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Towards a European Contract Law
Schulze Jules Stuyck www.sellier.de vii Contributors Guido Alpa Professor of Civil Law at the University of Rome "La Sapienza", Italy. ...doi:10.1515/9783866539549.3 fatcat:xplbo3ch7raddj3iyjpfho2aym
Meeting the world's growing energy demand through bioenergy production involves extensive land-use change which could have severe environmental and social impacts. Second generation bioenergy feedstocks offer a possible solution to this problem. They have the potential to reduce land-use conflicts between food and bioenergy production as they can be grown on low quality land not suitable for food production. However, a comprehensive impact assessment that considers multiple ecosystem servicesdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153862 pmid:27082742 pmcid:PMC4833342 fatcat:sgyf36y52fg2boltqhqkovmewu
more »... SS) and biodiversity is needed to identify the environmentally best feedstock option, as trade-offs are inherent. In this study, we simulate the spatial distribution of short rotation coppices (SRCs) in the landscape of the Mulde watershed in Central Germany by modeling profit-maximizing farmers under different economic and policy-driven scenarios using a spatially explicit economic simulation model. This allows to derive general insights and a mechanistic understanding of regional-scale impacts on multiple ESS in the absence of large-scale implementation. The modeled distribution of SRCs, required to meet the regional demand of combined heat and power (CHP) plants for solid biomass, had little or no effect on the provided ESS. In the policy-driven scenario, placing SRCs on low or high quality soils to provide ecological focus areas, as required within the Common Agricultural Policy in the EU, had little effect on ESS. Only a substantial increase in the SRC production area, beyond the regional demand of CHP plants, had a relevant effect, namely a negative impact on food production as well as a positive impact on biodiversity and regulating ESS. Beneficial impacts occurred for single ESS. However, the number of sites with balanced ESS supply hardly increased due to larger shares of SRCs in the landscape. Regression analyses showed that the occurrence of sites with balanced ESS supply was more strongly driven by biophysical factors than by the SRC share in the landscape. This indicates that SRCs negligibly affect trade-offs between individual ESS. Coupling spatially explicit economic simulation models with environmental and ESS assessment models can contribute to a comprehensive impact assessment of bioenergy feedstocks that have not yet been planted.
., Schulze, J., Weise, H. & Schwarz, N. ( ). Theoretical foundations of human decision-making in agent-based land use models -A review. Environmental Modelling and So ware, , -. ... R., Groeneveld, J., Balbi, S., Nolzen, H., MÃĳller, B., Schulze, J. & Buchmann, C. M. ( ). Simple or complicated agent-based models? A complicated issue. Environmental Modelling and So ware, , -. ...doi:10.18564/jasss.3423 fatcat:bds2dbp2yjgujishk6leskadae
Furthermore, forests are a habitat for about 80% of world's terrestrial Correspondence: Jule Schulze, tel. +49 341 235 1707, fax +49 341 235 451707, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org biodiversity (IUCN, 2012 ...doi:10.1111/gcbb.12400 fatcat:5ecw3tqrirg6zb7mrq2zfym26q
Agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly recognized as valuable tools in modelling humanenvironmental systems, but challenges and critics remain. One pressing challenge in the era of "Big Data" and given the flexibility of representation afforded by ABMs, is identifying the appropriate level of complicatedness in model structure for representing and investigating complex real-world systems. In this paper, we differentiate the concepts of complexity (model behaviour) and complicatedness (modeldoi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.09.006 fatcat:4cdgz5exxzcj3oel5fpddx2goa
more »... structure), and illustrate the non-linear relationship between them. We then systematically evaluate the trade-offs between simple (often theoretical) models and complicated (often empirically-grounded) models. We propose using pattern-oriented modelling, stepwise approaches, and modular design to guide modellers in reaching an appropriate level of model complicatedness. While ABMs should be constructed as simple as possible but as complicated as necessary to address the predefined research questions, we also warn modellers of the pitfalls and risks of building "mid-level" models mixing stylized and empirical components. Agent-based models (ABMs) have become a well-established approach for studying complex humanenvironmental systems, such as land-use systems, by explicitly modelling decision-making and dynamic interactions of individuated actors (An, 2012; Filatova et al., 2013; Matthews et al., 2007; O'Sullivan et al., 2015; Parker et al., 2003) . ABMs allow modellers to explicitly incorporate feedbacks between human and environmental systems and to investigate emergent patterns at the macro level in time and space due to interactions at lower levels of organization (Batty, 2007). As a result, ABMs continue to gain popularity among modellers. Part of the success of ABMs stems from their ability to produce emergent system dynamics from often surprisingly simple rules specified at the individual level. The most popular and highly-cited agent based models are rather simple, mainly because they aim at delivering important insights on possible explanations for general patterns (Parker et al., 2003) . A famous example is the segregation model by Schelling (1969) , based on a simple rule specifying where and under what condition individuals relocate. The model shows how highly segregated patterns of societal groups can result from surprisingly weak aversion of individuals (i.e., relatively high tolerance to another group). Most early ABMs were stylized models to represent general dynamics in, for example, economic systems (). Often simple theoretical assumptions were made to model agents, partially due to incomplete knowledge of individuals' interactions or underlying decision mechanisms, but also because of limited data availability at the individual level. According to Parker et al. (2003) , such simple models fall into the category of so-called "Picasso"models-stylized models with a high level of abstraction used to test general principles and ideally yielding generalizable results. The simplicity of rules and a lack of empirical support mean simple ABMs are often labelled "toy" models, perceived to be suitable only for "proof-of-concept" purposes (Crooks et al., 2008; Janssen and Ostrom, 2006) . In contrast, so-called "photograph" models (Parker et al. 2003 ) depend on empirical data to provide high levels of detail (Balbi et al., 2013). Such models have gained great popularity with increasing numbers of ABMs of land use/land cover change designed and implemented for particular case studies (e.g., O'Sullivan et al. (2012); Piorr et al. (2009) ). These empirical ABMs tend to be more complicated and usually demand large amounts of data, defining detailed functions rather than using heuristic rules. The success of empirical ABMs proves that ABMs are not only for "proof-of-concept", but can also be useful in addressing real-world problems. The emergence of empirical ABMs is partially driven by an increasing demand of stakeholders and decision-makers to provide support for understanding the potential implications of decisions in Published as: http://dx.
