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Ginkgo biloba leaf (GBL) is known as a potential source of bioactive flavonoids, such as quercetin, arresting the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-zippering. Here, the GBL flavonoids were isolated in two different manners and then examined for their bioactivity, physicochemical stability, and biocompatibility. The majority of flavonoids in the non-hydrolyzed and acidolyzed isolates, termed non-hydrolyzed isolate (NI) and acidolyzed isolatedoi:10.3390/molecules25081829 pmid:32316426 pmcid:PMC7221681 fatcat:4dwi6xcxijajdazhd4a2mq47he
more »... I) hereafter, were rich in flavonol glycosides and aglycones, respectively. Glycosidic/aglyconic quercetin and kaempferol were abundant in both NI and AI, whereas a little of apigenin, luteolin, and isorhamnetin were found in AI. NI was more thermostable in all pH ranges than quercetin, kaempferol, and AI. NI and AI both inhibited neurotransmitter release from differentiated neuronal PC-12 cells. NI and AI showed 1/2-1/3 lower EC50/CC50 values than quercetin and kaempferol. The NI and AI exhibited no toxicity assessed by the tests on chorioallantoic membranes of hen's eggs, removing toxicological concerns of irritation potential. Moreover, GBL isolates, particularly AI, showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the use below the CC50 levels. Taken together, these results suggest that GBL isolates that are rich in antioxidant flavonoids are effective anti-neuroexocytotic agents with high stability and low toxicity.
The occurrence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, so called mad cow diseases) that was first identified in England in 1986 was considered as being limited to only European countries, including England. However, the outbreak in Asia as well as North America since 2001 has amplified the fear that there isn't any nation in the world that is a safe area. In order to assess the risk of BSE outbreak in each country, the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) and EU have respectivelydoi:10.1292/jvms.67.743 pmid:16141660 fatcat:7h45dmrm65cp5apq25hhfk3sri
more »... hed criteria, where OIE has set 5 levels and EU has set 4 levels. The Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Commission conducted a Geographical BSE Risk(GBR) assessment for 64 nations, such as the United States, etc., as of April 29, 2003. However, as of July 1, 2005, the duty of GBR assessment is expected to be transferred to a newly established body called EFSA (European Food Safety Authority, located in Parma, Italy). As Korea has not undergone a GBR assessment up to now, this study analyzed the risk of BSE outbreak in Korea by reviewing BSE prevention measures, etc., that have been put in place. This study shall be a barometer for estimating the GBR assessment level of Korea. KEY WORDS: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Geographical BSE Risk (GBR).
Background--Despite the recent acceptance of thrombectomy as the standard of care in patients with acute anterior circulation stroke, the benefits of thrombectomy remain uncertain for patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of thrombectomy and to identify predictors of outcomes in a large cohort of patients with acute BAO. Methods and Results--This study included 212 consecutive patients with acute BAO who underwent eitherdoi:10.1161/jaha.118.009419 pmid:29982231 pmcid:PMC6064858 fatcat:ht2ezcnhi5avxn6ybjn2ueklo4
more »... nt-retriever or contact aspiration thrombectomy as the first-line approach between January 2011 and August 2017 at 3 stroke centers. Clinical and radiologic data were prospectively collected and stored in a database at each center. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was performed to assess the association between each characteristic and 90-day modified Rankin scale scores. Reperfusion was successful in 91.5% (194/212) of patients; 44.8% (95/212) of patients achieved 90-day modified Rankin scale 0 to 2. The symptomatic hemorrhage rate was 1.9% (4/212) and mortality was 16% (34/212). In a multivariable ordinal regression, younger age, lower National Institute of Health stroke scale on admission, and absence of diabetes mellitus and parenchymal hematoma were significantly associated with a favorable shift in the overall distribution of 90-day modified Rankin scale scores. Treatment outcomes were similar between patients who received stent-retriever thrombectomy and contact aspiration thrombectomy as the first-line technique. Conclusions--Endovascular thrombectomy was effective and safe for treating patients with acute BAO. Age, the baseline National Institute of Health stroke scale, diabetes mellitus, and parenchymal hematoma were associated with better outcomes. This study showed no superiority of the stent-retriever over the aspiration thrombectomy for treating acute BAO. ( J Am Heart Assoc. BAO indicates basilar artery occlusion; CI, confidence interval; cOR, common odds ratio. *Values represent the number of patients (%). † Values were obtained by univariable ordinal regression analysis. Values represent the number of patients (%). BAO indicates basilar artery occlusion; mRS, modified Rankin scale.
