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To investigate the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on soccer performance during a simulated game. A second purpose was to assess the post-exercise urine caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. Methodology/Principal Findings: Nineteen semiprofessional soccer players ingested 630652 mL of a commercially available energy drink (sugar-free Red BullH) to provide 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass, or a decaffeinated control drink (0 mg/kg). After sixty minutesdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031380 pmid:22348079 pmcid:PMC3279366 fatcat:sylduz6p4rg35lekdcgajln4be
more »... y performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a repeated sprint test (7630 m; 30 s of active recovery) and played a simulated soccer game. Individual running distance and speed during the game were measured using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. In comparison to the control drink, the ingestion of the energy drink increased mean jump height in the jump test (34.764.7 v 35.865.5 cm; P,0.05), mean running speed during the sprint test (25.662.1 v 26.361.8 km ? h 21 ; P,0.05) and total distance covered at a speed higher than 13 km ? h 21 during the game (12056289 v 14366326 m; P,0.05). In addition, the energy drink increased the number of sprints during the whole game (30610 v 2468; P,0.05). Post-exercise urine caffeine concentration was higher after the energy drink than after the control drink (4.161.0 v 0.160.1 mg ? mL 21 ; P,0.05). Conclusions/significance: A caffeine-containing energy drink in a dose equivalent to 3 mg/kg increased the ability to repeatedly sprint and the distance covered at high intensity during a simulated soccer game. In addition, the caffeinated energy drink increased jump height which may represent a meaningful improvement for headers or when players are competing for a ball.
The application of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) as an elicitor to enhance secondary metabolites in grapes and wines has been studied, but there is little information about its use in conjunction with nanotechnology and no information about its effects on wine volatile compounds. This led us to study the impact of nanoparticles doped with MeJ (Nano-MeJ, 1mM MeJ) on the volatile composition of Monastrell wines over three seasons, compared with the application of MeJ in a conventional way (10 mM MeJ).doi:10.3390/molecules27092878 pmid:35566227 pmcid:PMC9102950 fatcat:vejozio2bvhozgwe3sae64ylx4
more »... e results showed how both treatments enhanced fruity esters in wines regardless of the vintage year, although the increase was more evident when grapes were less ripe. These treatments also achieved these results in 2019 in the cases of 1-propanol, ß-phenyl-ethanol, and methionol, in 2020 in the cases of hexanol and methionol, and in 2021, but only in the case of hexanol. On the other hand, MeJ treatment also increased the terpene fraction, whereas Nano-MeJ, at the applied concentration, did not increase it in any of the seasons. In summary, although not all families of volatile compounds were increased by Nano-MeJ, the Nano-MeJ treatment generally increased the volatile composition to an extent similar to that obtained with MeJ used in a conventional way, but at a 10 times lower dose. Therefore, the use of nanotechnology could be a good option for improving the quality of wines from an aromatic point of view, while reducing the necessary dosage of agrochemicals, in line with more sustainable agricultural practices.
Daniel Rodríguez Mariscal, Juan Javier Usero Fernández | Asociación Taph Taph Jorge Moya Muñoz | Asociación Taph Taph, Universidad de Sevilla 1 URL <http://www.iaph.es/revistaph/index.php/revistaph/issue ... experimentación (2018-2020), facilita una guía, para las futuras Casa cueva en el barrio del Castillo de | fotos Asociación Taph Taph Barrio del Castillo de Alcalá de Guadaíra (Sevilla) Arturo Jiménez Viera, José ...doi:10.33349/2019.96.4278 fatcat:eyisl3g3ijdbxbrv6wsdty3jzi
doi:10.1177/2325967115622434 pmid:27213161 pmcid:PMC4710119 fatcat:z43gm6bij5a6pgiupfkflqsu2i
Background For many nursing students, clinical training represents a stressful experience. The levels of stress and anxiety may vary during students' educational training, depending on their ability to adopt behavioral strategies for coping with stress, and other factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between anxiety, perceived stress, and the coping strategies used by nursing students during their clinical training. Methods A cross-sectional correlational descriptive study.doi:10.1186/s12909-020-02294-z pmid:33081751 fatcat:din5hu3q6vfzxku2r5yh3yix6y
more »... he sample consisted of 190 nursing students enrolled in the Nursing Faculty of Ciudad Real University in Spain. Participants provided data on background characteristics and completed the following instruments: the Perceived Stress Scale; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Coping Behavior Inventory. Relationships between scores were examined using Spearman's rho. Results The mean age of participants was 20.71 ± 3.89 years (range 18–46 years). Approximately half of the students (47.92%) indicated a moderate level of stress with a mean Perceived Stress Scale score of 22.78 (±8.54). Senior nursing students perceived higher levels of stress than novice students. The results showed a significant correlation for perceived stress and state anxiety (r = 0.463, p < .000) and also for trait anxiety (r = 0.718, p < .000). There was also a significant relationship between the total amount of perceived stress and the following domains of the coping behavior inventory: problem solving (r = −.452, p < .01), self-criticism (r = .408 p < .01), wishful thinking (r = .459, p < .01), social support(r = −.220, p < .01), cognitive restructuring (r = −.375, p < .01), and social withdrawal (r = .388, p < .01). In the current study, the coping strategy most frequently used by students was problem-solving, followed by social support and cognitive restructuring. Conclusions Nursing students in our study presented a moderate level of stress, in addition there was a significant correlation with anxiety. Nursing teachers and clinical preceptors/mentors should be encouraged to develop programs to help prepare nursing students to cope with the challenges they are about to face during their clinical placements.
