat:mxqoqo6j7fdedkompvog7kvueu

Japanese computers: Fifth-generation machines here

Alun Anderson
1984 Nature  
ICOT's visionary director, Kazuhiro Fuchi, sees the predicate logic they use, established by Godel in the 1930s, as the key to building knowledge information processing systems.  ... 
doi:10.1038/309198a0 fatcat:oox74fqtzfee7nmxusylm2h53u

Page 1240 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 82c [page]

1982 Mathematical Reviews  
Tanaka, Information space model (pp. 104-130); Morio Nagata, Interactive debugging for functional recursive programming (pp. 131-169); Shigeki Goto, DURAL: an extended prolog language (pp. 170-189); Kazuhiro  ...  Fuchi, On Montague logic (Japanese) (pp. 190-198); Hajime Sawamura, Intensional logic as a basis of algorithmic logic (pp. 199-235); Nobuoki Mano, On the knowledge-based synthesis of data structure manipulating  ... 
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