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Document Image Analysis Using a New Compression Algorithm [chapter]

Shulan Deng, Shahram Latifi, Junichi Kanai
1999 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
By proper exploitation of the structural characteristics existing in a compressed document, it is possible to speed up certain image processing operations. Alternatively, one can derive a compression scheme which would lend itself to an efficient manipulation of documents without compromising the compression factor. Here, a run-based compression technique is discussed for binary documents. The technique, in addition to achieving bit rates comparable to other compression schemes, preserves
more » ... nt features which are useful for analysis and manipulation of data. Algorithms are proposed to perform vertical run extraction, and similar operations in the compressed domain. These algorithms are implemented in software. Experimental results indicate that fast analysis of electronic data is possible if data is coded according to the proposed scheme. S . -W. Le e an d Y . N akan o ( E d s. ): DA S ' 98, LNCS 1655, p p . 32-41, 1999. c S p r i n ge r-Ve rl ag Be rl i n He i d e l b e rg 1999
doi:10.1007/3-540-48172-9_4 fatcat:t6u4qjkcxnes5fgmphzwigbzzi

Evaluation of an ultra-high-precision x-ray optics

Shunji Kitamoto, Norimasa Yamamoto, Takayoshi Kohmura, Kazuharu Suga, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Youhei Ohkawa, Junichi Kanai, Shigeto Chiba, Junichi Sato, Keisuke Sudo, Takeshi Watanabe, Guenther Hasinger (+1 others)
2004 UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems  
We are developing an ultra high precision soft X-ray telescope. The design of the telescope is a normal incident one for 13.5nm band using Mo/Si multilayers. Two ideas are introduced. One is the optical measurement system in order to monitor the precision of the optics system. The other is the adaptive optics system with a deformable mirror. Using an X-ray-optical separation filter, we can always monitor the deformation of the optics by optical light. With this information, we can control the
more » ... formable mirror to compensate the system distortion as a closed loop system. The telescope system is now integrating and checking by optical light. The shape of the primary mirror is an off-axis paraboloid with a focal length of 2m and an effective diameter of 80mm. This primary mirror was coated by Mo/Si multilayers. The reflectivity of the primary mirror at 13.5nm was ranging from 30 to 50 %. The secondary mirror is a basically flat mirror but actually an deformable mirror with 31 piezo-actuators. The detector is now a wave front sensor (shack-hartmann type). The closed loop control has been performed and factor of 2.4 improvement of the wave front shape has been performed comparing to the un-control case.
doi:10.1117/12.550364 fatcat:efuxlhm3tnexvn2k5dq2nxkwmq

Microcomputer processing of stress relaxation measurements
応力緩和データのマイクロコンピュータ処理

Yoshihiro OHMIYA, Toshihiko KAWAHATA, Nobuto KANAI, Kiyohiro KURODA, Junichi KOBAYASHI, Hirotaro KAMBE
1985 Kobunshi ronbunshu (Tokyo)  
[Notes] Microcomputer Processing of Stress Relaxation Measurements Yoshihiro OHMIYA,*1 Toshihiko KAWAHATA,*1 Nobuto KANAI,*1 Kiyohiro KURODA,*1 Junichi KOBAYASHI,*1 and Hirotaro KAMBE*1 *1Research  ... 
doi:10.1295/koron.42.905 fatcat:4mvggbgxvjenbe5w3xykytfnai

Nematode-specific tRNAs that decode an alternative genetic code for leucine

Kiyofumi Hamashima, Kosuke Fujishima, Takeshi Masuda, Junichi Sugahara, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai
2011 Nucleic Acids Research  
Class II transfer RNAs (tRNAs), including tRNA Leu and tRNA Ser , have an additional stem and loop structure, the long variable arm (V-arm). Here, we describe Class II tRNAs with a unique anticodon corresponding to neither leucine nor serine. Because these tRNAs are specifically conserved among the nematodes, we have called them 'nematode-specific V-arm-containing tRNAs' (nev-tRNAs). The expression of nev-tRNA genes in Caenorhabditis elegans was confirmed experimentally. A comparative sequence
more » ... nalysis suggested that the nev-tRNAs derived phylogenetically from tRNA Leu . In vitro aminoacylation assays showed that nev-tRNA Gly and nev-tRNA Ile are only charged with leucine, which is inconsistent with their anticodons. Furthermore, the deletion and mutation of crucial determinants for leucylation in nev-tRNA led to a marked loss of activity. An in vitro translation analysis showed that nev-tRNA Gly decodes GGG as leucine instead of the universal glycine code, indicating that nev-tRNAs can be incorporated into ribosomes and participate in protein biosynthesis. Our findings provide the first example of unexpected tRNAs that do not consistently obey the general translation rules for higher eukaryotes.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1226 pmid:22187151 pmcid:PMC3333845 fatcat:3ps5k7diyrb5vmap2b2wykynxu

