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Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

Jordi Llorens, Emilio Gil, Jordi Llop, Meritxell Queraltó
2011 Sensors  
The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR
more » ... with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth ® , providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.
doi:10.3390/s110606237 pmid:22163952 pmcid:PMC3231455 fatcat:a5onqm7wh5f6dlov7y5bseixrm

Influence of air-assistance on spray application for tomato plants in greenhouses

Jordi Llop, Emilio Gil, Jordi Llorens, Montserrat Gallart, Paolo Balsari
2015 Crop Protection  
Gil (2001), Llorens et al. (2010) and Llop et al. 162 (2015) used similar arrangements. The sprayers passed along the row spraying the canopy from 163 both sides.  ...  This blower had an electric engine connected to a cable attached to the feeding 118 pipe following the specifications described by Llop et al. (2015). 121 2 121 .1.2 Sagevi sprayer (used for treatment  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2015.09.026 fatcat:nqr6vejdivge7fuvbbsbuqajhq

Use of a Terrestrial LIDAR Sensor for Drift Detection in Vineyard Spraying

Emilio Gil, Jordi Llorens, Jordi Llop, Xavier Fàbregas, Montserrat Gallart
2013 Sensors  
The use of a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system to characterize drift during pesticide application is described. The LIDAR system is compared with an ad hoc test bench used to quantify the amount of spray liquid moving beyond the canopy. Two sprayers were used during the field test; a conventional mist blower at two air flow rates (27,507 and 34,959 m 3 ·h −1 ) equipped with two different nozzle types (conventional and air injection) and a multi row sprayer with individually
more » ... ented air outlets. A simple model based on a linear function was used to predict spray deposit using LIDAR measurements and to compare with the deposits measured over the test bench. Results showed differences in the effectiveness of the LIDAR sensor depending on the sprayed droplet size (nozzle type) and air intensity. For conventional mist blower and low air flow rate; the sensor detects a greater number of drift drops obtaining a better correlation (r = 0.91; p < 0.01) than for the case of coarse droplets or high air flow rate. In the case of the multi row sprayer; drift deposition in the test bench was very poor. In general; the use of the LIDAR sensor presents an interesting and easy technique to establish the potential drift of a specific spray situation as an adequate alternative for the evaluation of drift potential.
doi:10.3390/s130100516 pmid:23282583 pmcid:PMC3574688 fatcat:jjjg6sacxngkbch6m5rg5dfm3y

Preparation of gold glyconanoparticles (AuGNPs) as theragnostic agents for brain ischemia

Riccardo Rovina, Jordi Llop, Monica Carril
2019 Zenodo  
Rovina Riccardo a , Jordi Llop a , Mónica Carril bcd a  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3560757 fatcat:qa5zgjsorrao3ogghrxdxdspza

Gemma Domènech i Casadevall. 2015. Tell. El llop solitari de l'exili català. Barcelona: Editorial Dux, 268 p

Jordi Font Agulló
2016 Franquisme & Transició Revista d Història i de Cultura  
El llop solitari de l'exili català. Barcelona: Editorial Dux, 268 p.  ...  portarà a sentir-se com un llop solitari però sempre a l'aguait dels moviments de l'interior.  ... 
doi:10.7238/fit.v0i4.3089 fatcat:y535tlzllrbzvgiph4uh5ume2e

Ultrasonic and LIDAR Sensors for Electronic Canopy Characterization in Vineyards: Advances to Improve Pesticide Application Methods

