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Pepsinogen C expression, regulation and its relationship with cancer

Shixuan Shen, Jingyi Jiang, Yuan Yuan
2017 Cancer Cell International  
Pepsinogen C (PGC) belongs to the aspartic protease family and is secreted by gastric chief cells. PGC could be activated to pepsin C and digests polypeptides and amino acids, but as a zymogen PGC's functions is unclear. In normal physiological conditions, PGC is initially detected in the late embryonic stage and is mainly expressed in gastric mucosa. The in situ expression of PGC in gastric mucosa is decreased considerably in the process of superficial gastritis → atrophic gastritis → gastric
more » ... ancer (GC), proving that PGC is a comparatively ideal negative marker of GC. Serum PGC, and PGA levels and the PGA/PGC ratio have satisfactory sensitivity, specificity and price-quality ratio for predicting high GC risk. Ectopic PGC expression is significantly increased in prostate cancer, breast cancer, ovary cancer and endometrial cancer. In those sex-related cancers high level PGC expression indicates better prognosis and longer survival. The regulation of PGC expression involves genetic and epigenetic alteration of the encoding PGC gene, hormones modulation and interactions between PGC with other transcription factors and protein kinases. More and more research evidence hinted that PGC has strong correlation with cancer. In the systematic review, we respectively elaborate the structure, potential physiological functions, expression characteristics and regulation of PGC, and especially focus on the relationship between PGC expression and cancer to highlight the role of PGC in the tumorigenesis and its application value in clinical practice.
doi:10.1186/s12935-017-0426-6 pmid:28546787 pmcid:PMC5442862 fatcat:7zir2bu46jajjiwpmck2ijbg5q

Rigidity of Entire self-shrinking solutions to curvature flows [article]

Albert Chau, Jingyi Chen, Yu Yuan
2010 arXiv   pre-print
We show that (a) any entire graphic self-shrinking solution to the Lagrangian mean curvature flow in C^m with the Euclidean metric is flat; (b) any space-like entire graphic self-shrinking solution to the Lagrangian mean curvature flow in C^m with the pseudo-Euclidean metric is flat if the Hessian of the potential is bounded below quadratically; and (c) the Hermitian counterpart of (b) for the Kähler Ricci flow.
arXiv:1003.3246v1 fatcat:mjuazvyjfvfq5na3dvi7kye23e

Lagrangian Mean Curvature flow for entire Lipschitz graphs II [article]

Albert Chau, Jingyi Chen, Yu Yuan
2011 arXiv   pre-print
We prove longtime existence and estimates for solutions to a fully nonlinear Lagrangian parabolic equation with locally C^1,1 initial data u_0 satisfying either (1) -(1+η) I_n≤ D^2u_0 ≤ (1+η)I_n for some positive dimensional constant η, (2) u_0 is weakly convex everywhere or (3) u_0 satisfies a large supercritical Lagrangian phase condition.
arXiv:1105.6119v1 fatcat:hncfst2ewfdqbeah7oxu7no3q4

Regularity for convex viscosity solutions of special Lagrangian equation [article]

Jingyi Chen, Ravi Shankar, Yu Yuan
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We establish interior regularity for convex viscosity solutions of the special Lagrangian equation. Our result states that all such solutions are real analytic in the interior of the domain.
arXiv:1911.05452v1 fatcat:swd3qm2cijfchnyag3mkzix45y

Quantifying Hosting Capacity for Rooftop PV System in LV Distribution Grids [article]

Jingyi Yuan, Yang Weng, Chin-Woo Tan
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Power systems face increasing challenges on reliable operations due to the widespread distributed generators (DGs), e.g., rooftop PV system in the low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Characterizing the hosting capacity (HC) is vital for assessing the total amount of distributed generations that a grid can hold before upgrading. For analyzing HC, some methods conduct extensive simulations, lacking theoretical guarantees and can time-consuming. Therefore, there are also methods employing
more » ... tion over all necessary operation constraints. But, the complexity and inherent non-convexity lead to non-optimal solutions. To solve these problems, this paper provides a constructive model for HC determination. Based on geometrically obtained globally optimal HC, we construct HC solutions sequentially according to realistic constraints, so that we can obtain optimal solution even with non-convex model. For practical adaption, we also consider three-phase unbalance condition and parallel computation to speed-up. We validated our method by extensive numerical results on IEEE standard systems, such as 8-bus and 123-bus radial distribution grids, where the global optimums are obtained and performance illustrations are demonstrated.
arXiv:1909.00864v1 fatcat:77fxbfnuuzhmrhs6pxmm52cali