In this paper we prove a characterization of continuity for polynomials on a normed space. Namely, we prove that a polynomial is continuous if and only if it maps compact sets into compact sets. We also provide a partial answer to the question as to whether a polynomial is continuous if and only if it transforms connected sets into connected sets. These results motivate the natural question as to how many non-continuous polynomials there are on an infinite dimensional normed space. A problem onarXiv:1105.1737v1 fatcat:bhpxddioardixcyei4ckxhmcdm
more »... the lineability of the sets of non-continuous polynomials and multilinear mappings on infinite dimensional normed spaces is answered.
This research presents a comparative analysis of wind speed forecasting methods applied to perform 1 h-ahead forecasting. The main significant development has been the introduction of low-quality measurements as exogenous information to improve these predictions. Eight prediction models have been assessed; three of these models [persistence, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and multiple linear regression] are used as references, and the remaining five, based on neural networks,doi:10.3390/en6115807 fatcat:cbn5652c4bdkfa3qr2zgam657a
more »... re evaluated on the basis of two procedures. Firstly, four quality indices are assessed (the Pearson's correlation coefficient, the index of agreement, the mean absolute error and the mean squared error). Secondly, an analysis of variance test and multiple comparison procedure are conducted. The findings indicate that a backpropagation network with five neurons in the hidden layer is the best model obtained with respect to the reference models. The pair of improvements (mean absolute-mean squared error) obtained are 29.10%-56.54%, 28.15%-53.99% and 4.93%-14.38%, for the persistence, ARIMA and multiple linear regression models, respectively. The experimental results reported in this paper show that traditional agricultural measurements enhance the predictions. Energies 2013, 6 5808
Fernández-López et al. ...  , Gil-Muñoz et al.  , and Hernández-Jiménez et al.  . ...doi:10.3390/biom9110671 pmid:31671633 pmcid:PMC6921032 fatcat:fsumjqh7zzhirdjtxdz6vhqbia
Analysis of Anthocyanins in Grapes and Wines Grape and wine anthocyanins were determined according to Gil-Muñoz et al.  . ...doi:10.3390/molecules26061689 pmid:33802929 fatcat:3ymkjk342razhfbas33q5tnxfu
Objective: Due to the increasing use of biologic therapy in rheumatic diseases and the importance of its risk management, the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER) has promoted the development of recommendations based on the best evidence available. These recommendations should be a reference to rheumatologists and those involved in the treatment of patients who are using, or about to use biologic therapy irrespectively of the rheumatic disease. Methods: Recommendations were developed followingdoi:10.1016/j.reuma.2011.05.002 pmid:21925444 fatcat:2wn5n2foenfn3n567fudnwpzuy
more »... a nominal group methodology and based on systematic reviews. The level of evidence and degree of recommendation were classified according to the model proposed by the Center for Evidence Based Medicine at Oxford. The level of agreement was established through a Delphi technique. Evidence from previous consensus and clinical guidelines was used. Results: We have produced recommendations on risk management of biologic therapy in rheumatic patients. These recommendations include indication risk management, risk management before the use of biologic therapy, risk management during follow-up, attitude to adverse events, and attitude to special situations. Conclusions: We present the SER recommendations related to biologic therapy risk management.
