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Semantic segmentation is one of the most widely studied problems in computer vision communities, which makes a great contribution to a variety of applications. A lot of learning-based approaches, such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), have made a vast contribution to this problem. While rich context information of the input images can be learned from multi-scale receptive fields by convolutions with deep layers, traditional CNNs have great difficulty in learning the geometricaldoi:10.3390/s21030690 pmid:33498358 fatcat:d7g5i2gbsjgxlcjszahmqo7ice
more »... and distribution of objects in the RGB image due to the lack of depth information, which may lead to an inferior segmentation quality. To solve this problem, we propose a method that improves segmentation quality with depth estimation on RGB images. Specifically, we estimate depth information on RGB images via a depth estimation network, and then feed the depth map into the CNN which is able to guide the semantic segmentation. Furthermore, in order to parse the depth map and RGB images simultaneously, we construct a multi-branch encoder–decoder network and fuse the RGB and depth features step by step. Extensive experimental evaluation on four baseline networks demonstrates that our proposed method can enhance the segmentation quality considerably and obtain better performance compared to other segmentation networks.
et al., 2016) ; it also promoted microglial M2-polarization and rescued neurogenesis in stress-exposed mice (Zhang J. et al., 2017) . ... TCA-Imipramine, rarely used in neurogenesis studies, has been shown to increase the proliferation and survival of nerve precursor cells (Zhang et al., 2013) . ...doi:10.3389/fncel.2018.00306 pmid:30459555 pmcid:PMC6232769 fatcat:vipv4exiazgtbab3bbg7cwz6km
& Aims-MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the development and progression of human cancers. We investigated the roles and mechanisms of miR-26a in human cholangiocarcinoma. Methods-We used in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to measure expression of miR-26a in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines (eg, CCLP1, SG231, HuCCT1, TFK1). Human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines were transduced with lentiviruses that expressed miR-26a1 ordoi:10.1053/j.gastro.2012.03.045 pmid:22484120 pmcid:PMC3668336 fatcat:hgvjmibf4jgdzcptffco2fs6ue
more »... scrambled sequence (control); proliferation and colony formation were analyzed. We analyzed growth of human cholangiocarcinoma cells that overexpress miR-26a or its inhibitor in severe combined immune-deficient mice. Immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, DNA pull-down, immunofluorescence, and luciferase reporter assays were used to measure expression and activity of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, β-catenin, and related signaling molecules. Results-Human cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines had increased levels of miR-26a compared with the noncancerous biliary epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-26a increased proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cells and colony formation in vitro, whereas miR-26 depletion reduced these parameters. In severe combined immune-deficient mice, overexpression of miR-26a by cholangiocarcinoma cells increased tumor growth and overexpression of the miR-26a inhibitor reduced it. GSK-3β messenger RNA was identified as a direct target of miR-26a by computational analysis and experimental assays. miR-26a-mediated reduction of GSK-3β resulted in activation of β-catenin and induction of several downstream genes including c-Myc, cyclinD1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ. Depletion of β-catenin partially prevented miR-26a-induced tumor cell proliferation and colony formation. Conclusions-miR-26a promotes cholangiocarcinoma growth by inhibition of GSK-3β and subsequent activation of β-catenin. These signaling molecules might be targets for prevention or treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.
In this paper, we numerically studied the effects of mechanical vibration and magnetic fields on evaporative cooling process carried in space station by direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Simulated with the vibration data of international space station, we found that the cooling process would suffer great atomic losses until the accelerations reduced tenfold at least. In addition, if we enlarge the s-wave scattering length five times by Feshbach resonance, the PSD increased to 50 compared toarXiv:1909.00541v1 fatcat:iyu3vx76dfgtbfu7t77ohb3jzm
more »... 3 of no magnetic fields situation after 5 seconds evaporative cooling. We also simulated the two stages crossed beam evaporative cooling process (TSCBC) under both physical impacts and obtain 4×10^5^85Rb atoms with a temperature of 8 pK. These results are of significance to the cold atom experiments carried out on space station in the future.