Large-scale optimal transport map estimation using projection pursuit [article]

Cheng Meng, Yuan Ke, Jingyi Zhang, Mengrui Zhang, Wenxuan Zhong, Ping Ma
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This paper studies the estimation of large-scale optimal transport maps (OTM), which is a well-known challenging problem owing to the curse of dimensionality. Existing literature approximates the large-scale OTM by a series of one-dimensional OTM problems through iterative random projection. Such methods, however, suffer from slow or none convergence in practice due to the nature of randomly selected projection directions. Instead, we propose an estimation method of large-scale OTM by combining
more » ... the idea of projection pursuit regression and sufficient dimension reduction. The proposed method, named projection pursuit Monge map (PPMM), adaptively selects the most "informative" projection direction in each iteration. We theoretically show the proposed dimension reduction method can consistently estimate the most "informative" projection direction in each iteration. Furthermore, the PPMM algorithm weakly convergences to the target large-scale OTM in a reasonable number of steps. Empirically, PPMM is computationally easy and converges fast. We assess its finite sample performance through the applications of Wasserstein distance estimation and generative models.
arXiv:2106.05838v1 fatcat:e6cayolmnbhctbcymnljxkcgzm

Neural MoCon: Neural Motion Control for Physically Plausible Human Motion Capture [article]

Buzhen Huang, Liang Pan, Yuan Yang, Jingyi Ju, Yangang Wang
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Due to the visual ambiguity, purely kinematic formulations on monocular human motion capture are often physically incorrect, biomechanically implausible, and can not reconstruct accurate interactions. In this work, we focus on exploiting the high-precision and non-differentiable physics simulator to incorporate dynamical constraints in motion capture. Our key-idea is to use real physical supervisions to train a target pose distribution prior for sampling-based motion control to capture
more » ... y plausible human motion. To obtain accurate reference motion with terrain interactions for the sampling, we first introduce an interaction constraint based on SDF (Signed Distance Field) to enforce appropriate ground contact modeling. We then design a novel two-branch decoder to avoid stochastic error from pseudo ground-truth and train a distribution prior with the non-differentiable physics simulator. Finally, we regress the sampling distribution from the current state of the physical character with the trained prior and sample satisfied target poses to track the estimated reference motion. Qualitative and quantitative results show that we can obtain physically plausible human motion with complex terrain interactions, human shape variations, and diverse behaviors. More information can be found at
arXiv:2203.14065v1 fatcat:jwc7bxqrirguliv3jmbuznqari

Homogeneous fluorescent specific PCR for the authentication of medicinal snakes using cationic conjugated polymers

Chao Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Libing Liu, Jingyi Hou, Yan Jin, Luqi Huang
2015 Scientific Reports  
A label-free, homogenous and sensitive one-step method for the molecular authentication of medicinal snakes has been developed by combining a rapid PCR technique with water-soluble cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CCPs). Three medicinal snake materials (Deinagkistrodon acutus, Zaocys dhumnades and Bungarus multicinctus; a total of 35 specimens) and 48 snake specimens with similar morphologies and textures were clearly distinguished by the naked eye by utilizing a CCPbased assay in a
more » ... roughput manner. The identification of medicinal snakes in patented Chinese drugs was successfully performed using this detection system. In contrast to previous fluorescencelabeled oligonucleotide detection and direct DNA stain hybridization assays, this method does not require designing dye-labeled primers, and unfavorable dimer fluorescence is avoided in this homogenous method.
doi:10.1038/srep16260 pmid:26537289 pmcid:PMC4633673 fatcat:5nnk44aptbeoxerv3j5bamh5b4

