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Comparison of 2D topological codes and their decoding performances [article]

Kao-Yueh Kuo, Ching-Yi Lai
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Topological quantum codes are favored because they allow qubit layouts that are suitable for practical implementation. An N-qubit topological code can be decoded by minimum-weight perfect matching (MWPM) with complexity O(poly(N)) if it is of CSS-type. Recently it is shown that various quantum codes, including non-CSS codes, can be decoded by an adapted belief propagation with memory effects (denoted MBP) with complexity almost linear in N. In this paper, we show that various two-dimensional
more » ... ological codes, CSS or non-CSS, regardless of the layout, can be decoded by MBP, including color codes and twisted XZZX codes. We will comprehensively compare these codes in terms of code efficiency and decoding performance, assuming perfect error syndromes.
arXiv:2202.06612v1 fatcat:yf5tght3lbaqjam66ujugq2tmi

Refined Belief-Propagation Decoding of Quantum Codes with Scalar Messages [article]

Kao-Yueh Kuo, Ching-Yi Lai
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Codes based on sparse matrices have good performance and can be efficiently decoded by belief-propagation (BP). Decoding binary stabilizer codes needs a quaternary BP for (additive) codes over GF(4), which has a higher check-node complexity compared to a binary BP for codes over GF(2). Moreover, BP decoding of stabilizer codes suffers a performance loss from the short cycles in the underlying Tanner graph. In this paper, we propose a refined BP algorithm for decoding quantum codes by passing
more » ... lar messages. For a given error syndrome, this algorithm decodes to the same output as the conventional quaternary BP but with a check-node complexity the same as binary BP. As every message is a scalar, the message normalization can be naturally applied to improve the performance. Another observation is that the message-update schedule affects the BP decoding performance against short cycles. We show that running BP with message normalization according to a serial schedule (or other schedules) may significantly improve the decoding performance and error-floor in computer simulation.
arXiv:2102.07122v1 fatcat:x3aefrnwsjdane4zrfbzdje6zq

Decoding of Quantum Data-Syndrome Codes via Belief Propagation [article]

Kao-Yueh Kuo, I-Chun Chern, Ching-Yi Lai
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Quantum error correction is necessary to protect logical quantum states and operations. However, no meaningful data protection can be made when the syndrome extraction is erroneous due to faulty measurement gates. Quantum data-syndrome (DS) codes are designed to protect the data qubits and syndrome bits concurrently. In this paper, we propose an efficient decoding algorithm for quantum DS codes with sparse check matrices. Based on a refined belief propagation (BP) decoding for stabilizer codes,
more » ... we propose a DS-BP algorithm to handle the quaternary quantum data errors and binary syndrome bit errors. Moreover, a sparse quantum code may inherently be able to handle minor syndrome errors so that fewer redundant syndrome measurements are necessary. We demonstrate this with simulations on a quantum hypergraph-product code.
arXiv:2102.01984v1 fatcat:wfojhikwqng2lggig67jkznfyq

On the Hardnesses of Several Quantum Decoding Problems [article]

Kao-Yueh Kuo, Chung-Chin Lu
2013 arXiv   pre-print
We classify the time complexities of three important decoding problems for quantum stabilizer codes. First, regardless of the channel model, quantum bounded distance decoding is shown to be NP-hard, like what Berlekamp, McEliece and Tilborg did for classical binary linear codes in 1978. Then over the depolarizing channel, the decoding problems for finding a most likely error and for minimizing the decoding error probability are also shown to be NP-hard. Our results indicate that finding a
more » ... mial-time decoding algorithm for general stabilizer codes may be impossible, but this, on the other hand, strengthens the foundation of quantum code-based cryptography.
arXiv:1306.5173v2 fatcat:rfa57vhzlnhevaoomikmhrkh2y

Refined Belief Propagation Decoding of Sparse-Graph Quantum Codes [article]

Kao-Yueh Kuo, Ching-Yi Lai
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Kuo compensations such as normalization and offset [16] - [18] .  ... 
arXiv:2002.06502v2 fatcat:bi44e2au6zfdfgiz3v4gy3q6ty