., Zhang and Bartol, 2010; Liu et al., 2012) . ... Measures We conducted the study in China, and all scales have been validated in the Chinese context (Liang, 2014; Qing and Zhang, 2014; Zhu and Zhang, 2019) . ...doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02960 pmid:32038369 pmcid:PMC6988563 fatcat:e666y2ol3bhk7cvuzfe5idsrla
Modeling infiltration into soil and runoff quantitative evaluations is very significant for hydrological applications. In this paper, a flow model of unsaturated soils was established. A computational process of soil water content and runoff prediction was presented that combines an analytical solution with numerical approaches. The solutions have good agreements with the experimental results and other infiltration solutions (Richards numerical solution and classical Green–Ampt solution). Wedoi:10.3390/w10070914 fatcat:qerbpxdiwvhixjzsp2fkd3gws4
more »... lyzed the effects on cumulative infiltration and runoff under three conditions of rainfall intensity with same average magnitude. These rainfall conditions were (Case 1) decreasing rainfall, (Case 2) steady rainfall, and (Case 3) increasing rainfall, respectively. The results show that the cumulative infiltration in Case 1 is the highest among the three cases. The cumulative runoff under condition of Case 3 is smaller than that of decreasing rainfall at the initial stage, which then becomes larger at the later stage. The time of runoff under the conditions of Case 1 is earliest among the three rainfall conditions, which is about 50% earlier than Case 3. Therefore, project construction for urban flood control should pay more attention to urban flood defense in increasing rainfall weather than other rainfall intensities under the same average magnitude. The approaches presented can be utilized to easily and effectively evaluate infiltration and runoff as a theoretical foundation.
., 2017; Zhang et al., 2017) . ... The morphology of microglia is remarkably plastic (Zhang et al., 2018) . Microglia constantly adjust their shape and branches to adapt to the environment (Kettenmann et al., 2011) . ...doi:10.3389/fncel.2020.00195 pmid:32754014 pmcid:PMC7366495 fatcat:m6l2tthbd5gupl7i6vbgq35a74
Hysteresis behaviors exist in piezoelectric ceramics actuators (PCAs), which degrade the positioning accuracy badly. The classical Bouc–Wen (CB–W) model is mainly used for describing rate-independent hysteresis behaviors. However, it cannot characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis precisely. In this paper, a generalized Bouc–Wen (GB–W) model with relaxation functions is developed for both rate-independent and rate-dependent hysteresis behaviors of piezoelectric actuators. Meanwhile, thedoi:10.3390/mi10030183 pmid:30871100 pmcid:PMC6470998 fatcat:xv7uebvjrnbvribb2val5k5vxa
more »... ear least squares method through MATLAB/Simulink is adopted to identify the parameters of hysteresis models. To demonstrate the validity of the developed model, a number of experiments based on a 1-DOF compliant mechanism were conducted to characterize hysteresis behaviors. Comparisons of experiments and simulations show that the developed model can describe rate-dependent and rate-independent hysteresis more accurately than the classical Bouc–Wen model. The results demonstrate that the developed model is effective and useful.
The effect of isothermal treatment temperatures and isothermal treatment time on the microstructure was studied. The results showed that the globular and equiaxed grains with the average grain size of 60 μm and the shape factor of circle of 0.95 can be obtained when the melt of Ni-Cr-W superalloy was subjected to the heat treatment of 10 min at 1400 °C. The quenching results showed the volume fraction of the eutectic phase was the largest and the volume fraction of primary γ phase was thedoi:10.3390/met8100748 fatcat:ps2fn3ufqzfdvosj6fiewaxlwm
more »... st after the isothermal treatment of 1400 °C. The optimal melt treatment temperature and time were 1400 °C and 10 min, respectively. Moreover, the effect of electromagnetic field on the solidification was also investigated. It was demonstrated that applying electromagnetic field was beneficial to the uniform temperature, solute field and the high density of the secondary nuclei, which contributed to grain refinement.