Combining Pixel Swapping and Simulated Annealing for Land Cover Mapping

Lijuan Su, Yue Xu, Yan Yuan, Jingyi Yang
2020 Sensors  
Mixed pixels commonly exist in low-resolution remote sensing images, and they are the key factors hindering the classification of land covers and high-precision mapping. To obtain the spatial information at the subpixel level, subpixel mapping (SPM) technologies, including the pixel-swapping algorithm (PSA), that use the unmixed proportions of various land covers and allocate subpixel land covers have been proposed. However, the PSA often falls into a local optimum solution. In this paper, we
more » ... opose a SPM method, the PSA_MSA algorithm, that combines the PSA and the modified simulated annealing algorithm to find the global optimum solution. The modified simulated annealing algorithm swaps subpixels within a certain range to escape the local optimum solution. The method also optimizes all the mixed pixels in a randomized sequence to further improve the mapping accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed PSA_MSA algorithm outperforms the existing PSA-based algorithms for SPM. The images with different spatial dependences are tested and the results show that the proposed algorithm is more suitable for images with high spatial autocorrelation. In addition, the effect of proportion error is analyzed by adding it in the experiments. The result shows that a higher proportion error rate leads to larger degradation of the subpixel mapping accuracy. Finally, the performance of PSA_MSA algorithm with different ranges of selection on subpixel-swapping is analyzed.
doi:10.3390/s20051503 pmid:32182916 fatcat:lqx6wsua6navvn3hb6iiavwibm

Possibility of inducing tumor cell senescence during therapy

Guohui Wang, Xianliang Cheng, Jingyi Zhang, Yuan Liao, Yinnong Jia, Chen Qing
2021 Oncology Letters  
The treatment options for cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the traditional approach of high-dose chemotherapy brings tremendous toxic side effects to patients, as well as potentially causing drug resistance. Drug resistance affects cell proliferation, cell senescence and apoptosis. Cellular senescence refers to the process in which cells change from an active proliferative status to a growth-arrested status. There are multiple factors that regulate this process
more » ... cellular senescence is activated by various pathways. Senescent cells present specific characteristics, such as an increased cell volume, flattened cell body morphology, ceased cell division and the expression of β-galactosidase. Tumor senescence can be categorized into replicative senescence and premature senescence. Cellular senescence may inhibit the occurrence and development of tumors, serving as an innovative strategy for the treatment of cancer. The present review mainly focuses on senescent biomarkers, methods for the induction of cellular senescence and its possible application in the treatment of cancer.
doi:10.3892/ol.2021.12757 pmid:33981358 pmcid:PMC8108274 fatcat:u5ty3vptbzfo3hnjq6p44np67a

An Observational Study on Cloud Spectral Width in North China

Yuan Wang, Shengjie Niu, Chunsong Lu, Yangang Liu, Jingyi Chen, Wenxia Yang
2019 Atmosphere  
Cloud droplet size distribution (CDSD) is a critical characteristic for a number of processes related to clouds, considering that cloud droplets are formed in different sizes above the cloud-base. This paper analyzes the in-situ aircraft measurements of CDSDs and aerosol concentration ( N a ) performed in stratiform clouds in Hebei, China, in 2015 to reveal the characteristics of cloud spectral width, commonly known as relative dispersion ( ε , ratio of standard deviation (σ) to mean radius (r)
more » ... of the CDSD). A new algorithm is developed to calculate the contributions of droplets of different sizes to ε . It is found that small droplets with the size range of 1 to 5.5 μm and medium droplets with the size range of 5.5 to 10 μm are the major contributors to ε, and the medium droplets generally dominate the change of ε. The variation of ε with N a can be well explained by comparing the normalized changes of σ and r ( k σ / σ and k r / r ), rather than k σ and k r only ( k σ is Δσ/Δ N a and k r is Δr/Δ N a ). From the perspective of external factors affecting ε change, the effects of N a and condensation are examined. It is found that ε increases initially and decreases afterward as N a increases, and "condensational broadening" occurs up to 1 km above cloud-base, potentially providing observational evidence for recent numerical simulations in the literature.
doi:10.3390/atmos10030109 fatcat:k24aaofhwramjj7nqs5hszxkfe

ICARUS: A Lightweight Neural Plenoptic Rendering Architecture [article]

