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Justifying and Generalizing Contrastive Divergence

Yoshua Bengio, Olivier Delalleau
2009 Neural Computation  
We show that its residual term converges to zero, justifying the use of a truncation, i.e. running only a short Gibbs chain, which is the main idea behind the Contrastive Divergence (CD) estimator of the  ...  We present theoretical and empirical evidence linking the number of Gibbs steps k and the magnitude of the RBM parameters to the bias in the CD estimator.  ...  The analysis also shows a connection between reconstruction error, log-likelihood and Contrastive Divergence (CD), which helps understand the better results generally obtained with CD and justify the use  ... 
doi:10.1162/neco.2008.11-07-647 pmid:19018704 fatcat:cmm4n7r65fhmtbmohf2yxnqdfi

Why (and When and How) Contrastive Divergence Works [article]

Ian E Fellows
2014 arXiv   pre-print
Contrastive divergence (CD) is a promising method of inference in high dimensional distributions with intractable normalizing constants, however, the theoretical foundations justifying its use are somewhat  ...  Algorithms for performing inference are discussed and are applied to social network data using an exponential-family random graph models (ERGM).  ...  So we have three principled ways of justifying our use of the contrastive divergence moment conditions within the combined augmented divergence framework.  ... 
arXiv:1405.0602v1 fatcat:gb6f53isnzhsnkmnt2iw2xs6fu

The Dark Side of Creativity

Lanlan Liu, Maolin Ye
2015 Open Journal of Social Sciences  
In recent years, researchers have proposed the concept of the dark side of creativity and vicious creativity, and the concept focuses on the relationship between creativity and dishonesty.  ...  Creativity has been regarded as a positive force to promote the development of individuals, organizations and society. However, creativity also has a hidden dark side.  ...  performance: divergent thinking and cognitive flexibility.  ... 
doi:10.4236/jss.2015.39026 fatcat:qxs677xwj5aeng4xjgxi7hcrae

exTREEmaTIME: a method for incorporating uncertainty into divergence time estimates

Tom Carruthers, Robert W. Scotland
2022 Biology Open  
The method requires a minimal set of assumptions, and, based on these assumptions, estimates the oldest possible divergence times and youngest possible divergence times that are consistent with the assumptions  ...  This is critically important given that many of the assumptions that are incorporated into these methods are highly complex, difficult to justify biologically, and as such can lead to estimates that are  ...  By contrast, given that exTREEmaTIME is not model based, its estimates are highly imprecise, but generally overlap with those of other methods, and always incorporate the correct value in the simulation  ... 
doi:10.1242/bio.059181 pmid:35147180 pmcid:PMC8845097 fatcat:em2ult5hfzf2nlays5ea2e5doq

Page 510 of The Westminster Review Vol. 162, Issue 5 [page]

1904 The Westminster Review  
and typical attitudes towards Liberalism, to point out a few general contrasts in the characteristics of the two men,  ...  LIBERALISM AND DIVERGENT TYPES OF GENIUS. THE worst of great thinkers, as John Bright once rather unkindly observed, is that they so often think wrong.  ... 

Scale-dependent bias from primordial non-Gaussianity in general relativity

David Wands, Anže Slosar
2009 Physical Review D  
We justify the use of the Poisson equation in general relativistic perturbation theory and thus the derivation of scale-dependent bias as a test of primordial non-Gaussianity, using the spherical collapse  ...  This leads to a formally divergent correlation function for biased tracers of the mass distribution which we discuss.  ...  DW is grateful to Rob Crittenden, Kazuya Koyama, David Lyth and Will Percival for helpful discussions. AS acknowledges useful discussions with Martin White.  ... 
doi:10.1103/physrevd.79.123507 fatcat:2euxsbqczbfgxe5wit6wrtsou4

Page 57 of Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences Vol. 30, Issue 2 [page]

1940 Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences  
Then how about selecting a generic name from the available dozen and putting them into it?  ...  The student of this ““Cadophora”’ series upon vegetation and in culture is sufficiently impressed with its contrast in colony and spore producing characters in comparison with the “herbarum’’ lot in Cladosporium  ... 