Jordi Llorens, Emilio Gil, Jordi Llop, Alexandre Escolà
2011 Sensors  
Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop
more » ... lume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (C VU ) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R 2 = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R 2 = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (C HL ) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. OPEN ACCESS Sensors 2011, 11 2178 Keywords: ultrasonic sensor; LIDAR; vineyard; crop adapted sprayer; leaf wall area Introduction Detailed information about canopy characteristics is a need for an adequate management of tree and vineyard crops, not only regarding pesticide application, but also for water management, fertilization schemes or pruning alternatives, all of them important aspects to achieve the main objective of a high yield and safe production. Tree canopy geometric characteristics are directly related to tree growth and productivity [1] , and this information has been used for different authors to predict yield [2,3], fertilizer application in citrus crops [4], water consumption [5] or biomass [6] . The crop structure of tree or vine plants varies enormously according vegetative stage, trellis system, variety and plant density, and all those changes affect the relationship between the sprayer output and the deposit obtained on the target crop [7, 8] . Pesticide applications without any consideration of crop structure are in contradiction with the general principle that foliar application should result in similar deposits, independently of crop size or canopy density [9] . This objective will lead to a considerable increase of efficacy and efficiency during the process, reducing the total amount of plant protection products required, in accord with recent EU trends [10] and avoiding the most severe problems related to environmental contamination [11, 12] . Canopy characteristics can be measured manually. In this case simple values of averaged crop height and crop width are easily measured and from those values, estimations of canopy volume can be obtained. This parameter has been widely used by different authors [13] [14] [15] to establish application rates, but those manual measurements assume a homogeneous crop structure over the entire field and extrapolate measurements from several points on a crop line to the whole area. Total leaf surface and leaf area index (LAI) can be also manually measured. This involves a destructive, time consuming and expensive method including the total defoliation of a sample crop area and extended laboratory measurements of every individual leaf surface. Also in this case the obtained values in selected sampling area must be extended to the whole canopy area without consideration of any "in row" variability. Electronic measurement of canopy dimensions in tree crops is not a new concept. In [16, 17] the authors discussed the use of the ultrasonic sensors to measure canopy volume in peach and apple trees and used this information to improve the pesticide application process. The measurement system was based in a three ultrasonic sensors placed at different heights and mounted on an air-blast orchard sprayer. This work was improved furthermore by the same authors [18, 19] using an advanced control algorithm. The results generated pesticide savings of up to 52% in apples. Ultrasonic sensors transmit high frequency sound waves towards an object and sense the reflected echo. The distance between the sensor and the object is then calculated by measuring the time difference between the transmission and the reception of the waves. Distance measurements by several vertically mounted sensors have been used to calculate canopy volume in fruit, citrus and vineyard crops [20] [21] [22] . However, due to the relative wide angle divergence of ultrasonic waves [23], the field of view becomes larger as the distance between the sensor and the canopy (target) increases, reducing the accuracy of the measurements and increasing the possible interference in the signal reception of two
doi:10.3390/s110202177 pmid:22319405 pmcid:PMC3274039 fatcat:c64thdfqxbgy3arioaoondv52u

Testing the Suitability of a Terrestrial 2D LiDAR Scanner for Canopy Characterization of Greenhouse Tomato Crops

Jordi Llop, Emilio Gil, Jordi Llorens, Antonio Miranda-Fuentes, Montserrat Gallart
2016 Sensors  
Gil, E.; Gallart, M.; Llorens, J.; Llop, J.; Bayer, T.; Carvalho, C. Spray adjustments based on LWA 530 concept in vineyard.  ...  .; Llop, J.; Rosell-Polo, J.; Gallart, M.; Escolà, A. Advanced 517 Technologies for the Improvement of Spray Application Techniques in Spanish Viticulture: An 518 Overview.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s16091435 pmid:27608025 pmcid:PMC5038713 fatcat:6perraizyzh7plpdrwy3zaww5u

Synthesis and 11C-Radiolabelling of 2-Carboranyl Benzothiazoles

Kiran Gona, Jaya Thota, Zuriñe Baz, Vanessa Gómez-Vallejo, Jordi Llop
2015 Molecules  
Dicarba-closo-dodecaboranes, commonly known as carboranes, possess unique physico-chemical properties and can be used as hydrophobic moieties during the design of new drugs or radiotracers. In this work, we report the synthesis of two analogues of 2-(4-aminophenyl)benzothiazole (a compound that was found to elicit pronounced inhibitory effects against certain breast cancer cell lines in vitro) in which the phenyl ring has been substituted by a m-carborane cage. Two different synthetic
more » ... have been used. For the preparation of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)-benzo-thiazole, the benzothiazole group was first introduced on one of the cluster carbon atoms of m-carborane and the amine group was further attached in three steps. For the synthesis of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, iodination was performed before introducing the benzothiazole group, and the amino group was subsequently introduced in six steps. Both compounds were radiolabelled with carbon-11 using [ 11 C]CH3OTf as the labelling agent. Radiolabelling yields and radiochemical purities achieved should enable subsequent in vitro and in vivo investigations.
doi:10.3390/molecules20057495 pmid:25915463 fatcat:5mhqkgef3ver7kzzrcvaymgzqe