Zhang et al. Page 34 Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 January 15. Zhang et al. Page 37 Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 January 15. ... Zhang et al. Page 38 Table 1 .Table 2 . 12 Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 January 15. ...doi:10.1016/j.addr.2018.12.006 pmid:30528729 pmcid:PMC6556146 fatcat:zywdt254enbbnjbsrc3aaifoc4
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is regulated by specific groups of microglia and is functionally implicated in behavioral responses to stress. However, the role of microglia in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis in stress responses remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of IL4-driven Arg1+ microglia in the restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis and conferment of stress resilience. We found that low IL4 levels in the hippocampus of mice wasdoi:10.1101/2020.02.01.929646 fatcat:mch46ouy3vaqhhkx2j54ssbnri
more »... ated with greater stress vulnerability and, conversely, overexpression of IL4 in the hippocampus induced a large number of Arg1+ microglia and ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behaviors. Knockdown of microglial IL4 receptors in the hippocampus of mice exacerbated the stress-induced inflammatory response and abolished the antidepressant effects of IL4 overexpression. Enhancement or inhibition of IL4 signaling in hippocampal microglia modulated neurogenesis, and blockade of neurogenesis abolished the resilience to stress-induced depression. We further show that IL4-activated microglia is associated with upregulation of BDNF levels and neurogenesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that IL4-driven microglia in the hippocampus trigger BDNF-dependent neurogenesis in response to chronic stress, helping protect against depressive-like symptoms. These findings identify the modulation of a specific microglial phenotype as a treatment strategy for mood disorders.
Hypoglycemia, the state of abnormally low blood glucose level, is an acute complication of insulin and sulfonylurea therapy in diabetes management. Frequent insulin dosing and boluses during daily diabetes care leads to an increasing risk of dangerously low glucose levels, which can cause behavioral and cognitive disturbance, seizure, coma, and even death. Here, we report an insulinresponsive glucagon delivery method based on a microneedle (MN)-array patch for the prevention of hypoglycemia.doi:10.1002/smll.201603028 pmid:28318091 pmcid:PMC5769873 fatcat:7wtzc7r3tnadfgd2hibnf3prpa
more »... controlled release of glucagon is achieved in response to elevated insulin concentration by taking advantage of the specific interaction between insulin aptamer and target insulin. Integrating a painless MN-array patch, we demonstrate that this insulin-triggered glucagon delivery device is able to prevent hypoglycemia following a high-dose insulin injection in a chemically-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model. ToC Figure An insulin-responsive glucagon delivery device based on a microneedle (MN)-array patch is developed for prevention of hypoglycemia. Utilizing hyperinsulinemia as a dangerous signal, this "smart glucagon patch" with a novel trigger mechanism can release glucagon to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia during diabetes management, which would profoundly improve the health as well as the quality of life of diabetic patients.
Edited and Reviewed by: Michael Kassiou, The University of Sydney, Australia Copyright © 2021 Del Gatto, Cobb, Zhang and Zaccaro. ... Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Keywords: peptidomimetics, design, chemical synthesis, structure-activity relationship, drug discovery, drug development Citation: Del Gatto A, Cobb SL, Zhang ...doi:10.3389/fchem.2021.802120 pmid:34869243 pmcid:PMC8633406 fatcat:wjn7r53bgbd5bcav7lmidevsqm
According to the statistics of water transportation accidents, collision accidents are on the rise as the shipping industry has expanded by leaps and bounds, and the water transportation environment has become more complex, which can result in grave consequences, such as casualties, environmental destruction, and even massive financial losses. In view of this situation, high-precision and real-time ship trajectory prediction based on AIS data can serve as a crucial foundation for vessel trafficdoi:10.3390/jmse10060804 doaj:478737fc80344dd8a9886efb95cc9454 fatcat:5bcc6diknfdilkmrnhoplbswze
more »... services and ship navigation to prevent collision accidents. Thus, this paper proposes a high-precision ship track prediction model based on a combination of a multi-head attention mechanism and bidirectional gate recurrent unit (MHA-BiGRU) to fully exploit the valuable information contained in massive AIS data and address the insufficiencies in existing trajectory prediction methods. The primary advantages of this model are that it allows for the retention of long-term ship track sequence information, filters and modifies ship track historical data for enhanced time series prediction, and models the potential association between historical and future ship trajectory status information with the current state via the bidirectional gate recurrent unit. Significantly, the introduction of a multi-head attention mechanism calculates the correlation between the characteristics of AIS data, actively learns cross-time synchronization between the hidden layers of ship track sequences, and assigns different weights to the result based on the input criterion, thereby enhancing the accuracy of forecasts. The comparative experimental results also verify that MHA-BiGRU outperforms the other ship track prediction models, demonstrating that it possesses the characteristics of ease of implementation, high precision, and high reliability.
The same method was also validated at the SGP site with promising accuracy (Zhang et al. 2013) . ... One factor involves balloon drift (Zhang et al. 2013) . Balloon drift distances are generally more than 20 km with a maximum of about 200 km. ...doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2142-4 fatcat:uq6sswoabnfapc2e2koocx2bpy
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