A CASE OF INFLAMMATORY ESOPHAGOGASTRIC POLYP
Inflammatory esophagogastric polypの1例

Ichizo TSUJINO, Hideyuki SEKI, Syuuichi KITAHAMA, Hirohide HAMAMOTO, Tetsunobu KANAI, Tomoaki ADACHI, Junichi SUZUKI, Ken ITOU, Yoshikazu KAWAKAMI
1996 Gastroenterological Endoscopy  
doi:10.11280/gee1973b.38.2620 fatcat:oibjx4v24jaohoyaageahltbbi

Two complementary techniques for digitized document analysis

George Nagy, Junichi Kanai, Mukkai Krishnamoorthy, Mathews Thomas, Mahesh Viswanathan
1988 Proceedings of the ACM conference on Document processing systems - DOCPROCS '88  
Two complementary methods are proposed for characterizing the spatial structure of digitized technical documents and labelling various logical components without using optical character recognition. The top-down method segments and labels the page image simultaneously using publication-specific information in the form of a page-grammar. The bottom-up method naively segments the document into rectangles that contain individual connected components, combines blocks using knowledge about generic
more » ... yout objects, and identifies logical objects using publication-specific knowledge. Both methods are based on the X-Y tree representation of a page image. The procedures are demonstrated on scanned and synthesized bit-maps of the title pages of technical articles.
doi:10.1145/62506.62539 fatcat:mj7vn652orezzczcuxacldd4zu

Management of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

Jane I. Tsao, Yuji Nimura, Junichi Kamiya, Naokazu Hayakawa, Satoshi Kondo, Masato Nagino, Masahiko Miyachi, Michio Kanai, Katsuhiko Uesaka, Koji Oda, Ricardo L. Rossi, John W. Braasch (+1 others)
2000 Annals of Surgery  
Objective To compare the experience and outcome in the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma at one American and one Japanese medical center. Summary Background Data Controversies surround the issues of extent of resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma and whether the histopathology of such cancers are similar between patients treated in America and in Japan. Methods Records were reviewed of 100 patients treated between 1980 and 1995 at the Lahey Clinic in the United States, and of 155 patients
more » ... treated between 1977 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital in Japan. Selected pathologic slides of resected cancers were exchanged between the two institutions and reviewed for diagnostic concordance. Results In the Lahey cohort, there were 25 resections, 53 cases of surgical exploration with biliary bypass or intubation, and 22 cases of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or endo-scopic biliary drainage without surgery. In the Nagoya cohort, the respective figures were 122, 10, and 23. The overall 5-year survival rate of all patients treated (surgical and nonsurgical) during the study periods was 7% in the Lahey cohort and 16% in the Nagoya cohort. The overall 10-year survival rates were 0% and 12%, respectively. In patients who underwent resection with negative margins, the 5-and 10-year survival rates were 43% and 0% for the Lahey cohort and 25% and 18% for the Nagoya cohort. The surgical death rate for patients undergoing resection was 4% for Lahey patients and 8% for Nagoya patients. Of the patients who underwent resection, en bloc caudate lobectomy was performed in 8% of the Lahey patients and 89% of the Nagoya patients. Histopathologic examination of resected cancers showed that the Nagoya patients had a higher stage of disease than the Lahey patients.
doi:10.1097/00000658-200008000-00003 pmid:10903592 pmcid:PMC1421125 fatcat:bzax6tjgnnhtnn3wmb4ccs3svu

Semiquantitative Evaluation of Muscle Repair by Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Mice

Junichi Hata, Sakiko Mizuno, Yawara Haga, Masayuki Shimoda, Yae Kanai, Kazuhiro Chiba, Hideyuki Okano, Masaya Nakamura, Keisuke Horiuchi
2018 JBMR Plus  
Muscle injury is one of the most common traumas in orthopedic and sports medicine. However, there are only a few treatment options with marginal clinical benefits for this condition. Muscle repair after injury involves multiple and complex processes, such as the inflammation phase, regeneration phase, and remodeling phase. To develop a treatment modality and to examine the efficacy of novel interventions and agents for patients with muscle injuries, it is essential to establish a reliable and
more » ... nsitive method to monitor the changes in muscle structure and status during muscle repair. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used to assess the diffusivity of water molecules in tissue. When it is used in combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the microstructure of muscle tissue can be indirectly depicted. In the present study, we evaluated the time-course changes in the diffusivity and anisotropy in muscles by DTI and histology after injury in mice. We found that the diffusivity and anisotropy exhibit distinct kinetics during muscle repair and that these kinetics were significantly altered in mutant mice with a defect in muscle regeneration. Our data show that muscle repair processes can be readily evaluated and monitored by DTI technique and suggest that DTI can be clinically applied for assessing muscle injury and repair in humans.
doi:10.1002/jbm4.10040 pmid:30283903 pmcid:PMC6124170 fatcat:xqbk2ntadbdr5httn7b5lsidwi