Repurposing Benzbromarone for Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy: A New Transthyretin Tetramer Stabilizer

Ellen Y. Cotrina, Ângela Oliveira, José Pedro Leite, Jordi Llop, Luis Gales, Jordi Quintana, Isabel Cardoso, Gemma Arsequell
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein involved in human amyloidosis, including familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). Discovering small-molecule stabilizers of the TTR tetramer is a therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Tafamidis, the only approved drug for FAP treatment, is not effective for all patients. Herein, we discovered that benzbromarone (BBM), a uricosuric drug, is an effective TTR stabilizer and inhibitor against TTR amyloid fibril formation. BBM rendered TTR more
more » ... nt to urea denaturation, similarly to iododiflunisal (IDIF), a very potent TTR stabilizer. BBM competes with thyroxine for binding in the TTR central channel, with an IC50 similar to IDIF and tafamidis. Results obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) demonstrated that BBM binds TTR with an affinity similar to IDIF, tolcapone and tafamidis, confirming BBM as a potent binder of TTR. The crystal structure of the BBM-TTR complex shows two molecules binding deeply in the thyroxine binding channel, forming strong intermonomer hydrogen bonds and increasing the stability of the TTR tetramer. Finally, kinetic analysis of the ability of BBM to inhibit TTR fibrillogenesis at acidic pH and comparison with other stabilizers revealed that benzbromarone is a potent inhibitor of TTR amyloidogenesis, adding a new interesting scaffold for drug design of TTR stabilizers.
doi:10.3390/ijms21197166 pmid:32998442 fatcat:beo7tijcvjcnzom4zsnetbyj3e

Advanced Technologies for the Improvement of Spray Application Techniques in Spanish Viticulture: An Overview

Emilio Gil, Jaume Arnó, Jordi Llorens, Ricardo Sanz, Jordi Llop, Joan Rosell-Polo, Montserrat Gallart, Alexandre Escolà
2014 Sensors  
Spraying techniques have been undergoing continuous evolution in recent decades. This paper presents part of the research work carried out in Spain in the field of sensors for characterizing vineyard canopies and monitoring spray drift in order to improve vineyard spraying and make it more sustainable. Some methods and geostatistical procedures for mapping vineyard parameters are proposed, and the development of a variable rate sprayer is described. All these technologies are interesting in
more » ... s of adjusting the amount of pesticides applied to the target canopy.
doi:10.3390/s140100691 pmid:24451462 pmcid:PMC3926582 fatcat:ncczhcto25cm3ipqm55otwrcqu

Advanced Technologies for the Improvement of Spray Application Techniques in Spanish Viticulture: An Overview [chapter]

Emilio Gil, Jaume Arnó, Jordi Llorens, Ricardo Sanz, Jordi Llop, Joan Rosell-Polo, Montserrat Gallart, Alexandre Escolà
2015 Environmentally Sustainable Viticulture  
Spraying techniques have been undergoing continuous evolution in recent decades. This paper presents part of the research work carried out in Spain in the field of sensors for characterizing vineyard canopies and monitoring spray drift in order to improve vineyard spraying and make it more sustainable. Some methods and geostatistical procedures for mapping vineyard parameters are proposed, and the development of a variable rate sprayer is described. All these technologies are interesting in
more » ... s of adjusting the amount of pesticides applied to the target canopy.
doi:10.1201/b18226-10 fatcat:vjwz6ux23vfxlfixtz63fsc3oy

Modification of the glycosylation of extracellular vesicles alters their biodistribution in mice

