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Jitka Čepková, Jiří Horáček, Jaroslav Vižďa, Jiří Doležal
2014 Acta Medica  
The clinical outcome of 153 Graves' disease patients treated with a wide dose range of radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) was analyzed retrospectively. Six to nine months after the first dose of RAI 60 patients (39%) were hypothyroid (or rather thyroxine-substituted) and 26 (17%) were euthyroid, while 67 patients (44%) did not respond properly: in 32 (21%) their antithyroid drug (ATD) dose could be reduced but not withdrawn (partial response) and 35 (23%) remained hyperthyroid or the same dose of ATD
more » ... was necessary (no response). The outcome did not correspond significantly to the administered activity of RAI (medians 259, 259, 222, and 259 MBq for hypothyroid, euthyroid, partial, and no response subgroups, respectively), or the activity retained in the gland at 24 h (medians 127, 105, 143, and 152 MBq). The effect was, however, clearly, and in a stepwise pattern, dependent on initial thyroid volume (17, 26, 33 and 35 ml, P < 0.001) or activity per gram tissue retained at 24 h (6.02, 4.95, 4.75, and 4.44 MBq/g, P = 0.002). Also, higher residual level of thyrotoxicosis at the time of RAI treatment was connected with worse outcome. The dose-dependency of outcome was further analyzed. When our sample was divided into tertiles, according to the adjusted dose, the same modest success rates (47%) were seen in the lower and middle tertiles. However, doses higher than 5.88 MBq/g (the upper tertile) resulted in success rate of 75%. Finer division into decils has shown a threshold-like increase in cure rate between the 7th and the 8th decil. In the first 7 decils (doses ≤ 6 MBq/g) the complete response rate was 45 to 50%, in the 8th decil (6.0 to 7.8~MBq/g) it rose to 80% and was not further increased with increasing dose. Direct comparison of higher (> 6 MBq/g, cure rate 80%) and lower (≤ 6 MBq/g, cure rate 46%) doses gave highly significant difference (P < 0.001). With our dosing range we found a dose-dependent clinical outcome that suggests an optimum delivered dose near 6.5 MBq/g, resulting in successful treatment of ca 80% patients.
doi:10.14712/18059694.2014.39 pmid:25257150 fatcat:idhu733lw5gurhcp2ovv5riuxu

Synthetic transformations of a pendant nitrile moiety in group 4 metallocene complexes

Jiří Pinkas, Ivana Císařová, Jiří Kubišta, Michal Horáček, Martin Lamač
2013 Dalton Transactions  
doi:10.1039/c3dt50209k pmid:23536005 fatcat:gnuxkkibibazbm2fspwnmxlzkm

Global Adversities, the Media, and Mental Health

Ladislav Kesner, Jiří Horáček
2022 Frontiers in Psychiatry  
Global communities are currently confronted with a number of complex problems and threats, the reality of which is amplified by the media. These environmental and socio-political stressors have been accompanied by the spread of problematic psychological and behavioural tendencies, such as the growing polarisation of opinions and values, online radicalisation and extremism, deepening xenophobia and nationalism, the proliferation of irrational beliefs and conspiracy theories, and resistance to
more » ... ional public policy measures. Here we argue that although they fall outside the scope of psychopathology, they nevertheless currently constitute a major challenge for psychiatry as a research domain and a clinical practise. To substantiate this claim, we outline the mechanisms by which media-transmitted stressors impact mental well-being and possibly psychopathology. The common denominator of these global problems and the media's construction of reality is the increase in uncertainty, unpredictability, and uncontrollability, which prompts defensive responding and, in predisposed individuals, functions as a potent source of chronic stress. These contribute to cognitive inflexibility, a strong predisposing factor for the development of rigid beliefs and attitudes, which to varying degrees underlie the adverse psychological and behavioural tendencies mentioned above. We suggest that the tightening of beliefs and ideas that is the result of cognitive rigidity may correspond to the clinical characteristics of induced delusional disorder. This can be seen as a (ultimately maladaptive) defensive strategy for coping with a high degree of uncertainty and unpredictability. We conclude by briefly outlining the possible ways in which psychiatry can face this challenge.
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.809239 pmid:35082704 pmcid:PMC8785246 fatcat:yjftqbbrzvepxcplxbeijyirlu