superfamily (MFS) Contig 3 Fig. 1 1 Photomicrograph of Enterococcus faecalis CBA7120 Fig. 2 2 Analysis of annotated genes for Enterococcus faecalis CBA7120 based on the SEED (a) and COG (b) databases Kim ...doi:10.1186/s13099-016-0145-x pmid:27924153 pmcid:PMC5123366 fatcat:goqonunbnvfedlguo35v7ibzma
Although the prognosis of ischemic stroke is highly dependent on the lesion location, it has rarely been quantitatively utilized. We investigated the usefulness of regional extent of ischemic lesion (rEIL) predicting the improvement of visual field defect (VFD) in patients with posterior cerebral artery infarction. Methods The rEILs were measured in each individual cortex after transforming the lesions to a standard atlas. Significant improvement of VFD was tentatively defined as 20%doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143882 pmid:26606516 pmcid:PMC4659640 fatcat:bhg3aayf75g3fktgze3wzjrxna
more »... at 3 months after stroke. The performances of clinical and imaging variables predicting significant improvement were measured by support vector machine. The maximum performance of variables predicting the significant improvement was compared between subgroups of variables (clinical, baseline severity and lesion volume) and the effect of adding rEIL to those subgroups of variables was evaluated. Results A total of 35 patients were enrolled in this study. Left PCA infarct, MR-time from onset, rEILs in the lingual, calcarine, and cuneus cortices were good prognostic indicators of hemi-VFD (performance for predicting the significant improvement: 72.8±11.8%, 66.1±11.2%, respectively). A combination of the rEILs of each cortical subregions demonstrated a better predictive performance for hemi-VFD (83.8±9.5%) compared to a combination of clinical variables (72.8±11.8; p<0.001), baseline severity (63.0±11.9%; p<0.001), or lesion volume (62.6 ±12.7%; p<0.001). Adding a rEIL to other variables improved the prognostic prediction for hemi-VFD (74.4±11.6% to 91.3±7.7%; p<0.001).
Journal of Fluid Machinery
터널 환기용 제트홴의 성능 향상을 위한 수치최적화
터널 환기용 제트홴의 성능 향상을 위한 수치최적화
This paper presents an optimization procedure for performance improvement of a tunnel ventilation jet fan. Optimization techniques based on response surface approximation (RSA) are employed to improve the aerodynamic performance of a tunnel ventilation jet fan. For numerical analysis, three-dimensional Renolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with shear stress transport turbulence model are discretized by using finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids to evaluate thedoi:10.5293/kfma..2011.14.5.063 fatcat:mhvabhotgvcn3azbqkgw3epw54
more »... tal efficiency at the operating condition as the objective function. Four geometric variables defining the meridional length and the thickness profile at the hub and shroud in the jet fan rotor are selected as design variables for the numerical optimization. The results of the numerical optimization show that the total efficiency of the optimized model is significantly improved in comparison with the base model.
This paper describes a numerical optimization procedure for performance improvement of a tunnel ventilation jet fan. We employ optimization techniques based on a PRESS (predicted error sum of squares)-based-averaging (PBA) model to improve the aerodynamic performance of a tunnel ventilation jet fan. For numerical analyses, three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a shear stress transport turbulence model are discretized using finite volume approximations anddoi:10.1007/s12206-012-0420-9 fatcat:cxydwka66jckhdszylh4umfh44
more »... on hexahedral grids to evaluate the total efficiency at operating conditions as the objective function. Numerical results are verified by using experimental data for the total efficiency and the effective outlet velocity at operating conditions. Further, four geometric variables are used defining the meridional length and the thickness profile at the hub and shroud in the jet fan rotor as the design variables for numerical optimization. The results of numerical optimization show a significant improvement in the total efficiency of the optimum model in comparison with the base model.