Félix Royo, Unai Cossío, Ane Ruiz de Angulo, Jordi Llop, Juan Manuel Falcón-Pérez
2019 Zenodo  
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered sophisticated vehicles for cell-to-cell communication, thanks to the possibility of handling a variable cargo in a shell with multiple types of decoders. Surface glycosylation of EVs is a method that could be used to control their interaction with different cells and, consequently, the biodistribution of the vesicles in the body. Herein, we produced EVs derived from mouse liver proliferative cells, and we treated them with neuraminidase, an enzyme
more » ... digests the terminal sialic acid residues from glycoproteins. Afterwards, we labeled the EVs directly with [124I]Na and injected them in mice intravenously or into the hock. The amount of radioactivity in major organs was measured at different time points after administration both in vivo using positron emission tomography and ex vivo (after animal sacrifice) using dissection and gamma counting. The results showed that intravenous injection leads to the rapid accumulation of EVs in the liver. Moreover, after some hours the distribution led to the presence of EVs in different organs including the brain. Glycosidase treatment induced an accumulation in the lungs, compared with the intact EVs. Furthermore, when the EVs were injected through the hock, the neuraminidase-treated vesicles distributed better at the axillary lymph nodes than the untreated EVs. This result shows that modification of the glycosylated complexes on the EV surface can affect the distribution of these vesicles, and specifically removing the sialic acid residues allows more EVs to reach and accumulate at the lungs.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3606177 fatcat:coesttxasnhlpk74mofrqdji2i

Bittium reticulatum s.l. en comunidades fósiles y actuales. 2: estudio del crecimineto (alometría e isometría)

Isabel Llop, Jordi Martinell, Miguel De Renzi
1992 Zenodo  
Los cálculos y test de hipótesis aplicados en este estudio están ampliamente tratados en LLOP (1988). Se clasificaron los individuos de las muestras en estadíos de crecimiento.  ...  extremos, obligaron a la denominación de un tercer morfo B que se situaba entre los dos extremos, y en el que se incluyeron formas intermedias con una casi imposible atribución al morfo A o bien al C (LLOP  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4642628 fatcat:ly53gu75jfadhl62t7g6piapfe

Undiscovered Roles for Transthyretin: From a Transporter Protein to a New Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease

Tiago Gião, Joana Saavedra, Ellen Cotrina, Jordi Quintana, Jordi Llop, Gemma Arsequell, Isabel Cardoso
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Transthyretin (TTR), an homotetrameric protein mainly synthesized by the liver and the choroid plexus, and secreted into the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid, respectively, has been specially acknowledged for its functions as a transporter protein of thyroxine and retinol (the latter through binding to the retinol-binding protein), in these fluids. Still, this protein has managed to stay in the spotlight as it has been assigned new and varied functions. In this review, we cover knowledge on
more » ... el TTR functions and the cellular pathways involved, spanning from neuroprotection to vascular events, while emphasizing its involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We describe details of TTR as an amyloid binding protein and discuss its interaction with the amyloid Aβ peptides, and the proposed mechanisms underlying TTR neuroprotection in AD. We also present the importance of translating advances in the knowledge of the TTR neuroprotective role into drug discovery strategies focused on TTR as a new target in AD therapeutics.
doi:10.3390/ijms21062075 pmid:32197355 fatcat:7vet2n5dhfdqbfpieltquyp474

On-Farm Evaluation of Prescription Map-Based Variable Rate Application of Pesticides in Vineyards

Javier Campos, Montserrat Gallart, Jordi Llop, Paula Ortega, Ramón Salcedo, Emilio Gil
2020 Agronomy  
spray application, the WSP were collected, digitized using a scanner at a resolution of 600 dpi, 24 bits (color images), and processed with ImageJ ® software (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA), as established by Llop  ...  spray application, the WSP were collected, digitized using a scanner at a resolution of 600 dpi, 24 bits (color images), and processed with ImageJ ® software (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA), as established by Llop  ... 
doi:10.3390/agronomy10010102 fatcat:kzuzsu6njrfordcvwsmm7at6y4
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