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rather infrequent neoplasm that mostly occurs with an autonomous secretion of steroids or steroid precursors. Previous cases have been reported with simultaneous production of metanephrines, but they were associated with intercurrent pheochromocytoma or mixed corticomedular tumors. So far, only two cases of adrenocortical carcinoma that deliver medullar hormones had been published. We herein report a singular case of a 58-year-old man with a finding of andoi:10.5281/zenodo.5514202 fatcat:q5ja53pfk5do5e2jddh53f4lca
more »... adrenal mass that demonstrated metanephrine production in the hormonal study. Consequently, initial diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was established. Microscopic examination showed an adrenal mass with marked pleomorphism and frequent mitosis. Large areas of coagulative necrosis were interspersed within the tumour. After immunohistochemistry staining there was a high expression of Ki67 (>70%) showing highly proliferative behaviour. Both cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and vimentin were positive, synaptophysin and chromogranin were negative. The surgical margins were free. Given these features, a diagnosis of metanephrin-producing adrenocortical carcinoma was done.
Mitochondria play key roles in ATP supply, calcium homeostasis, redox balance control and apoptosis, which in neurons are fundamental for neurotransmission and to allow synaptic plasticity. Their functional integrity is maintained by mitostasis, a process that involves mitochondrial transport, anchoring, fusion and fission processes regulated by different signaling pathways but mainly by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). PGC-1α also favors Ca2+doi:10.3390/biom11071012 pmid:34356637 pmcid:PMC8301949 fatcat:5ntu6jpsdjg2jhwktwargjlja4
more »... , reduces oxidative stress, modulates inflammatory processes and mobilizes mitochondria to where they are needed. To achieve their functions, mitochondria are tightly connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through specialized structures of the ER termed mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which facilitate the communication between these two organelles mainly to aim Ca2+ buffering. Alterations in mitochondrial activity enhance reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, disturbing the physiological metabolism and causing cell damage. Furthermore, cytosolic Ca2+ overload results in an increase in mitochondrial Ca2+, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and the induction of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, leading to mitochondrial swelling and cell death through apoptosis as demonstrated in several neuropathologies. In summary, mitochondrial homeostasis is critical to maintain neuronal function; in fact, their regulation aims to improve neuronal viability and to protect against aging and neurodegenerative diseases.
Euthanasia is undoubtedly the protagonist of many of the debates around the end of life both among health staff and in the general population. Considering that nurses provide care for terminally ill patients and support families and patients in their final days, it is essential to know their attitudes towards euthanasia. The aims of the study were to adapt and validate the Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale to a Spanish context, to test the dimensionality and to estimate the reliability of thedoi:10.3390/ijerph17113855 pmid:32485846 fatcat:s46x6tzc2nbt3f32xsivncnmia
more »... ale. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of Spanish health-workers of 201 in a University Hospital in Ciudad Real. A self-reported socio-demographic questionnaire and the Euthanasia Attitude Scale were used for data collection. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed, including reliability and validity using an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha of the Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale was α = 0.827 and McDonald's Omega = 0.903. The range of items of homogeneity was from 0.205 to 0.685. For the different exploratory factor analyses carried out, the Bartlett's test of sphericity was p < 0.001 and the sample index value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was over 0.802. in all cases. We present the factorial weights for three models: The first one assumes a unidimensional solution, the second model was composed by three factors and the third model was composed by four factors. In the confirmatory factor analysis, the three models presented an acceptable fit index. The Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale adaptation to a sample of Spanish health workers has shown, with some limitations, appropriate psychometric properties. There have been several differences between the original factorial solution. It would be necessary to replicate the study to reinforce the findings about the number of factors of the scale.
Juan Carlos Garnier Fernández, Dr. ... José Daniel Pérez Muñoz Revista Médica Sinergia Vol.5 (12), Diciembre 2020 -ISSN:2215-4523 / e-ISSN:2215-5279 http://revistamedicasinergia.com Revista Médica Sinergia Vol.5 (12), Diciembre 2020 -ISSN ...doi:10.31434/rms.v5i12.614 fatcat:lxjdori56zhdxoazwd4owvzupu
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