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Justifications of welfare guarantees under normalized utilities

Haris Aziz
2020 ACM SIGecom Exchanges  
It is standard in computational social choice to analyse welfare considerations under the assumptions of normalized utilities. In this note, we summarize some common reasons for this approach.  ...  We then mention another justification which is ignored but has solid normative appeal. The central concept used in the 'new' justification can also be used more widely as a social objective.  ...  Firstly, one may negatively perceive that the welfare guarantee results only hold under the restrictive assumption of normalizes utilities.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3381329.3381337 fatcat:prdjxuk4lna6vkhdlcohr3usju

Rawls's Self-Defeat: A Formal Analysis

Hun Chung
2018 Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Scientific Philosophy  
Rawls's worry was that utilitarianism may fail to protect the fundamental rights and liberties of persons in its attempt to maximize total social welfare.  ...  In this paper, I will argue that, under close formal examination, Rawls's argument against utilitarianism is self-defeating.  ...  Based on such normality assumption, Rawls presents what he conceives to be a typical utility function of a "normal" person. (See Fig. 1 in the next page.)  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10670-018-0079-4 fatcat:xsy2kvtgvbg2vporfnhna5byu4

Freedom, Rights and Social Software [chapter]

Keith Dowding, Martin van Hees
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The second approach represents rights directly in terms of a normal game form; that is a game where each player's utility function is unassigned.  ...  For example, we might want to 'launder preferences' (Goodin 1976 ) so as to ignore sadistic or intrusive utility from the arguments of individual utility functions aggregated to a social welfare function  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29326-9_2 fatcat:wv3ifrfi5vhc7blx7dmalr4rmi

Poverty Lines [chapter]

Martin Ravallion
2016 The Economics of Poverty  
The article provides welfare-economic definitions of poverty lines and critically assesses the main methods of setting poverty lines found in practice.  ...  These can be interpreted as ways of expanding the information set used in applied work to address some longstanding problems in measuring welfare.  ...  There is nothing in the FEI method to guarantee that these differences are ones that would normally be considered relevant to assessing welfare.  ... 
doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190212766.003.0005 fatcat:4koaojgcv5ca7ehbihbyk37bki

Poverty Lines [chapter]

Martin Ravallion
2008 The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics  
The article provides welfare-economic definitions of poverty lines and critically assesses the main methods of setting poverty lines found in practice.  ...  These can be interpreted as ways of expanding the information set used in applied work to address some longstanding problems in measuring welfare.  ...  There is nothing in the FEI method to guarantee that these differences are ones that would normally be considered relevant to assessing welfare.  ... 
doi:10.1057/978-1-349-95121-5_2541-1 fatcat:j2wt352gprdhzn4owvgxtqb3ge

Is the crop insurance program effective in China? Evidence from farmers analysis in five provinces

Ke WANG, Qiao ZHANG, Shingo Kimura, Suraya Akter
2015 Journal of Integrative Agriculture  
Finally, the effectiveness of Chinese crop insurance was evaluated by comparing the certainty equivalence (CE) of farmer's utility/welfare under alternative crop insurance scenarios.  ...  This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chinese crop insurance program in terms of farmer utility and welfare.  ...  is evaluated by comparing the certainty equivalence (CE) of the utility/welfare of representative farmers under alternative crop insurance policy scenarios.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s2095-3119(14)60842-x fatcat:emacjxjwlng33iarrdfjrtkwve

To Feed the Hungry: Judicial Retrenchment in Welfare Adjudication

C. Thomas Dienes
1970 California Law Review  
guarantees through its power over welfare benefits.  ...  the history of welfare administration under the poor laws. 2 57 The district court in Williams v.  ...  The Freedom of Religion The maximum grant provision could also be challenged as a violation of the first amendment guarantee of freedom of religion. 345 Given the fundamental character of the right to  ... 
doi:10.2307/3479611 fatcat:zzf6bnte3fhenmjmpvabm5oe2i

Can Common Business Practices Ever Be Anticompetitive? Redefining Monopolization

Konstantinos Stylianou
2020 American Business Law Journal  
The utility and necessity of this step is obvious.  ...  justifications or efficiencies, as is required under the current tests.  ...  First, the article revealed the absolute dominance of business justifications and efficiencies as proxies to distinguish between normal and anticompetitive practices.  ... 
doi:10.1111/ablj.12157 fatcat:z4x46x6v7zhavjaswxftp4mlhy

Are Harsh Penalties for Default Really Better?