Pleural Empyema and Aortic Aneurysm

Ching-Yang Wu, Ta-Wei Su, Kuo-Yang Huang, Po-Jen Ko, Sheng-Yueh Yu, Tsung-Chi Kao, Te-Chun Shen, Tzu-Yi Chou, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
2015 Medicine  
Pleural empyema (PE) may evolve into necrosis, fistula in the thorax, and sepsis; thus, it is also associated with high mortality.We investigated and analyzed the risk of aortic aneurysm (AA) in a cohort study of patients with PE.A total of 34,250 patients diagnosed with PE were identified as the PE cohort, and 137,000 patients without PE were selected randomly as the control group and matched by sex, age, and index year of PE diagnosis. Patients ages 20 years and younger with a history of AA
more » ... re excluded. The risk of AA was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model.Excess risk of AA development was 1.69-fold higher in PE patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-2.05) compared with non-PE patients. The patients with PE exhibited a greater adjusted risk of AA (aHR = 2.01; CI = 1.44-2.81) even if they did not have any of the 9 comorbidities included in our analysis (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, cardiac artery disease, stroke, bacterial endocarditis, and rheumatic endocarditis). Compared with the patients without any of the 9 comorbidities or PE, the patients with only PE had a greater risk of developing AA (aHR = 2.00; CI = 1.43-2.79). The PE cohort had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of AA than the non-PE cohort did during 12 years of follow-up.In a large-scale cohort, patients with PE are linked with an increased risk of AA.
doi:10.1097/md.0000000000002142 pmid:26632741 pmcid:PMC5059010 fatcat:faw6by5j7vb5hbcx5frmj3fesm

Cytotoxicity Effect of Constituents of Pinus taiwanensis Hayata Twigs on B16-F10 Melanoma Cells

Man-Hsiu Chu, Sui-Wen Hsiao, Yu-Chen Kao, Hwa-Wen Yin, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Ching-Kuo Lee
2022 Molecules  
Pinus taiwanensis Hayata (Pinaceae) is an endemic plant in Taiwan. According to the Chinese Materia Medica Grand Dictionary, the Pinus species is mainly used to relieve pain, and eliminate pus and toxicity. In this study, nineteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate layer of the ethanolic extract of P. taiwanensis Hayata twigs using bioassay-guided fractionation, and their anti-melanoma effects were investigated through a B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell model. The structures of the
more » ... ed compounds were identified by 2D-NMR, MS, and IR, including 1 triterpenoid, 9 diterpenoids, 2 lignans, 4 phenolics, 1 phenylpropanoid, 1 flavonoid, and 1 steroid. Among them, compound 3 was found to be a new diterpene. Some of the compounds (2, 5, 6, 17, 18) showed moderate cytotoxicity effects. On the other hand, the anti-melanoma effect was no better than that from the original ethyl acetate layer. We presumed it resulted from the synergistic effect, although further experimentation needs to be performed.
doi:10.3390/molecules27092731 pmid:35566081 fatcat:zfvlh45qpzgj5kg3lypa3bonwm

Detecting rogue access points using client-side bottleneck bandwidth analysis

Kuo-Fong Kao, I.-En Liao, Yueh-Chia Li
2009 Computers & security  
Packet pair Rogue AP Packet analysis Security a b s t r a c t A rogue access point (AP) is an unauthorized AP plugged into a network. This poses a serious security threat. To detect an AP, a network manager traditionally takes the electric wave sensor across an entire protected place. This task is very labor-intensive and inefficient. This study presents a new AP detection method without extra hardware or hard work. This new method determines whether the network packets of an IP address are
more » ... ed from APs, according to client-side bottleneck bandwidth. The network manager can perform his job from his office by monitoring the packets passing through the core switch. The accuracies remain above 99% when the parameter, sliding window size, of the proposed algorithm is larger than 20, according to experimental results. The proposed method effectively reduces the network manager's workload, and increases network security.
doi:10.1016/j.cose.2008.11.005 fatcat:ddaeptxpqbbf5lmcioq54j5pny

Terpenoids from the Octocorals Menella sp. (Plexauridae) and Lobophytum crassum (Alcyonacea)