A detailed description of the intervention and intervention outcomes are found in Schulz et al. 6 We control for group assignment in our analysis of post-baseline data to control for possible intervention ... died in the course of the study (48 in the control condition and 41 in the intervention condition); these CGs continued to be followed after the death of their CR using an abbreviated assessment (see Schulz ...doi:10.1089/jpm.2014.0309 pmid:25469737 pmcid:PMC4308821 fatcat:5ylbvnusgvc7jb3r5oxilvp2ni
2013. Describing human decisions in agent-based models -ODD+D, an extension of the ODD protocol. Environmental Modelling & Software 48, 37-48. Abstract Representing human decisions is of fundamental importance in agent-based models. However, the rationale for choosing a particular human decision model is often not sufficiently empirically or theoretically substantiated in the model documentation. Furthermore, it is difficult to compare models because the model descriptions are often incomplete,doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.06.003 fatcat:zrzb2ixvlvennfha43mw3t7f44
more »... not transparent and difficult to understand. Therefore, we expand and refine the 'ODD' (Overview, Design Concepts and Details) protocol to establish a standard for describing ABMs that includes human decision-making (ODD+D). Because the ODD protocol originates mainly from an ecological perspective, some adaptations are necessary to better capture human decision-making. We extended and rearranged the design concepts and related guiding questions to differentiate and describe decision-making, adaptation and learning of the agents in a comprehensive and clearly structured way. The ODD+D protocol also incorporates a section on 'Theoretical and Empirical Background' to encourage model designs and model assumptions that are more closely related to theory. The application of the ODD+D protocol is illustrated with a description of a social-ecological ABM on water use. Although the ODD+D protocol was developed on the basis of example implementations within the socio-ecological scientific community, we believe that the ODD+D protocol may prove helpful for describing ABMs in general when human decisions are included.
Zusammenfassung. Predictive Analytics dient dazu, unter Zuhilfenahme von statistischen Verfahren und auf Basis historischer und aktueller Daten Vorhersagen zu zukünftigen Ereignissen zu treffen. Anwendungsfälle für eine solche Form der Analyse sind in einigen Branchen bzw. Unternehmen zurzeit noch schwer zu finden. In diesem Artikel wird ein agiles Modell vorgestellt, das die Einführung von Predictive Analytics unterstützt und dabei die Unsicherheit minimiert. Damit wird eine Lücke zudblp:conf/lwa/AssmannSS20 fatcat:vkhiqyvggnbpfcpowzvqmnmtvq
more »... n Vorgehensmodellen geschlossen, die erst ansetzen, wenn die Entscheidung, eine Datenanalyse auf einer spezifischen Problemstellung durchzuführen, bereits getroffen wurde. Der Entstehung des Modells liegen Erfahrungen zugrunde, die bei der Gruner + Jahr GmbH in einem Geschäftsbereich gesammelt wurden, der dem Bereich des Digital Marketings & Advertisings zuzuordnen ist. Eine Übertragbarkeit auf andere Branchen wird berücksichtigt.