Kartik Athreya, Xuan S. Tam, Eric R. Young
2009 Social Science Research Network  
First, we show that under a wide array of circumstances, punishments harsh enough to ensure all debt is repaid improve welfare.  ...  Two very different options that have each been pursued by a variety of societies through time and space are (i) relatively harsh penalties for default and, more recently, (ii) loan guarantee programs that  ...  any justification rooted in formal economic theory.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2188503 fatcat:diqlchr4zzdqpp37wtir5dbgcy

The morality of harm

Paulo Sousa, Colin Holbrook, Jared Piazza
2009 Cognition  
In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality.  ...  In a modified replication of their study, we examined participants' judgments of harmful actions in these contexts by taking into account their explanations for their judgments.  ...  and suggestions, Daniel Kelly, Steven Stich, Kevin Haley, Serena Eng and Daniel Fessler for providing us with their raw data, the AHRC Culture and the Mind project for bringing to our attention some of  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.06.015 pmid:19717146 fatcat:vat23gjd4revnpdgn2xk3554di

Behavioral Welfare Economics

B. Douglas Bernheim
2009 Journal of the European Economic Association  
An alternative approach, developed by Bernheim and Rangel [2009] , defines welfare directly in terms of choice.  ...  Others are predicated on the contention that well-being, and hence welfare, is directly measurable. Both of those approaches encounter serious conceptual difficulties.  ...  improvement under U 1 , the decision utility at the first moment in time.  ... 
doi:10.1162/jeea.2009.7.2-3.267 fatcat:53a2dswjznabtjfemyci7cs7e4

Online Nash Social Welfare Maximization with Predictions [article]

Siddhartha Banerjee, Vasilis Gkatzelis, Artur Gorokh, Billy Jin
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Then, in line with the emerging area of "algorithms with predictions", we consider a setting where for each agent, the online algorithm is only given a prediction of her monopolist utility, i.e., her utility  ...  We consider the problem of allocating a set of divisible goods to N agents in an online manner, aiming to maximize the Nash social welfare, a widely studied objective which provides a balance between fairness  ...  Under allocation x, the maxmin welfare (MW) corresponds to the minimum utility across all agents under x, while the Nash social welfare (NSW) is defined as the geometric mean of the agents' utilities.  ... 
arXiv:2008.03564v3 fatcat:pahwbq67uba5hk6gx7yfmkfviq

An Axiomatic Theory of Provably-Fair Welfare-Centric Machine Learning [article]

Cyrus Cousins
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Surprisingly, the axioms of cardinal welfare (malfare) dictate that this is not equivalent to simply defining utility as negative loss.  ...  In this work, we define a complementary measure, termed malfare, measuring overall societal harm (rather than wellbeing), with axiomatic justification via the standard axioms of cardinal welfare.  ...  ., Rongve and Beach (1997) show asymptotic normality and variance analysis, but not finite-sample guarantees.  ... 
arXiv:2104.14504v2 fatcat:k562rqjc3vdf5ilfvv5yddoauq

Comparing school choice mechanisms by interim and ex-ante welfare

Peter Troyan
2012 Games and Economic Behavior  
Under DA, she is guaranteed a school no worse than s, but, has some strictly positive chance of receiving t.  ...  But, this makes student 1 of type v H worse off under the Boston mechanism because under DA she is guaranteed a school no worse than B, yet has some chance at her favorite school A.  ...  If i ranks s first, she is guaranteed admission, giving expected utility v s > α.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.geb.2012.01.007 fatcat:ut2gap6wonflliiofyg55wxxiu


Takumi Haibara
2007 Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies  
public abatement in terms of welfare when the pollution tax rate rises.  ...  It implies that the optimal pollution tax rate is higher under consumption tax revenue-financed public abatement than it is under pollution tax revenue-financed public abatement.  ...  Given these insights, in this paper, we assess the justification for pollution tax revenue-financed public abatement by examining the welfare consequences of public abatement financed by either pollution  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1467-940x.2007.00129.x fatcat:65kf322b65a67ckspsjw3fil6i
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