Chaolin Rao, Huangjie Yu, Haochuan Wan, Jindong Zhou, Yueyang Zheng, Yu Ma, Anpei Chen, Minye Wu, Binzhe Yuan, Pingqiang Zhou, Xin Lou, Jingyi Yu
2022 arXiv   pre-print
The practical deployment of Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) in rendering applications faces several challenges, with the most critical one being low rendering speed on even high-end graphic processing units (GPUs). In this paper, we present ICARUS, a novel lightweight graphics architecture tailored for NeRF rendering. Unlike GPUs using general purpose computing and memory architectures for NeRF, ICARUS executes the complete NeRF pipeline using dedicated plenoptic cores (PLCore) consisting of a
more » ... tional encoding unit (PEU), a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) engine, and a volume rendering unit (VRU). A PLCore takes in positions & directions and renders the corresponding pixel colors without any intermediate data going off-chip for temporary storage and exchange, which can be time and power consuming. To implement the most expensive component of NeRF, i.e., the MLP, we transform the fully connected operations to approximated reconfigurable multiple constant multiplications (MCMs), where common subexpressions are shared across different multiplications to improve the computation efficiency. We build a prototype ICARUS using Synopsys HAPS-80 S104, an FPGA-based prototyping system for large-scale integrated circuits and systems. We evaluate the area and power consumption of a PLCore using 40nm LP CMOS process. Working at 300 MHz, a single PLCore occupies 7.59 mm^2 and consumes 309.8 mW, translating to 0.174 uJ/sample. Evaluation results show that for NeRF rendering, the energy efficiency of ICARUS is 146 times higher than GPUs. By scaling to a multi-core system, the energy-efficient ICARUS can be deployed in practical edge applications for NeRF-based rendering tasks.
arXiv:2203.01414v1 fatcat:5wehzotun5bobikgxao2diryge

Hamiltonian stationary cones with isotropic links

Jingyi Chen, Yu Yuan
2018 Pacific Journal of Mathematics  
We show that any closed oriented immersed Hamiltonian stationary isotropic surface Σ with genus g_Σ in S^5⊂C^3 is (1) Legendrian and minimal if g_Σ=0; (2) either Legendrian or with exactly 2g_Σ-2 Legendrian points if g_Σ≥1. In general, every compact oriented immersed isotropic submanifold L^n-1⊂ S^2n-1⊂C^n such that the cone C( L^n-1) is Hamiltonian stationary must be Legendrian and minimal if its first Betti number is zero. Corresponding results for non-orientable links are also provided.
doi:10.2140/pjm.2018.295.317 fatcat:owtery223fhmhji2piomigwggm

Bi deficiency-tuned functionality in multiferroic Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films

