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Data Science Data Governance [AI Ethics]

Joshua A. Kroll
2018 IEEE Security and Privacy  
How was a set of data collected or obtained? Were the data collected directly from customers, or was the dataset purchased from a third party?  ...  Is use of the data restricted by a privacy policy or contractual requirements? Do any data protection or other laws  ...  a baby, meaning that pregnancy is a prime opportunity to acquire new regular customers.  ... 
doi:10.1109/msec.2018.2875329 fatcat:dwfmq4h43fecjirb4wp2ibmbei

Security Audit of Safeplug "Tor in a Box"

Anne Edmundson, Anna Kornfeld Simpson, Joshua A. Kroll, Edward W. Felten
2014 USENIX Security Symposium  
Furthermore, an engineering vulnerability in how the Safeplug accepts settings changes would allow an adversary internal or external to a user's home network to silently disable Tor or modify other Safeplug  ...  by a Safeplug on a home network is even smaller.  ...  Opportunities Despite all the structural problems, is there a market for a Torifying piece of hardware?  ... 
dblp:conf/uss/EdmundsonSKF14 fatcat:mdabpuc3jffzpcbthmohe6eosq

Portable Software Fault Isolation

Joshua A. Kroll, Gordon Stewart, Andrew W. Appel
2014 2014 IEEE 27th Computer Security Foundations Symposium  
We present a new technique for architecture portable software fault isolation (SFI), together with a prototype implementation in the Coq proof assistant.  ...  Unlike traditional SFI, which relies on analysis of assembly-level programs, we analyze and rewrite programs in a compiler intermediate language, the Cminor language of the CompCert C compiler.  ...  Joshua Kroll was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant number DGE-1148900.  ... 
doi:10.1109/csf.2014.10 dblp:conf/csfw/KrollSA14 fatcat:3nbs6e6gtza5veoggnepamndeu

Predicted Higgs-related spin 1/2 particles as a new dark matter candidate [article]

Joshua Stenzel, Johannes Kroll, Minjie Lei, Roland E. Allen
2015 arXiv   pre-print
They cannot decay through any obvious mechanisms in standard physics, making them a new dark matter candidate.  ...  The lowest-energy of these should have a mass m_1/2 comparable to the mass m_h of the recently discovered Higgs boson, with m_1/2 = m_h in the simplest model.  ...  in a 4-component field Φ b = Φ Φ † c .  ... 
arXiv:1511.00301v1 fatcat:65h4h6wh4rhofmampfol5c54w4

The fallacy of inscrutability

Joshua A. Kroll
2018 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  
Testing is just the most straightforward of a number of technologies that allow software to be reviewed and validated for consistency with a specification (a taxonomy can be found in Kroll et al.  ...  a system's mechanism of action as a process within a broad sociotechnical system [30] .  ... 
doi:10.1098/rsta.2018.0084 pmid:30322999 pmcid:PMC6191668 fatcat:xjwx57vevvfs3bbhoiqhozrnea

Mixcoin: Anonymity for Bitcoin with Accountable Mixes [chapter]

Joseph Bonneau, Arvind Narayanan, Andrew Miller, Jeremy Clark, Joshua A. Kroll, Edward W. Felten
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We propose Mixcoin, a protocol to facilitate anonymous payments using the Bitcoin currency system.  ...  Then the continual mixing algorithm for a chunk c for which initial mixing completes at time t 0 is as follows: • generate ∆ A,c = U [0, ∆ A ] • mix c at time ∆ A,c and thereafter at ∆ A intervals • mark  ...  This can be done with a public source of randomness called a beacon.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_31 fatcat:bnnvhrmqbzbuvhsl3l2ixukcwa

SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies

Joseph Bonneau, Andrew Miller, Jeremy Clark, Arvind Narayanan, Joshua A. Kroll, Edward W. Felten
2015 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy  
This enables a more insightful analysis of Bitcoin's properties and future stability.  ...  We identify three general disintermediation strategies and provide a detailed comparison.  ...  If a majority miner's goal is explicitly to destroy Bitcoin's stability and hence its utility as a currency, they can easily do so. Kroll et al.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2015.14 dblp:conf/sp/BonneauMCNKF15 fatcat:ziajrymw3bdd7houz56culqkoi

This Thing Called Fairness

Deirdre K. Mulligan, Joshua A. Kroll, Nitin Kohli, Richmond Y. Wong
2019 Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction  
We use a case study of risk assessments in criminal justice applications to both motivate our effort--describing how conflation of different concepts under the banner of "fairness" led to unproductive  ...  Research for this article has been supported by generous funding from the US NSF INSPIRE SES1537324, NSF DGE 1752814, the Berkeley Center for Law and Technology, and a generous gift from Microsoft.  ...  In particular, a growing body of work 119:2 Mulligan, Kroll, Kohli, and Wong focuses on how to produce technical artifacts and organizational structures that promote values such as fairness, accountability  ... 
doi:10.1145/3359221 fatcat:athgwoavcff27eej7duntwxohm