Cheng-Hung Lee, Chia-Ying Kao, Shih-Yao Kao, Chih-Han Chang, Jui-Hsin Su, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Zhi-Hong Wen, Ping-Jyun Sung
2012 Marine Drugs  
A new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid, menelloide E (1), and a new cembrane-type diterpenoid, lobocrassin F (2), were isolated from the octocorals Menella sp. and Lobophytum crassum, respectively. The structures of terpenoids 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods and compound 2 was found to display a significant inhibitory effect on the release of elastase by human neutrophils.
doi:10.3390/md10020427 pmid:22412810 pmcid:PMC3297006 fatcat:eziv6dsr7bfg3fpvyje7guhnqa

Aberrant hypermethylation ofmiR-9genes in gastric cancer

Kuo-Wang Tsai, Yu-Lun Liao, Chew-Wun Wu, Ling-Yueh Hu, Sung-Chou Li, Wen-Ching Chan, Meng-Ru Ho, Chun-Hung Lai, Hsiao-Wei Kao, Wen-Liang Fang, Kuo-Hung Huang, Wen-chang Lin
2011 Epigenetics  
doi:10.4161/epi.6.10.16535 pmid:21931274 pmcid:PMC3225840 fatcat:nevbeghqsvgnnfwnheozvw6w3u

The Encoding and Decoding Complexities of Entanglement-Assisted Quantum Stabilizer Codes [article]

Kao-Yueh Kuo, Ching-Yi Lai
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Quantum error-correcting codes are used to protect quantum information from decoherence. A raw state is mapped, by an encoding circuit, to a codeword so that the most likely quantum errors from a noisy quantum channel can be removed after a decoding process. A good encoding circuit should have some desired features, such as low depth, few gates, and so on. In this paper, we show how to practically implement an encoding circuit of gate complexity O(n(n-k+c)/ n) for an [[n,k;c]] quantum
more » ... code with the help of c pairs of maximally-entangled states. For the special case of an [[n,k]] stabilizer code with c=0, the encoding complexity is O(n(n-k)/ n), which is previously known to be O(n^2/ n). For c>0, this suggests that the benefits from shared entanglement come at an additional cost of encoding complexity. Finally we discuss decoding of entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes and extend previously known computational hardness results on decoding quantum stabilizer codes.
arXiv:1903.10013v2 fatcat:zfwl7fpgz5cdpmkt26lnb6zes4

Molecular evolution and the global reemergence of enterovirus D68 by genome-wide analysis

Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Shin-Ru Shih, Yhu-Chering Huang, Pi-Yueh Chang, Chung-Guei Huang, Kuo-Chin Kao, Han-Chung Hu, Yi-Chun Liu, Kuo-Chien Tsao
2016 Medicine  
Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was first reported in the United States in 1962; thereafter, a few cases were reported from 1970 to 2005, but 2 outbreaks occurred in the Philippines (2008) and the United States (2014). However, little is known regarding the molecular evolution of this globally reemerging virus due to a lack of whole-genome sequences and analyses. Here, all publically available sequences including 147 full and 1248 partial genomes from GenBank were collected and compared at the
more » ... ade and subclade level; 11 whole genomes isolated in Taiwan (TW) in 2014 were also added to the database. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to identify a new subclade, B3, and represent clade circulations among strains. Nucleotide sequence identities of the VP1 gene were 94% to 95% based on a comparison of subclade B3 to B1 and B2 and 87% to 91% when comparing A, C, and D. The patterns of clade circulation need to be clarified to improve global monitoring of EV-D68, even though this virus showed lower diversity among clades compared with the common enterovirus EV-71. Notably, severe cases isolated from Taiwan and China in 2014 were found in subclade B3. One severe case from Taiwan occurred in a female patient with underlying angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, from whom a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen was obtained. Although host factors play a key role in disease severity, we cannot exclude the possibility that EV-D68 may trigger clinical symptoms or death. To further investigate the genetic diversity of EV-D68, we reported 34 amino acid (aa) polymorphisms identified by comparing subclade B3 to B1 and B2. Clade D strains had a 1-aa deletion and a 2-aa insertion in the VP1 gene, and 1 of our TW/2014 strains had a shorter deletion in the 50 untranslated region than a previously reported deletion. In summary, a new subclade, genetic indels, and polymorphisms in global strains were discovered elucidating evolutionary and epidemiological trends of EV-D68, and 11 genomes were added to the database. Virus variants may contribute to disease severity and clinical manifestations, and further studies are needed to investigate the associations between genetic diversity and clinical outcomes. Abbreviations: AITL = angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome, BAL = bronchoalveolar lavage, EV-D68 = human enterovirus D68, MCC = maximum clade credibility, PCR = polymerase chain reaction, UTR = untranslated region.
doi:10.1097/md.0000000000004416 pmid:27495059 pmcid:PMC4979813 fatcat:6um3mtgh5jckjmco3apx3vqs3i

Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

Wen-Ling Wang, Shi-Yuan Sheu, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Shung-Te Kao, Yuan-Tsung Fu, Tzong-Fu Kuo, Kuo-Yu Chen, Chun-Hsu Yao, Jui-Yang Lai
2015 PLoS ONE  
Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes
more » ... . The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131999 pmid:26126113 pmcid:PMC4488343 fatcat:ryvqxxhvh5eljn4rg7jdwaorzm

Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal DecoctionDanggui Buxue Tangfrom a Molecular Biology Perspective

Wen-Ling Wang, Shi-Yuan Sheu, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Shung-Te Kao, Yuan-Tsung Fu, Tzong-Fu Kuo, Kuo-Yu Chen, Chun-Hsu Yao
2014 BioMed Research International  
Large bone defects are a considerable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Numerous traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to repair and regenerate bone tissue. This study investigated the bone regeneration potential ofDanggui Buxue Tang(DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared fromRadix Astragali(RA) andRadix Angelicae Sinensis(RAS), from a molecular biology perspective. The optimal ratio ofRAandRASused inDBTfor osteoblast culture was obtained by colorimetric and alkaline
more » ... tase (ALP) activity assays. Moreover, the optimal concentration ofDBTfor bone cell culture was also determined by colorimetric, ALP activity, nodule formation, Western blotting, wound-healing, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays. Consequently, the most appropriate weight ratio ofRAtoRASfor the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was 5 : 1. Moreover, the most effective concentration ofDBTwas 1,000 μg/mL, which significantly increased the number of osteoblasts, intracellular ALP levels, and nodule numbers, while inhibiting osteoclast activity. Additionally, 1,000 μg/mL ofDBTwas able to stimulate p-ERK and p-JNK signal pathway. Therefore,DBTis highly promising for use in accelerating fracture healing in the middle or late healing periods.
doi:10.1155/2014/853234 pmid:25295277 pmcid:PMC4176646 fatcat:jgmx6rlgarakljqumrh3umcjym

Log-domain decoding of quantum LDPC codes over binary finite fields [article]

Ching-Yi Lai, Kao-Yueh Kuo
2021 arXiv   pre-print
A quantum stabilizer code over GF(q) corresponds to a classical additive code over GF(q^2) that is self-orthogonal with respect to a symplectic inner product. We study the decoding of quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over binary finite fields GF(q=2^l) by the sum-product algorithm, also known as belief propagation (BP). Conventionally, a message in a nonbinary BP for quantum codes over GF(2^l) represents a probability vector over GF(2^2l), inducing high decoding complexity. In this
more » ... paper, we explore the property of the symplectic inner product and show that scalar messages suffice for BP decoding of nonbinary quantum codes, rather than vector messages necessary for the conventional BP. Consequently, we propose a BP decoding algorithm for quantum codes over GF(2^l) by passing scalar messages so that it has low computation complexity. The algorithm is specified in log domain by using log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) of the channel statistics to have a low implementation cost. Moreover, techniques such as message normalization or offset can be naturally applied in this algorithm to mitigate the effects of short cycles to improve BP performance. This is important for nonbinary quantum codes since they may have more short cycles compared to binary quantum codes. Several computer simulations are provided to demonstrate these advantages. The scalar-based strategy can also be used to improve the BP decoding of classical linear codes over GF(2^l) with many short cycles.
arXiv:2104.00304v2 fatcat:cidcfyukhfdpldpimwbw4ny5eu
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