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Jumping to explanations versus jumping to conclusions

Ramón Pino-Pérez, Carlos Uzcátegui
1999 Artificial Intelligence  
The notion of an explanation is defined by saying that a formula γ (consistent with Σ) is an explanation of α if Σ ∪ {γ } α.  ...  and (ii) how close is abduction to reversed deduction? In the logic-based approach to abduction, the background theory is given by a consistent set of formulas Σ.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Jorge Lobo, M. Freund, D. Lehmann and the anonymous referees for their comments and criticism which have improved the quality of the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(99)00038-7 fatcat:pdpwncsluvc67cmrb3k6hu7ina

A Chemical Relaxation Study of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase

David B. Shear, Kenneth Kustin
1968 Biophysical Journal  
The conclusion drawn is that there are two forms of the prostatic enzyme, which are normally in equilibrium with each other, but which undergo a relatively slow interconversion when this equilibrium is  ...  Chemical relaxation methods and a dilution technique were applied to the study of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate by human prostatic acid phosphatase.  ...  The authors would like to thank Dr. Lawrence Grossman for his help in the preparation of the enzyme. Received for publication 10 April 1967 and in revised form 31 July 1967.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0006-3495(68)86480-x pmid:5641399 pmcid:PMC1367364 fatcat:wvuja2j4ofbkzkmtwvfikdpkra

Infants' enumeration of actions: numerical discrimination and its signature limits

Justin N. Wood, Elizabeth S. Spelke
2005 Developmental Science  
In contrast, infants failed to discriminate two-versus four-jump sequences, suggesting that infants fail to form cardinal number representations of small numbers of actions.  ...  At 6 months, infants successfully discriminated four-versus eight-jump sequences, when the continuous variables of sequence duration, jump duration, jump rate, jump interval and duration, and extent of  ...  Grant HD23103 to Elizabeth S. Spelke. We thank Jennifer Lipton for important contributions to the research.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00404.x pmid:15720375 fatcat:agg7tphcuvdypbs2styul4fwgu

Motor skills in relation to body-mass index, physical activity, TV-watching, and socioeconomic status in German four-to-17-year-old children

Siegfried Möller, Tanja Poulain, Antje Körner, Christof Meigen, Anne Jurkutat, Mandy Vogel, Sven Wessela, Andreas Hiemisch, Nico Grafe, Wieland Kiess, Catherine M. Capio
2021 PLoS ONE  
Methods 2,106 children (1076 boys, 1030 girls) aged 4 to 17 years performed five different motor tests for strength (pushups, standing long jump), coordination (backward balancing, jumping side-to-side  ...  Conclusions The present findings are similar to data collected at the beginning of the century, indicating that motor skills have hardly changed in recent years.  ...  A possible explanation is that TVwatching in itself is not detrimental to motor skills as long as it doesn't lead to a decrease in PA or a higher BMI.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0251738 pmid:33999953 fatcat:4a53lptfgnh3lnofa2xpstvwci

Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

Rachael Irving, Vilma Charlton, Errol Morrison, Aldeam Facey, Oral Buchanan
2013 The Scientific World Journal  
In conclusion, Jamaica's success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.  ...  Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters.  ...  The middle distance athletes seem to have a distinct demographic profile for all variables except language.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2013/670217 pmid:24396303 pmcid:PMC3874308 fatcat:2mm7qobnnnculk6nes6gknrmaa

Computer simulation study of the Levy flight process

Mehrdad Ghaemi, Zahra Zabihinpour, Yazdan Asgari
2009 Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications  
It is shown that the restriction of jump length to a maximum value (lm) affects the diffusion coefficient, even though it remains constant for lm greater than 1464.  ...  The results are also implied that the movement of a levy flight particle is similar to the case the particle moves in each time step with an average length of jumping .  ...  Conclusion Our results show that the restriction of jump length, limited number of samples, and the method of computation, i.e. using integers for r (an ordinary random walk algorithm) or using continuous  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.physa.2008.12.071 fatcat:oyt5oisazbf7nbrwnm6y5ce3tq

When Utility Jumps: The Value of Having Cash in the Hand

Kurt W. Rotthoff, Bentley Coffey
2018 Theoretical Economics Letters  
Our driving assumption is that preferences over riskier outcomes discontinuously depart from preferences under certainty; a jump from no risk to some risk is fundamentally different from a movement of  ...  some risk to more risk.  ...  Conclusion Engaging in risky activities is inevitable. Virtually all decisions entail some level of risk; the ability to eliminate all risk is relatively rare and hence very valuable.  ... 
doi:10.4236/tel.2018.81004 fatcat:5ohboqgzdrbvzh6efteakbwjzq

Multiple Transitions in Permalloy Half-Ring Wires with Finite-Size Effect

Cheng-Yi Wu, Shiow-Kang Yen
2020 Materials  
The number of switching jumps in the AMR loops, from zero to five, varied with the longitudinal applied field.  ...  Six permalloy (Py) half-rings with finite-size from 120 nm to 360 nm were connected in series on five corners.  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank C. Yu and K. W. Cheng for valuable assistance. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/ma13061384 pmid:32204309 fatcat:vd5idmeklbbdbpfmojlt5mgx4e