Negative Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Mental Health

Jaroslav Flegr, Jiří Horáček
2020 Frontiers in Psychiatry  
Infection by the parasite Toxoplasma, which affects about 33% of world population, is associated with an increased risk of several mental health disorders, the most strongly with schizophrenia. It is unknown whether schizophrenia is associated with this infection the most strongly, or whether this association has just been the most intensively studied for historical reasons. We used the data from 6,367 subjects tested for toxoplasmosis who took part in an internet survey to search for
more » ... ns of these infections with 24 mental health disorders and evidence of otherwise impaired mental health. The typical symptom associated with toxoplasmosis was anxiety, and the typical toxoplasmosis-associated disorders were autism (OR = 4.78), schizophrenia (OR = 3.33), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (OR = 2.50), obsessive compulsive disorder (OR = 1.86), antisocial personality disorder (OR = 1.63), learning disabilities (OR = 1.59), and anxiety disorder (OR = 1.48). Toxoplasmosis could play a substantial role in the etiopathogenesis of mental health disorders and its association with schizophrenia is the second strongest association, after autism.
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.01012 pmid:32132937 pmcid:PMC7040223 fatcat:y3y5cog7gbfqtdi6j5o7kqdqde

Psilocybin – Summary of knowledge and new perspectives

Filip Tylš, Tomáš Páleníček, Jiří Horáček
2014 European Neuropsychopharmacology  
Author Jiří Horáček supervised the whole article and contribute mainly to the discussion about imaging studies with psilocybin.  ...  The neurobiology of the hallucinogenic effect was described elsewhere (Gonzalez-Maeso and Sealfon, 2009; Nichols, 2004; Palenicek and Horacek, 2008; Vollenweider, 2001) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.12.006 pmid:24444771 fatcat:7nxhvadprrb23lyuybic327u74

Personality reflection in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture remains elusive

David Tomeček, Renata Androvičová, Iveta Fajnerová, Filip Děchtěrenko, Jan Rydlo, Jiří Horáček, Jiří Lukavský, Jaroslav Tintěra, Jaroslav Hlinka, Frantisek Sudzina
2020 PLoS ONE  
Supporting information Author Contributions Conceptualization: Jiří Horáček, Jiří Lukavský, Jaroslav Hlinka.  ...  Writing -review & editing: David Tomeček, Jiří Horáček, Jaroslav Hlinka.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0232570 pmid:32484832 fatcat:45gu23c3cfcutbspbx3estrvfa

Empathy-Related Responses to Depicted People in Art Works

Ladislav Kesner, Jiří Horáček
2017 Frontiers in Psychology  
Copyright © 2017 Kesner and Horáček. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00228 pmid:28286487 pmcid:PMC5323429 fatcat:dryijqzfnbczznoy2r52acmlqq

Estimating Sparse Neuronal Signal from Hemodynamic Response: the Mixture Components Inference Approach [article]

Anna Pidnebesna, Iveta Fajnerova, Jiri Horacek, Jaroslav Hlinka
2019 bioRxiv   pre-print
The approximate knowledge of the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity is widely used in statistical testing of effects of external stimulation, but has also been applied to estimate the neuronal activity directly from functional magnetic resonance data without knowing the stimulus timing. To this end, sparse linear regression methods have been previously used, including the well-known LASSO and the Dantzig selector. These methods generate a parametric family of solutions with different
more » ... sity, among which a choice is finally based using some information criteria. As an alternative we propose a novel approach that instead utilizes the whole family of sparse regression solutions. Their ensemble provides a first approximation of probability of activation at each timepoint, and together with the conditional neuronal activity distributions estimated with the theory of mixtures with varying concentrations, they serve as the inputs to a Bayes classifier ultimately deciding between the true and false activations. As we show in extensive numerical simulations, the new method performs favourably in comparison with standard approaches in a range of realistic scenarios. This is mainly due to the avoidance of overfitting and underfitting that commonly plague the solutions based on sparse regression combined with model selection methods, including the corrected Akaike Information Criterion. This advantage is finally documented on fMRI task dataset.
doi:10.1101/2019.12.19.876508 fatcat:thq5hauf6nerpc5mqyj3dz3rc4

