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Just Train Twice: Improving Group Robustness without Training Group Information [article]

Evan Zheran Liu, Behzad Haghgoo, Annie S. Chen, Aditi Raghunathan, Pang Wei Koh, Shiori Sagawa, Percy Liang, Chelsea Finn
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Prior approaches that achieve high worst-group accuracy, like group distributionally robust optimization (group DRO) require expensive group annotations for each training point, whereas approaches that  ...  Intuitively, this upweights examples from groups on which standard ERM models perform poorly, leading to improved worst-group performance.  ...  In this paper, we propose a simple algorithm, JTT (Just Train Twice), for improving the worst-group error without training group annotations, instead only requiring group annotations on a much smaller  ... 
arXiv:2107.09044v2 fatcat:kphqnotjhna2vecyb6phavzcfm

You Look Twice: GaterNet for Dynamic Filter Selection in CNNs [article]

Zhourong Chen, Yang Li, Samy Bengio, Si Si
2019 arXiv   pre-print
On CIFAR-10, our model also improves upon state-of-the-art results.  ...  The concept of conditional computation for deep nets has been proposed previously to improve model performance by selectively using only parts of the model conditioned on the sample it is processing.  ...  The gater network in our method consistently improves the state-of-the-art backbone network without significantly increasing the number of parameters.  ... 
arXiv:1811.11205v2 fatcat:zwco7vo7u5b4fk6gqaahprxdsm

Once Bitten, Twice Shy? The Performance of Entrepreneurial Restarts

Georg Metzger
2006 Social Science Research Network  
They just want to earn a sufficient income (Brüderl and Preisendörfer [1998] ) or neglect growth due to non-economic reasons; concern about employee well-being is to be cited here, because "growth will  ...  Robust SE (i) Coef. Robust SE (i) Coef. Robust SE (i) Coef. Robust SE (i) Coef. Robust SE (i) Coef.  ...  While the latter are counted among entrepreneurs with experience of failure, the former are grouped with those without experience of failure even though they actually gained some.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.955756 fatcat:jok537bqrvgkzdrnguhs4cmy54

Measure Twice, Cut Once: Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Metrics

Jip Leendertse, Mirella Schrijvers, Erik Stam
2021 Research Policy  
This index is robust and performs well in regressions to predict entrepreneurial output, which we measure with novel data on productive entrepreneurship.  ...  The entrepreneurial ecosystem approach and the metrics we present provide a lens for public policy to better diagnose, understand and improve entrepreneurial economies.  ...  and training system The extent to which training in creating or managing SMEs is incorporated within the education and training system.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.respol.2021.104336 fatcat:3e6y565emnf2pidcm7b3kxe6p4

Evaluating the learning effectiveness of using simulations in software project management education: results from a twice replicated experiment

Dietmar Pfahl, Oliver Laitenberger, Günther Ruhe, Jörg Dorsch, Tatyana Krivobokova
2004 Information and Software Technology  
This finding is strongly supported by information gathered from the debriefing questionnaires of subjects in the experimental group.  ...  While the experimental group applied a System Dynamics simulation model, the control group used the well-known COCOMO model as a predictive tool for project planning.  ...  This phenomenon occurred twice during the initial experiment (variables Y.4 (group A) and Y.1 (group B)), three times during the first replication (variables Y.4 (groups A and B) and Y.2 (group B)) and  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0950-5849(03)00115-0 fatcat:vyx6cab6ffbedc2c5xzknbumsa

Tolerability of Red Yeast Rice (2,400 mg Twice Daily) Versus Pravastatin (20 mg Twice Daily) in Patients With Previous Statin Intolerance

Steven C. Halbert, Benjamin French, Ram Y. Gordon, John T. Farrar, Kathryn Schmitz, Patti B. Morris, Paul D. Thompson, Daniel J. Rader, David J. Becker
2010 American Journal of Cardiology  
A total of 43 adults with dyslipidemia and a history of statin discontinuation because of myalgia were randomly assigned to red yeast rice 2,400 mg twice daily or pravastatin 20 mg twice daily for 12 weeks  ...  The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level decreased 30% in the red yeast rice group and 27% in the pravastatin group.  ...  All participants provided written informed consent.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.08.672 pmid:20102918 fatcat:46g6nefcwzfztknrkoecsagtnm

Double degrees: double the trouble or twice the return?