The fact that similar values are reported by Schulz et al. ... Family caregiver depressive symptoms and anxiety persist with similar severity as when they were providing in-home care, and anxiolytic use has been found to increase preto post-placement (Schulz et al ...doi:10.1080/07317115.2014.907594 pmid:25071302 pmcid:PMC4111253 fatcat:ixy3p6kxv5ax5ptr5mpdulrzmq
Abstract. As part of the EUREC4A field campaign which took place over the tropical North Atlantic during January–February 2020, 1215 dropsondes from the HALO and WP-3D aircraft were deployed through 26 flights to characterize the thermodynamic and dynamic environment of clouds in the trade-wind regions. We present JOANNE (Joint dropsonde Observations of the Atmosphere in tropical North atlaNtic meso-scale Environments), the dataset that contains these dropsonde measurements and the productsdoi:10.5194/essd-13-5253-2021 fatcat:5p7tr2lyszb5zgwwuan6z2drla
more »... ved from them. Along with the raw measurement profiles and basic post-processing of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and horizontal winds, the dataset also includes a homogenized and gridded dataset with 10 m vertical spacing. The gridded data are used as a basis for deriving diagnostics of the area-averaged mesoscale circulation properties such as divergence, vorticity, vertical velocity and gradient terms, making use of sondes dropped at regular intervals along a circular flight path. A total of 85 such circles, ∼ 222 km in diameter, were flown during EUREC4A. We describe the sampling strategy for dropsonde measurements during EUREC4A, the quality control for the data, the methods of estimation of additional products from the measurements and the different post-processed levels of the dataset. The dataset is publicly available (https://doi.org/10.25326/246, George et al., 2021b) as is the software used to create it (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4746312, George, 2021).
usan las TIC para favorecer procesos de adquisición de diferentes habilidades y conceptos asociados a la física newtoniana (Clark, y otros, 2011) , el manejo y administración de recursos naturales (Schulze ...doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.11.029 fatcat:axhbq4fhcffz7foafxc4b3juwe
Data related to the publication: LXRα activation and Raf inhibition trigger lethal lipotoxicity in liver cancer. The files include raw trajectory files (three replicates REP1 - 3) of the Desmond MD simulations of sorafenib within the ligand binding pocket of LXRalpha (PDB ID: 3IPS) and LXRbeta (PDB ID: 1PQ6), as well as in the AF-2 groove for both LXRalpha (PDB ID: 3IPS) and LXRbeta (PDB ID: 3L0E). One extra simulation of sorafenib on the LXRbeta's AF-2 region (PDB ID: 1PQ6) was tested and isdoi:10.5281/zenodo.3253878 fatcat:axpbf4l45rhalk6uuhame424ai
more »... esented. (trajectory format is out.cms and the full trj files, Schrödinger, LLC, New York, NY, 2018, mor details on the extended methods of the publication)
Demographic trends indicate an aging population, highlighting the importance of collecting valid survey data from older adults. One potential issue when surveying older adults is use of technology to collect data on sensitive topics. Survey technologies like A-CASI and IVR have not been used with older adults to measure elder mistreatment. We surveyed 903 adults age 60 and older in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (U.S.) with random assignment to one of four survey modes: (1) CAPI, (2) A-CASI,pmid:21113391 pmcid:PMC2990982 fatcat:mw35g3nnafepzbevltnh5iqpam
more »... CATI; and (4) IVR. We assessed financial, psychological, and physical mistreatment, and examined feasibility of A-CASI and IVR, and effects on prevalence estimates relative to CAPI and CATI. Approximately 83% of elders randomized to A-CASI/IVR used each technology, although 28% of respondents in the A-CASI condition refused to use headphones and read the questions instead. A-CASI produced higher six month prevalence rates of financial and psychological mistreatment than CAPI. IVR produced higher six month prevalence rates of psychological mistreatment than CATI. We conclude that, while IVR may be useful, A-CASI offers a more promising approach to the measurement of elder mistreatment.
Keywords: Agent-based modelling Domain specific languages Graphical representations Model communication Model comparison Model development Model design Model replication Standardised protocols a b s t r a c t Agent-based models are helpful to investigate complex dynamics in coupled humanenatural systems. However, model assessment, model comparison and replication are hampered to a large extent by a lack of transparency and comprehensibility in model descriptions. In this article we address thedoi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.01.029 fatcat:62ylftam3fd5ffycum6t6fgydq
more »... uestion of whether an ideal standard for describing models exists. We first suggest a classification for structuring types of model descriptions. Secondly, we differentiate purposes for which model descriptions are important. Thirdly, we review the types of model descriptions and evaluate each on their utility for the purposes. Our evaluation finds that the choice of the appropriate model description type is purposedependent and that no single description type alone can fulfil all requirements simultaneously. However, we suggest a minimum standard of model description for good modelling practice, namely the provision of source code and an accessible natural language description, and argue for the development of a common standard.
Abstract. As part of the EUREC4A (Elucidating the role of cloud–circulation coupling in climate) field campaign, the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft), configured as a cloud observatory, conducted 15 research flights in the trade-wind region east of Barbados in January and February 2020. Narrative text, aircraft state data, and metadata describing HALO's operation during the campaign are provided. Each HALO research flight is segmented by timestampdoi:10.5194/essd-13-5545-2021 fatcat:vu5or3y7und3flbcfvwu6zipim
more »... tervals into standard elements to aid the consistent analysis of the flight data. Photographs from HALO's cabin and animated satellite images synchronized with flight tracks are provided to visually document flight conditions. As a comprehensive product from the remote sensing observations, a multi-sensor cloud mask product is derived and quantifies the incidence of clouds observed during the flights. In addition, to lower the threshold for new users of HALO's data, a collection of use cases is compiled into an online book, How to EUREC4A, included as an asset with this paper. This online book provides easy access to most of EUREC4A's HALO data through an intake catalogue. Code and data are freely available at the locations specified in Table 6.
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