Magnetic resonance relaxometry in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant for schizophrenia

Filip Spaniel, Vit Herynek, Tomas Hajek, Monika Dezortova, Jiri Horacek, Milan Hajek, Jiri Kozeny, Colleen Dockery, Cyril Höschl
2005 European psychiatry  
T1 and T2 relaxation times were examined in four pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant and concordant for schizophrenia with low and high genetic loading for the illness and five healthy control MZ twin pairs. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 11) showed significant prolongation in T1 relaxation times in the globus pallidus (GP) bilaterally (P < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected) when compared to 14 healthy MZ twins.
doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2004.11.004 pmid:15642442 fatcat:wi4par4y6ngcxikp2jnqpy7hva

Is radioiodine administration in patients with papillary thyroid multifocal microcarcinoma unnecessary?

Eva Krčálová, Jiří Horáček, Lubomír Kudlej, Viera Rousková, Blanka Michlová, Irena Vyhnánková, Jiří Doležal, Jaroslav Malý, Pavel Žák
2016 Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports  
J Horáček, J Doležal, J Malý, and P Žák gave important clinical advice, reviewed the manuscript, and contributed to the discussion.  ... 
doi:10.1530/edm-15-0138 pmid:27252861 pmcid:PMC4870506 fatcat:hve7csvnefbbjbfkbrmr7n6tv4

Effect of Lactic Fermentation and Cooking on Nutrient and Mineral Digestibility of Peas

Sylvie Skalickova, Andrea Ridoskova, Petr Slama, Jiri Skladanka, Petr Skarpa, Iva Smykalova, Jiri Horacek, Radmila Dostalova, Pavel Horky
2022 Frontiers in Nutrition  
Peas are prospectively beneficial legumes in the human diet, and especially in a vegan and vegetarian diet, due to their high content of proteins and starch. Their frequent lack of appeal in human nutrition can be caused by their bloating effect and the content of some antinutritional compounds inhibiting the absorption of important nutrients. This study brings a comprehensive comparison of the nutrient content of pea flour after cooking and lactic fermentation before and after digestion in
more » ... o. As a control sample, raw pea flour was used (sample 1). Raw pea flour was cooked for 10 min (sample 2) and 120 min (sample 3) at 100°C or it was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum (sample 4) and cooked for 10 min at 100°C (sample 5). The samples were analyzed for protein and amino acids content, maltose, glucose, raffinose, total polyphenols, phytic acid, phytase, and mineral composition (P, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) before and after in vitro digestion. The results showed a significant (p &lt; 0.05) increase in the protein digestibility of samples 3, 4 and 5. In the fermented samples were observed a higher concentration of Cys, Met, and Gln when compared to non-fermented samples. The fermentation of pea flour resulted in a significant (p &lt; 0.05) decrease in glucose, maltose, and raffinose content. Cooking of pea flour for 10 and 120 min, but not fermenting, significantly (p &lt; 0.05) decreased the polyphenols content. Cooking and fermentation together did not affect phytic acid concentration and phytase activity. Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and, Zn concentration in pea flour was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) decreased by cooking. On the other hand, fermentation significantly (p&lt;0.05) improved the bioaccessibility of Mn and Fe. These findings suggest that lactic fermentation of pea flour is a promising culinary preparation that can improve the digestibility of peas.
doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.838963 pmid:35284457 pmcid:PMC8908447 fatcat:wwf6opf3szgnbnvkmbyffzohem

Response of Normal and Low-Phytate Genotypes of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) on Phosphorus Foliar Fertilization