Network Hygiene, Incentives, and Regulation

Matthew Luckie, Robert Beverly, Ryan Koga, Ken Keys, Joshua A. Kroll, k claffy
2019 Proceedings of the 2019 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS '19  
The client automatically runs tests both periodically and when it detects a new network attachment point.  ...  In our data for the year ending August 2019, at least a quarter of tested ASes did not filter packets with spoofed source addresses leaving their networks.  ...  Figure 9 : 9 The two ways a NAT can forward packets with spoofed addresses. First, a NAT may forward packets with a (V)ictim's address towards an (A)mplifier.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3319535.3354232 dblp:conf/ccs/LuckieBKKKc19 fatcat:3rbv2gpvt5eq3ovlow7tksacju


2007 International Journal of Semantic Computing (IJSC)  
It is a version of a cross-validation method known as Leaving-one-out ( [9] ).  ...  For example, a single hand shape may be held throughout a gesture in which the upper arm moves.  ... 
doi:10.1142/s1793351x07000287 fatcat:5nhsxlsg2faefkxe34py3tcrra

MEK Inhibitors Reverse Growth of Embryonal Brain Tumors Derived from Oligoneural Precursor Cells

Katarzyna Modzelewska, Elena F. Boer, Timothy L. Mosbruger, Daniel Picard, Daniela Anderson, Rodney R. Miles, Mitchell Kroll, William Oslund, Theodore J. Pysher, Joshua D. Schiffman, Randy Jensen, Cicely A. Jette (+2 others)
2016 Cell Reports  
Thus, MEK inhibitors represent a promising rationally designed therapy for children afflicted with oligoneural/NB-FOXR2 CNS-PNETs.  ...  d Activating NRAS/MAPK signaling in OPCs generates CNS-PNET-like tumors in zebrafish d Cancer genomes of zebrafish and human NB-FOXR2 CNS-PNETs are highly conserved d MEK inhibitors are identified as a  ...  Loss of p53 function was also a critical component ( Figure 1E ).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2016.09.081 pmid:27783941 fatcat:neywpd7kbjcf5jmwzpc6eesu24

Chemical evolution of atmospheric organic carbon over multiple generations of oxidation

Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Paola Massoli, Rachel O'Brien, Christopher Lim, Jonathan P. Franklin, Joshua A. Moss, James F. Hunter, John B. Nowak, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Pawel K. Misztal, Caleb Arata, Joseph R. Roscioli (+9 others)
2018 Nature Chemistry  
The evolution of atmospheric organic carbon as it undergoes oxidation has a controlling influence on concentrations of key atmospheric species, including particulate matter, ozone and oxidants.  ...  and track all OC in a reactive system.  ...  O rganic compounds play a central role in the chemistry of the atmosphere by contributing to ozone formation 1,2 , serving as the primary sink for oxidants in the atmosphere 3, 4 and constituting a substantial  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0002-2 pmid:29483638 fatcat:7teqsc2einhhhkt3bl4llot5g4


Neda Jahanshad, Joshua I. Faskowitz, Gennady Roshchupkin, Derrek Hibar, Boris A. Gutman, Nicholas J. Tustison, Hieab H.H. Adams, Wiro Niessen, Meike W. Vernooij, M. Arfan Ikram, Marcel P. Zwiers, Alejandro Arias Vasquez (+8 others)
2019 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology & Bioinformatics  
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) link full genome data to a handful of traits.  ...  driven in a private car, and 13% caught a bus.  ...  Personal exposure intensity gives a dimensionless value and is a better indication of how relatively polluted a microenvironment is for a given child.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcbb.2019.2914905 pmid:31135366 pmcid:PMC9067093 fatcat:h336i3xrxfbhnhnzyy3qpfkw6q

X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser

Thomas Kroll, Jan Kern, Markus Kubin, Daniel Ratner, Sheraz Gul, Franklin D. Fuller, Heike Löchel, Jacek Krzywinski, Alberto Lutman, Yuantao Ding, Georgi L. Dakovski, Stefan Moeller (+20 others)
2016 Optics Express  
Here we compare L-edge xray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a prototypical transition metal system based on monochromatizing the SASE radiation of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) with a new technique  ...  L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated.  ...  The x-ray pulses had a duration of ~100 fs at a repetition rate of 120 Hz.  ... 
doi:10.1364/oe.24.022469 pmid:27828320 pmcid:PMC5234502 fatcat:ji3rkft6lbckllpmsgij2n4e6i

Outlining Traceability: A Principle for Operationalizing Accountability in Computing Systems [article]

Joshua A. Kroll
2021 pre-print
Traceability requires establishing not only how a system worked but how it was created and for what purpose, in a way that explains why a system has particular dynamics or behaviors.  ...  Accountability is widely understood as a goal for well governed computer systems, and is a sought-after value in many governance contexts. But how can it be achieved?  ...  As a hypothetical example, imagine software which measures a parameter of a forensic sample and performs differing analysis based on whether the measured value was above or below a given threshold.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3442188.3445937 arXiv:2101.09385v1 fatcat:54z6k3r4uvd2pocr5y6hbhw65q
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