TWO CASES OF METASTATIC CARCINOMA OF THE DUODENUM
転移性十二指腸腫瘍の2例

Hideyuki SEKI, Junichi SUZUKI, Kimihiro TAKEYABU, Shuichi KITAHAMA, Hirohide HAMAMOTO, Tetsunobu KANAI, Atsuhiko MIURA, Tomoaki ADACHI, Yoshikazu KAWAKAMI
1995 Gastroenterological Endoscopy  
Hideyuki SEKI Two Cases of Metastatic Carcinoma of the Duodenum.
doi:10.11280/gee1973b.37.782 fatcat:szwlyvz6mndtbpldxe6neoqmke

Inter-assay variability of next-generation sequencing-based gene panels

Pham Nguyen Quy, Keita Fukuyama, Masashi Kanai, Tadayuki Kou, Tomohiro Kondo, Masahiro Yoshioka, Junichi Matsubara, Tomohiro Sakuma, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
2022 BMC Medical Genomics  
Background Tumor heterogeneity has been known to cause inter-assay discordance among next-generation sequencing (NGS) results. However, whether preclinical factors such as sample type, sample quality and analytical features of gene panel can affect the concordance between two different assays remains largely unexplored. Methods Replicate sets of DNA samples extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE) (n = 20) and fresh frozen (FF) tissues (n = 10) were herein analyzed using a
more » ... tumor-only (TO) and paired tumor–normal (TN) gene panel in laboratories certified by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment. Reported variants from the TO and TN panels were then compared. Furthermore, additional FFPE samples were sequentially sliced from the same FFPE block and submitted to another TN panel assay. Results Substantial discordance (71.8%) was observed between the results of the two panels despite using identical DNA samples, with the discordance rate being significantly higher for FFPE samples (p < 0.05). Among the 99 variants reported only in the TO panel, 32.3% were consistent with germline variants, which were excluded in the TN panel, while 30.3% had an allele frequency of less than 5%, some of which were highly likely to be artificial calls. The comparison of two independent TN panel assay results from the same FFPE block also showed substantial discordance rate (55.3%). Conclusions In the context of clinical settings, our comparative analysis revealed that inter-NGS assay discordance commonly occurred due to sample types and the different analytical features of each panel.
doi:10.1186/s12920-022-01230-y pmid:35428255 pmcid:PMC9013031 fatcat:zydkg7cxhrendmsdqgzetwnxje

Development of Open Service Collaborative Platform for Coming ECS by International Joint Efforts [chapter]

Motohisa Funabashi, Junichi Toyouchi, Atsushi Kanai, Tomotaka Uchihashi, Toru Kobayashi, Satoshi Hakomori, Eiji Yoshida, Linda Strick, Marc Born
2002 Electronic Business and Education  
EC will not stay at only e-commerce but be evolved into other ECs such as electronic services for communities, and further, into electronic services for cultures. Present providers deliver mutually independent services, but within very short time, these services will be combined and collaborated over the network into single services just like an idea of global computing. In future, the services will be self-organized for pursuing human needs in communities and cultures. According to this bold
more » ... sion, Japanese and European leading industries have initiated technological development based on an idea of chaining non-deterministic provisioning of services and standardization efforts on this innovative open service platform.
doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-1497-8_14 fatcat:z7bv4ej2eneldgav5frm5o5mua

Genomic Heterogeneity in a Natural Archaeal Population Suggests a Model of tRNA Gene Disruption