Petr Škarpa, Marie Školníková, Jiří Antošovský, Pavel Horký, Iva Smýkalová, Jiří Horáček, Radmila Dostálová, Zdenka Kozáková
2021 Plants  
Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient in plant nutrition. Its absorption by plants from the soil is influenced by many factors. Therefore, a foliar application of this nutrient could be utilized for the optimal nutrition state of plants. The premise of the study is that foliar application of phosphorus will increase the yield of normal-phytate (npa) cultivars (CDC Bronco a Cutlass) and low-phytate (lpa) lines (1-2347-144, 1-150-81) grown in soils with low phosphorus supply and affect seed
more » ... ity depending on the ability of the pea to produce phytate. A graded application of phosphorus (H₃PO₄) in four doses: without P (P0), 27.3 mg P (P1), 54.5 mg P (P2), and 81.8 mg P/pot (P3) realized at the development stages of the 6th true leaf led to a significant increase of chlorophyll contents, and fluorescence parameters of chlorophyll expressing the CO2 assimilation velocity. The P fertilization increased the yield of seeds significantly, except the highest dose of phosphorus (P3) at which the yield of the npa cultivars was reduced. The line 1-2347-144 was the most sensible to the P application when the dose P3 increased the seed production by 42.1%. Only the lpa line 1-150-81 showed a decreased tendency in the phytate content at the stepped application of the P nutrition. Foliar application of phosphorus significantly increased ash material in seed, but did not tend to affect the protein and mineral content of seeds. Only the zinc content in seeds was significantly reduced by foliar application of P in npa and lpa pea genotypes. It is concluded from the present study that foliar phosphorus application could be an effective way to enhance the pea growth in P-deficient condition with a direct effect on seed yield and quality.
doi:10.3390/plants10081608 pmid:34451655 pmcid:PMC8399731 fatcat:gd7c3kgbfvbx5euj3jdvt4pxd4

Natural selection in bats with historical exposure to white-nose syndrome

Markéta Harazim, Ivan Horáček, Lucie Jakešová, Kristína Luermann, Jiří C. Moravec, Shannon Morgan, Jiri Pikula, Petr Sosík, Zuzana Vavrušová, Alexandra Zahradníková, Jan Zukal, Natália Martínková
2018 BMC Zoology  
Hibernation allows animals to survive periods of resource scarcity by reducing their energy expenditure through decreased metabolism. However, hibernators become susceptible to psychrophilic pathogens if they cannot mount an efficient immune response to infection. While Nearctic bats infected with white-nose syndrome (WNS) suffer high mortality, related Palearctic taxa are better able to survive the disease than their Nearctic counterparts. We hypothesised that WNS exerted historical selective
more » ... ressure in Palearctic bats, resulting in genomic changes that promote infection tolerance. Results: We investigated partial sequences of 23 genes related to water metabolism and skin structure function in nine Palearctic and Nearctic hibernating bat species and one non-hibernating species for phylogenetic signals of natural selection. Using maximum likelihood analysis, we found that eight genes were under positive selection and we successfully identified amino acid sites under selection in five encoded proteins. Branch site models revealed positive selection in three genes. Hibernating bats exhibit signals for positive selection in genes ensuring tissue regeneration, wound healing and modulation of the immune response. Conclusion: Our results highlight the importance of skin barrier integrity and healing capacity in hibernating bats. The protective role of skin integrity against both pathophysiology and WNS progression, in synergy with downregulation of the immune reaction in response to the Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection, improves host survival. Our data also suggest that hibernating bat species have evolved into tolerant hosts by reducing the negative impact of skin infection through a set of adaptations, including those at the genomic level.
doi:10.1186/s40850-018-0035-4 fatcat:5y2j2obp5falvhun2tcp6cbr5m

Brain Functional Connectivity Asymmetry: Left Hemisphere Is More Modular

Lucia Jajcay, David Tomeček, Jiří Horáček, Filip Španiel, Jaroslav Hlinka
2022 Symmetry  
Graph-theoretical approaches are increasingly used to study the brain and may enhance our understanding of its asymmetries. In this paper, we hypothesize that the structure of the left hemisphere is, on average, more modular. To this end, we analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 90 healthy subjects. We computed functional connectivity by Pearson's correlation coefficient, turned the matrix into an unweighted graph by keeping a certain percentage of the strongest
more » ... nnections, and quantified modularity separately for the subgraph formed by each hemisphere. Our results show that the left hemisphere is more modular. The result is consistent across a range of binarization thresholds, regardless of whether the two hemispheres are thresholded together or separately. This illustrates that graph-theoretical analysis can provide a robust characterization of lateralization of brain functional connectivity.
doi:10.3390/sym14040833 fatcat:wbm7kyu4xncqxojb664t77bjvq
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