Phase specific changes in the countermovement jump occur without change in peak metrics following training

2021 The Journal of Sport and Exercise Science  
The countermovement jump (CMJ) is routinely used to assess changes in strength-power qualities. Common measures derived from this test include jump height, peak power and peak velocity.  ...  The objective of this investigation was to determine whether significant performance changes can occur in the CMJ in the absence of changes in jump height or peak-form metrics.  ...  A limitation of this single cohort study design was the inability to identify how CMJ phases are altered following mixed versus single modality resistance training.  ... 
doi:10.36905/jses.2021.03.04 fatcat:ehl3vq4onvfofkpsfozt2pemxe

Page 242 of The American Psychologist Vol. 3, Issue 7 [page]

1948 The American Psychologist  
CONCLUSION: Place and Response theories (growing out of white rat studies) fail to provide a unique explanation for the results of this study which provided the same op- erational definitions of.  ...  PROBLEM: An experiment has been reported by Lashley and Wade in which one group of rats made 200 jumps to a small circle in the jumping stand, and a second group made 200 jumps to a large one.  ... 

Sudden Jumps, Hysteresis, and Negative Resistance in an Argon Plasma Discharge. I. Discharges with No Magnetic Field

R. A. Bosch, R. L. Merlino
1986 Beiträge aus der Plasmaphysik  
This behavior can be attributed to a region of negative differential resistance in the voltage versus current characteristic of the discharge.  ...  A model is presented in order to understsnd the physical processes leading to this negative resistance.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank S. CARTIER, G. KNORR, and N. D'ANGELO for useful discussions and A. SCRELLER and D. HUDEK for skillful technical assistance.  ... 
doi:10.1002/ctpp.19860260102 fatcat:joys3ibxejbjjp4aft36kcfhvq

S-100β Protein in Relation to Skills Evaluation Test for Brain Damage in Pole Vault and High Jump Players after Competition

2014 مجلة تطبیقات علوم الریاضة  
The aim of the present study was to investigate S-100β in the blood of elite pole vault versus high jump players before and after a competitive game and to relate the changes in concentration to head trauma  ...  Material and Methods: Ten male elite pole vaults versus another ten high jump players participated in the national field and track games for youth under 20 years held in the Olympic centre (13 -15 /4/  ...  Conclusions S-100β was released into the blood of the players as a consequence of game-related activities and events. It is higher in levels in pole vault athletes related to high jump.  ... 
doi:10.21608/jass.2014.84759 fatcat:rd6xkdjx25dqtday2rt7pby7wq

Simplified Biomechanics for a Possible Explanation of the Ancient Greek Long Jump Using Halteres

Christopher Provatidis
2013 Universal Journal of Engineering Science  
In this paper closed form analytical expressions were derived in order to simulate the possible action of "halteres" used in the ancient Greek long jump.  ...  Particular attention is paid on the initial position and the direction of arms' rotation as well as on the role of the amount of masses due to the "halteres".  ...  In conclusion, when the halteres are rotating forwards (in the clockwise direction) they always contribute to produce jump lengths higher than the reference value of L = 6.7278 m (horizontal black line  ... 
doi:10.13189/ujes.2013.010102 fatcat:wnhodtzaobexfftrk6zbezrizy

The Contribution of Stretch-Shortening Cycle and Arm-Swing to Vertical Jumping Performance in Children, Adolescents, and Adult Basketball Players

Vassilis Gerodimos, Andreas Zafeiridis, Stefanos Perkos, Konstantina Dipla, Vassiliki Manou, Spiros Kellis
2008 Pediatric Exercise Science  
This study examined from childhood to adulthood: (1) the effects of countermovement (use of stretch-shortening cycle-SSC) and arm-swing (AS) on vertical jumping (VJ) performance and (2) the ability to  ...  Each participant executed three maximal squat jumps (SJ), countermovement jumps without arms (CMJ) and with arms (CMJA).  ...  jumping performances versus children and were likely to generate more energy and work during the downswing.  ... 
doi:10.1123/pes.20.4.379 pmid:19168915 fatcat:ygnwjblygrdk7pjnzklinowpl4

Increased Resistance during Jump Exercise Does Not Enhance Cortical Bone Formation

RAMON D. BOUDREAUX, JOSHUA M. SWIFT, HEATH G. GASIER, MICHAEL P. WIGGS, HARRY A. HOGAN, JAMES D. FLUCKEY, SUSAN A. BLOOMFIELD
2014 Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise  
CONCLUSION-These data demonstrate that jump training with minimal loading is equally, and sometimes more, effective at augmenting cortical bone integrity compared to overload training in skeletally mature  ...  PURPOSE-This study sought to elucidate the effects of a low-and high-load jump resistance exercise (RE) training protocol on cortical bone of the tibia and femur mid-diaphyses.  ...  Furthermore, five jumps per day in growing rats improved bone mass and strength with few differences versus animals jumped between 10 and 40 times per day (34) .  ... 
doi:10.1249/mss.0000000000000195 pmid:24743108 pmcid:PMC3992436 fatcat:nkmebrcdgra53kc4iugg2b5kvi
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