The overlap of radiologic findings in many gastric tumors makes differentiation difficult. However, some unusual gastric tumors have characteristic radiologic features that may suggest a specific diagnosis. At barium study, lipomas typically manifest as a smooth submucosal mass or an ulcerated lesion with a "bull's-eye" appearance that is indistinguishable from other mesenchymal tumors. At computed tomography (CT), lipomas usually manifest as well-circumscribed submucosal masses with fatdoi:10.1148/radiographics.19.6.g99no051435 pmid:10555667 fatcat:pcsv5kv6xneybil2dd4xspb2zq
more »... tion. At radiology, glomus tumors appear as smooth submucosal masses with or without ulceration and may contain tiny flecks of calcification. These tumors frequently demonstrate strong enhancement on early-phase contrast material-enhanced images. At barium study, lymphangiomas may appear as smooth intramural masses that are indistinguishable from other mesenchymal tumors. At CT, they manifest as nonenhancing extramucosal masses with homogeneous low attenuation. Diffuse lesions in Brunner gland hamartoma manifest as multiple small nodules, producing a characteristic "cobblestone" appearance. Lymphomas may have typical imaging features (eg, more pronounced and homogeneous mural thickening) that can help differentiate them from adenocarcinoma. In addition, adenocarcinomas may demonstrate unusual findings such as transpyloric spread, unusually large polyps, or intratumoral calcifications. Familiarity with these radiologic features of gastric tumors can help ensure correct diagnosis and proper management. Abbreviation: MALT = mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
Kim HH, Hyung WJ, Cho GS, Kim MC, Han SU, Kim W, et al. ... Hur H, Jeon HM, Kim W. Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for T2b advanced gastric cancers: three years' experience. J Surg Oncol 2008;98:515-519. 86. ...doi:10.5230/jgc.2014.14.2.87 pmid:25061536 pmcid:PMC4105383 fatcat:3hocvmuytralba5tm6ys64eqxe
doi:10.4056/sigs.3967649 pmid:23991257 pmcid:PMC3746416 fatcat:6orvu5n5ezb2xpkl672kdwyvjq
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers with a high incidence and mortality in Korea. A Korean multidisciplinary collaborative committee consisting of hepatologists, radiologists, epidemiologists and family medicine doctors systematically reviewed clinical practice guidelines in the world and literatures. The level of evidence for each recommendation was assessed and discussed to reach a consensus. Meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate the grade of recommendation fordoi:10.5124/jkma.2015.58.5.385 fatcat:5dgcms2yrjc2boojjxldcr5rb4
more »... e five key questions. Several randomized controlled studies and cohort studies showed a survival gain associated with surveillance for those at risk of developing HCC. The target populations for HCC surveillance were identified as hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus carriers and cirrhotic patients, since numerous studies revealed that these patients have significantly higher risk of HCC compared with non-infected or non-cirrhotic controls. Individual surveillance strategy according to treatment history or degree of fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis remains to be settled. Based on several cohort and randomized studies, a surveillance interval of six months was recommend. The starting age of surveillance was determined as 40 years from the epidemiologic data. Although ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay for detection of HCC, its sensitivity is not fully accepted. Measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein can complement US examination, increasing the sensitivity of HCC detection. The recommendation for HCC surveillance is that those with hepatitis B virus (or hepatitis C virus) infection or cirrhosis should have liver US and serum alphafetoprotein measurement every six months from 40 years of age or at the time of diagnosis of cirrhosis.
Kim et al. found that there was no significant difference between age and gender  . ... Kim et al. found that there was no significant difference between age and gender  . ...doi:10.3390/app11030951 fatcat:sxizlb4t6fbk3mnmvdqz6ygacq
Acknowledgments We thank Gou Young Koh for providing ERG equipment and Jaeryung Kim ...doi:10.1172/jci99232 pmid:30035750 fatcat:nq6a34v7jvgvdfq5dim4cpdtfq
이 연구는 광범위 림프절절 제술이 시행되지 못한 위암 환자에게는 보조 항암화학-방사 선 병용요법이 환자의 생존 기간을 증가시킬 수 있음을 보여 주었다. 990명의 D2 림프절절제술을 시행한 환자군을 대상으로 한 Kim 등 133 의 관찰연구에서, 수술 후 보조 항암화학-방사선 병 용요법군의 재발률과 생존율이 수술 단독군에 비하여 우수하 였다. ...doi:10.4166/kjg.2014.63.2.66 pmid:24561693 fatcat:omcuulc5brhfnam3b72v2yh43a
Jung-Woong Kim for critical comments on the manuscript and Soobin Kim for managing the Kdm3b mouse colony. ... Recently, Kim et al. have shown that cerebellum-dependent learning triggers changes in protein expression in the cerebellum in a learning paradigm-dependent manner  . ...doi:10.1186/s13041-021-00815-5 pmid:34217333 pmcid:PMC8254933 fatcat:veu44f3bgrdazjzv7sz55vnbvy
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