Page 604 of American Society of Civil Engineers. Collected Journals Vol. 111, Issue 4 [page]

1985 American Society of Civil Engineers. Collected Journals  
The estimation of theoretical divergence produced by each one permits the establishment of general criteria for selecting the suit- able technique.  ...  The analysis of numerical random wave simulation problems in the time and frequency domain, contrasting dif- ferent simulators, permits the establishing of a relationship between these techniques.  ... 

Deep Divergence Learning [article]

Kubra Cilingir, Rachel Manzelli, Brian Kulis
2020 arXiv   pre-print
learning approaches for extending learning Euclidean distances to more general divergence measures such as divergences over distributions.  ...  We then describe a deep learning framework for learning general functional Bregman divergences, and show in experiments that this method yields superior performance on benchmark datasets as compared to  ...  divergence between real and generated data.  ... 
arXiv:2005.02612v1 fatcat:d4zwdlkw5ffnbjbx776jpikgou

Comment on "Ginzburg-Landau theory of two-band superconductors: Absence of type-1.5 superconductivity"

Egor Babaev, Mihail Silaev
2012 Physical Review B  
Kogan and J. Schmalian Phys. Rev.  ...  This would in particular imply that (in contrast to U(1)× U(1) superconductors), there could be no "type-1.5" superconducting regime in U(1) multiband systems for any finite interband coupling strength  ...  In particular such a definition contradicts all existing literature on multicomponent GL theories in two band superconductors, which in contrast adopts the more general definition of GL expansion of the  ... 
doi:10.1103/physrevb.86.016501 fatcat:nfv7gs6pnjgztez2rnsq6poody

Page 282 of Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health Vol. 17, Issue 3 [page]

1993 Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health  
What evidence justifies the proposed test use in contrast to evidence supporting alternative proposals based on other measures or methods, including non-testing methods? .  ...  methods of measuring the construct and yields multiple measures of association: convergent, divergent and discriminative.?  ... 

Page 317 of Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society Vol. 70, Issue 1 [page]

1960 Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society  
Variant geo- graphic and political circumstances made their very Puritan tenets lead northerners and southerners to divergent con- clusions about some issues of importance.  ...  Although differences between right-wing and left-wing Puritan thought often overshadowed northern and southern contrasts, this mental consanguinity among the colonists necessarily had its limitations.  ... 

Writing Groups as Dialogic Spaces

Kathrin Kaufhold, Daniel Egil Yencken
2021 Journal of Academic Writing  
Reference to a generic yet unspecific norm creates a space for sharing diverging perspectives while reflecting on ones' own writing.  ...  Awareness of dialogue patterns can help facilitators to decide when to step back and when to step in as moderators.  ...  By using generic 'you' and presenting it as obligation ('need'), she constructs IMRD as a commonly accepted and generally applicable norm.  ... 
doi:10.18552/joaw.v11i1.748 fatcat:uslwvv2fjfc2jb5is4rh4xl4fq

Page 338 of Geophysics Vol. 8, Issue 4 [page]

1943 Geophysics  
; and contrasts in seismic velocities, noted when the foreset  ...  These beds consistently have a slightly steeper dip than either the overlying or underlying strata; they have, in general, a directional divergence from the distributary axes of the deltaic structure,  ... 

Page 262 of Catholic Educational Review Vol. 21, Issue [page]

1923 Catholic Educational Review  
The latter exhibits a contrast between basic identity and super- ficial diversity, the former a contrast between superficial con- vergence and fundamental divergence.  ...  In both of these cases the adaptation is the more obvious, be- cause, while the leg of the mole is formed on the same general plan as that of other vertebrates, and the leg of the mole-cricket has the  ... 
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