A. Wendy Russell, Sara Dolnicar, Marina Ayoub
2007 Higher Education  
We suggest initiatives that would improve the experience, performance and persistence of double degrees students.  ...  We suggest initiatives that would improve the experience, performance and persistence of double degrees students.  ...  How could double degrees be improved?  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10734-007-9076-2 fatcat:blg6mrdrtnhd5emj7vh4o6vw4y

Twice- rather than once-daily basal insulin is associated with better glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes mellitus 12 months after skills-based structured education in insulin self-management

H. E. Hopkinson, R. M. Jacques, K. J. Gardner, S. A. Amiel, P. Mansell
2015 Diabetic Medicine  
reductions in severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis in all groups.  ...  The rate of severe hypoglycaemia fell from 0.82 to 0.23 events/patient year in twice-daily basal insulin users.  ...  By contrast, the North American Type 1 Diabetes Exchange Clinic Registry have published data in abstract form without finding any difference in outcomes between once-daily and twice-daily basal insulin  ... 
doi:10.1111/dme.12806 pmid:25982032 pmcid:PMC4745019 fatcat:rx4wjfdp5zb4ra5k63m7khi3ie

Efficacy and safety of twice-daily aclidinium bromide in COPD patients: the ATTAIN study

Paul W. Jones, Dave Singh, Eric D. Bateman, Alvar Agusti, Rosa Lamarca, Gonzalo de Miquel, Rosa Segarra, Cynthia Caracta, Esther Garcia Gil
2012 European Respiratory Journal  
practices where trained educators are less likely to be found.  ...  First, it is approved for twice daily administration not once daily.  ...  Just visit our web site and click on membership and follow the step by step instructions.  ... 
doi:10.1183/09031936.00225511 pmid:22441743 fatcat:lmbfpxwhdbgyzbjkxlwprlwua4

Twice considered: Charter schools and student achievement in Utah

Yongmei Ni, Andrea K. Rorrer
2012 Economics of Education Review  
Proponents of school choice argue that charter schools, as a market-based reform in education, will generate improved student outcomes without substantially increasing public expenditures.  ...  Half of these students, however, just started kindergarten or first grade in school year 2008-2009, as nine new charter schools opened that year.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.06.003 fatcat:ghzd4nl54bep5mtyt3raunvmvu

Screen Twice, Cut Once: Assessing the Predictive Validity of Applicant Selection Tools

Dan Goldhaber, Cyrus Grout, Nick Huntington-Klein
2017 Education Finance and Policy  
training) improve the process of worker selection.  ...  These results also suggest the capacity to improve teacher training.  ... 
doi:10.1162/edfp_a_00200 fatcat:hf6xqle7lnfblmmrppsxqpxwyy

A Pragmatic Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Transdiagnostic Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: Exploring Benefits of Homework Reflection Questionnaires and Twice-Weekly Therapist Support

H.D. Hadjistavropoulos, V. Peynenburg, D.L. Thiessen, M. Nugent, K. Adlam, K.M.B. Owens, E. Karin, B.F. Dear, N. Titov
2020 Internet Interventions  
Despite engagement differences, homework reflection questionnaires and twice-weekly support did not significantly impact primary outcomes; all groups showed large improvements in depression and anxiety  ...  It is concluded that neither completion of homework questionnaires nor offering twice-weekly support significantly improve iCBT in routine care.  ...  Increased connection to patients Improves connection with some patients Therapist 3 Increased recall of patient information improving efficiency Improves recall of patient information  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.invent.2020.100357 pmid:33335846 pmcid:PMC7734229 fatcat:jwx4oen37nckbmfvns4paz3hym

A Comparison of Atomoxetine Administered as Once Versus Twice Daily Dosing on the School and Home Functioning of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

James G. Waxmonsky, Daniel A. Waschbusch, Opeoluwa Akinnusi, William E. Pelham
2011 Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology  
The BID group did not display any improvement in parent-rated ODD symptoms during the first 4 weeks of the study on QD dosing, but there was a significant improvement seen after the addition of the second  ...  Objective: This secondary analysis examined the efficacy and tolerability of atomoxetine (ATX) dosed once (QD) versus twice (BID) daily in 55 children aged 6-12 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  ...  In cases of marked discrepancy between informants, the score deemed most reliable was used.  ... 
doi:10.1089/cap.2010.0042 pmid:21288121 fatcat:xdec33vvdzh6zkm5rghsuptpse

A Model for Screening Twice-Exceptional Students (Gifted With Learning Disabilities) Within a Response to Intervention Paradigm

R. Steve McCallum, Sherry Mee Bell, Jeremy Thomas Coles, Kelli Caldwell Miller, Michael B. Hopkins, Angela Hilton-Prillhart
2013 The gifted child quarterly  
Her research interests include formal and informal assessment of reading skills, academic and behavioral interventions, and parent training.  ...  The incidence of (potential) twice-exceptional status can be tested within the model we propose by addressing the fol- lowing research questions, using experimental but psycho- metrically robust group-administered  ... 
doi:10.1177/0016986213500070 fatcat:fdajqxxvabd5dkqikpmp4s37se

Contrastive Adapters for Foundation Model Group Robustness [article]

Michael Zhang, Christopher Ré
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We thus develop an adapter training strategy to effectively and efficiently improve FM group robustness.  ...  Across the 9 benchmarks, our approach consistently improves group robustness, raising worst-group accuracy by 8.5 to 56.0 pp over zero-shot.  ...  Just Train Twice (JTT) [40] treats samples that the first model misclassifies as inferred minority group samples to upweight.  ... 
arXiv:2207.07180v1 fatcat:ss4qi7mtlvdmvpzdrymn2fhila
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