Jingyi Chen, Yao Wang, Hui Wang, Shuangmei Zhang, Yuan Deng
2016 Scientific Reports  
Structural evolution and ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) transition behaviors were observed in Bi 1-δ Fe 0.95 Mn 0.05 O 3 (100)-textured films with a carefully controlled Bi deficiency concentration δ. Raman spectra revealed an orthorhombic structural transition induced by Mn substitution. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage loops of Bi 1-δ Fe 0.95 Mn 0.05 O 3 films clearly demonstrated antiferroelectric behavior with increasing δ. The
more » ... of the domain structure of the Bi 1-δ Fe 0.95 Mn 0.05 O 3 film under positive and negative applied voltages directly suggested the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The existence of (100) superstructure reflections and antiparallel displacements of the Bi atoms along the [100] direction observed by transmission electron microscopy unambiguously reveal the AFE phase. The chemical substitution-induced orthorhombic structural transition in BiFe 0.95 Mn 0.05 O 3 film implies that as the δ concentration increases, the changes in Bi-O bonding and the stereochemical activity of Bi 6s lone pair affect both the ferroelectric distortion and the antiferrodistortive rotation and therefore drive the Bi 1-δ Fe 0.95 Mn 0.05 O 3 crystal lattice to form a PbZrO 3type orthorhombic phase with an AFE order. A continuing increase in Bi deficiency creates defect dipole complexes which produce an internal field leading to a preferred direction of the ferroelectric domain. The Bi deficiency in multiferroic BiFeO 3 provides a new route by which to tune functionality. Currently, BiFeO 3 (BFO) is the only known single-phase multiferroic material that simultaneously shows ferroelectric (T C ~1103 K) and antiferromagnetic (T N ~640 K) orderings at room temperature. The fundamentally interesting physics and the flexibility of external field control using perturbations such as stress, electric and magnetic fields in the multiferroic system make BFO an attractive material 1-3 . Recent studies of highly strained BiFeO 3 thin films have motivated a new round of intense research on this material due to its great application potential in lead-free probe-based data storage and actuator systems 4,5 . In addition to strain engineering in BFO films, chemical modification of BFO is also under active investigation to modulate the structures, reduce leakage currents, lower the coercive field or increase the magnetic ordering 6,7 . Rare-earth ion doping at the Bi site in BFO films was reported to lead to a structural transition from the ferroelectric rhombohedral phase to an orthorhombic phase exhibiting a double polarization hysteresis loop. Such a structural transition can be universally achieved by controlling the average ionic radius of the Bi-site cation 8 . A PbZrO 3 -like structure with antipolar order was also observed in Bi 1-x Nd x FeO 3 bulk materials 9 . Because the ferroelectricity in BFO originates from the Bi 3+ 6s 2 lone pair, Bi-site modification direct influences Bi-O bonding modifying the off-center displacement of the cation. Studies on Mn-doped BFO bulk materials showed that Mn substitution at the Fe site changed both structural and electronic properties, resulting in a phase transition from the R3c space group to the Pnma space group 10-12 . Recent research demonstrated that Bi was also affected by Mn substitution due to Fe 3d-O 2p-Bi 6s electron hybridization 11,12 . Thus, while modification of the Bi-site in BFO lattice tends to induce an antiferroelectric structure, structural transitions are also promoted by Mn substitution at the Fe-site. Very recently, Kalinin and Spaldin discussed how the effects of functional ion defects in transition metal oxides may provide a new route for the control of novel functionalities 13,14 . It is therefore important to determine whether the same structure modification will be generated using Bi vacancies instead of heterogeneous element substitution at the Bi-site in Mn-doped BFO thin films due to the extreme ease of Bi vacancy formation in BFO. Here, we demonstrate that Bi deficiency functions as a new parameter in tuning the phase structure and ferroelectric behavior of BFO films. We carefully controlled the Bi deficiency concentration in Mn-doped (5 mol%) BFO films by utilizing the volatilization of Bi during high-temperature heat treatment. Double polarization hysteresis loops were observed in Bi-deficient Mn-doped BFO films, indicating antiferroelectric-like behavior. The origin of this antiferroelectricity-like behavior in Bi 1-δ Fe 0.95 Mn 0.05 O 3 film is discussed.
doi:10.1038/srep19385 pmid:26775621 pmcid:PMC4726044 fatcat:jyil5iulbfdezbuokyiy7dqwby

Speech depression recognition based on attentional residual network

Xiaoyong Lu, Daimin Shi, Yang Liu, Jingyi Yuan
2021 Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark  
Depressive disorder is a common affective disorder, also known as depression, which is characterized by sadness, loss of interest, feelings of guilt or low self-worth and poor concentration. As speech is easy to obtain non-offensively with low-cost, many researchers explore the possibility of depression prediction through speech. Adopting speech signals to recognize depression has important practical significance. Aiming at the problem of the complex structure of the deep neural network method
more » ... sed in the recognition of speech depression and the traditional machine learning methods need to manually extract the features and the low recognition rate. This paper proposes a model that combines residual thinking and attention mechanism. First, depression corpus is designed based on the classic psychological experimental paradigm self-reference effect (SRE), and the speech dataset is labeled; then the attention module is introduced into the residual, and the channel attention is used to learn the features of the channel dimension, the spatial attention feedback the features of the spatial dimension, and the combination of the two to obtain the attention residual unit; finally the stacking unit constructs a speech depression recognition model based on the attention residual network. Experimental results show that compared with traditional machine learning methods, this model obtains better results in the recognition of depression, which can meet the need for actual recognition application of depression. In this study, we not only predict whether person is depressed, but also estimate the severity of depression. In the designed corpus, the depression binary classification of an individual is given based on the severity of depression which is measured using BDI-II scores. Experimental results show that spontaneous speech can obtain better results than automatic speech, and the classification of speech features corresponding to negative questions is better than other tasks under negative emotions. Besides, the recognition accuracy rate of both male and female subjects is higher than that under other emotions.
doi:10.52586/5066 pmid:34994187 fatcat:j6ifeqw2jbge7jzme35dooazue
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