Junichi Sugahara, Kosuke Fujishima, Takuro Nunoura, Yoshihiro Takaki, Hideto Takami, Ken Takai, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai, Lennart Randau
2012 PLoS ONE  
Understanding the mechanistic basis of the disruption of tRNA genes, as manifested in the intron-containing and split tRNAs found in Archaea, will provide considerable insight into the evolution of the tRNA molecule. However, the evolutionary processes underlying these disruptions have not yet been identified. Previously, a composite genome of the deep-branching archaeon Caldiarchaeum subterraneum was reconstructed from a community genomic library prepared from a C. subterraneum-dominated
more » ... ial mat. Here, exploration of tRNA genes from the library reveals that there are at least three types of heterogeneity at the tRNA Thr (GGU) gene locus in the Caldiarchaeum population. All three involve intronic gain and splitting of the tRNA gene. Of two fosmid clones found that encode tRNA Thr (GGU), one (tRNA Thr-I ) contains a single intron, whereas another (tRNA Thr-II ) contains two introns. Notably, in the clone possessing tRNA Thr-II , a 59 fragment of the tRNA Thr-I (tRNA Thr-F ) gene was observed 1.8-kb upstream of tRNA Thr-II . The composite genome contains both tRNA Thr-II and tRNA Thr-F , although the loci are .500 kb apart. Given that the 1.8-kb sequence flanked by tRNA Thr-F and tRNA Thr-II is predicted to encode a DNA recombinase and occurs in six regions of the composite genome, it may be a transposable element. Furthermore, its dinucleotide composition is most similar to that of the pNOB8-type plasmid, which is known to integrate into archaeal tRNA genes. Based on these results, we propose that the gain of the tRNA intron and the scattering of the tRNA fragment occurred within a short time frame via the integration and recombination of a mobile genetic element.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032504 pmid:22403667 pmcid:PMC3293823 fatcat:2uklx4xqxrf67eh7xdv6gqzam4

Comprehensive Analysis of Archaeal tRNA Genes Reveals Rapid Increase of tRNA Introns in the Order Thermoproteales

Junichi Sugahara, Kaoru Kikuta, Kosuke Fujishima, Nozomu Yachie, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai
2008 Molecular biology and evolution  
The analysis of archaeal tRNA genes is becoming more important to evaluate the origin and evolution of tRNA molecule. Even with the recent accumulation of complete genomes of numerous archaeal species, several tRNA genes are still required for a full complement of the codon table. We conducted comprehensive screening of tRNA genes from 47 archaeal genomes by using a combination of different types of tRNA prediction programs and extracted a total of 2,143 reliable tRNA gene candidates including
more » ... 37 intron-containing tRNA genes, which covered more than 99.9% of the codon tables in Archaea. Previously, the content of intron-containing tRNA genes in Archaea was estimated to be approximately 15% of the whole tRNA genes, and most of the introns were known to be located at canonical positions (nucleotide position between 37 and 38) of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Surprisingly, we observed marked enrichment of tRNA introns in five species of the archaeal order Thermoproteales; about 70% of tRNA gene candidates were found to be intron-containing tRNA genes, half of which contained multiple introns, and the introns were located at various noncanonical positions. Sequence similarity analysis revealed that approximately half of the tRNA introns found at Thermoproteales-specific intron locations were highly conserved among several tRNA genes. Intriguingly, identical tRNA intron sequences were found within different types of tRNA genes that completely lacked exon sequence similarity, suggesting that the tRNA introns in Thermoproteales could have been gained via intron insertion events at a later stage of tRNA evolution. Moreover, although the CCA sequence at the 3# terminal of pre-tRNA is added by a CCA-adding enzyme after gene transcription in Archaea, most of the tRNA genes containing highly conserved introns already encode the CCA sequence at their 3# terminal. Based on these results, we propose possible models explaining the rapid increase of tRNA introns as a result of intron insertion events via retrotransposition of pre-tRNAs. The sequences and secondary structures of the tRNA genes and their bulge-helix-bulge motifs were registered in SPLITSdb (http:// splits.iab.keio.ac.jp/splitsdb/), a novel and comprehensive database for archaeal tRNA genes.
doi:10.1093/molbev/msn216 pmid:18832079 fatcat:ty2vgfp3b5gnhmjbhdnepxdjs4

Fetal Myocardial Thickening Measured by Ultrasonic-Based Technique Called 'Phased-Tracking Method'

Shutaro Kunii, Junichi Sugawara, Yoshitaka Kimura, Noriaki Imai, Hiroshi Chisaka, Hideyuki Hasegawa, Yoshiro Koiwa, Hiroshi Kanai, Kunihiro Okamura
2006 Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy  
Kanai et al. [8] reported a tracking method by which measurement points of refl ected ultrasonic pulsatile waves fi xed in myocardium were accurately examined.  ... 
doi:10.1159/000093889 pmid:16912496 fatcat:3onzsiypung55mjb6igq2cng3i

Invasion of the Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan by Quadrastichus erythrinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
奄美群島へのデイゴヒメコバチ(ハチ目:ヒメコバチ科)の侵入

Kenichi Kanai, Kunihiko Matsuhira, Nami Uechi, Junichi Yukawa
2008 Nihon oyo dobutsu konchu gakkaishi  
Kenichi KANAI, 1, * Kunihiko MATSUHIRA, 2 Nami UECHI 3 and Junichi YUKAWA 4 1 Oshima High School; Amami, Kagoshima 894-8588, Japan. 2 Oshima Branch, Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural  ... 
doi:10.1303/jjaez.2008.151 fatcat:fwmfhl4zxrezfc2dv7actvcdkq
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