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Flexible Lamination Encapsulation

Min-Ho Park, Jin-You Kim, Tae-Hee Han, Tae-Sik Kim, Hobeom Kim, Tae-Woo Lee
2015 Advanced Materials  
spin coating of polymer solution requires direct contact with the organic material which can be damaged by solvents and the polymer layer has very poor gas diffusion barrier properties. [ 6, 10 ] ALD has demerits including high cost, long-processing time, low throughput, and vulnerability to external infl uences so that it is incompatible with low-cost, high-speed, and highthroughput R2R processes. Face seal encapsulation may not be suitable for R2R process [ 9 ] because face seal encapsulation
more » ... requires thermal annealing process to remove the solvent and crosslink the epoxy resin that requires additional processing time and affects performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, fl exible encapsulation method for use in the R2R processing has not been reported. Remedying this lack is a challenge in fl exible encapsulation research. Ideally, fl exible encapsulation methods must: i) use a simple process and structure, ii) be getter-free, iii) have effectiveness comparable to that of glass encapsulation, and iv) be easily used in R2R processes to allow mass production. We developed a novel fl exible encapsulation method to enable R2R lamination: Flex Lami-capsulation ( Figure 1 ) in which OEDs are encapsulated in a laminar structure that consists of a thin metal foil and a rubbery polymer layer (e.g., poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)). In this work, we used 0.6 mm thick stainless steel (STS) and 40 µm thick Fe-Ni alloy metal foil. STS and thin metal foil are unbreakable, fl exible, and lightweight, have high mechanical strength, thermal stability, and form an effective barrier against penetrating oxygen and moisture. [ 11 ] Our idea to use STS and thin metal foil is to exploit these advantages when STS and metal foil coated with a rubbery polymer layer are used as an encapsulant by a simple lamination process. [ 12 ] Flex Lami-capsulation has the target characteristics for ideal fl exible encapsulation such as simplicity, speed, low price, scalability, and suitability for encapsulating fl exible OEDs. Also, it can be easily applied in R2R processes. The Flex Lami-capsulation process includes treatment (Experimental Section) with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to increase adhesion between STS and PDMS. Then, a 25 µm thick PDMS layer was formed onto the SAM-treated STS foil by spin coating and thermal crosslinking. Adhesion between STS and PDMS yields long-term stability in device applications. Flex Lami-capsulation is compatible with R2R processes because the resulting structure is fl exible and can be laminated simply without any physical damage to underlying OLED stacks. In the structure of Flex Lami-capsulation, PDMS has three important roles i) The PDMS layer is an insulator, so the electrical conductivity of STS does not affect individual device function. ii) PDMS makes intimate contact with OLED stack, so no free space occurs between STS and OLED stacks; this process needs no getter because residual gas is almost completely excluded from the internal space. iii) PDMS forms a buffer layer to protect the device from outside infl uences. Moreover, to avoid degradation by water and oxygen contained in free volume Electronic devices based on organic materials can be large patterned, formable, and designable, and therefore have great potential for use in large-area fl exible electronics, displays, and solid-state lighting. [ 1 ] Consequently, organic electronic devices (OEDs) are being investigated for use as next-generation electronics and displays. [ 2 ] However, conventional OEDs are generally nonfl exible because they are fabricated on a rigid substrate and are encapsulated by hollow glass, thus they are not suitable for use in fl exible displays and lightings. To actualize fl exible OEDs, fl exible encapsulation processes as well as fl exible electrodes and impermeable substrates should be developed simultaneously. Another requirement is to reduce the cost for manufacturing fl exible OEDs. Therefore, a roll-to-roll (R2R) process can be used to fabricate them with reduced manufacturing cost and time because of its high throughput and largearea production capability for mass production. [ 3 ] OEDs are easily degraded by external or internal infl uences [ 4 ] such as oxygen and moisture so that R2R OED production must include an R2R-compatible fl exible encapsulation process, which is of prime importance for real commercialization of fl exible OEDs at a low price to increase their durability. [ 5 ] Several different materials and processes have been used to encapsulate OEDs. Currently, most OEDs are encapsulated in rigid glass due to its impermeability and the reliability of the process but it cannot be used for fl exible devices. Although glass encapsulation is most effective to achieve long-term durability of OEDs, it requires a large amount of getters to absorb moisture; getters are bulky and trap residual gases within the hollow space between the encapsulation glass lid, and the device and encapsulation should be performed in inert atmosphere such as nitrogen or argon. However, containing residual moisture or gases in the hollow space in glass lid encapsulants is inevitable because even the so-called inert atmospheric condition in N 2 -fi lled glove boxes is hard to provide perfect inert condition without any reactant (i.e., O 2 , H 2 O, and other gases). [ 5 ] Other methods that use spin coating of polymers, [ 6 ] atomic layer deposition (ALD) [ 7 ] of multiple layers of organic and inorganic thin fi lms [ 8 ] or face seal encapsulation [ 9 ] have been studied to develop fl exible encapsulation. However, Adv. Mater. 2015,
doi:10.1002/adma.201501856 pmid:26102425 fatcat:dasrg32wyrgmvinpcosppys6cu

Application of Car Fire Blankets to Car Fires

Jin-Suk Kwon, Hwang-Jin Kim, Soo-Ho Lee, Su-Young Kim, Tae-Hwe Park, Tae-Dong Kim, Soo-Young Kim
2021 Fire Science and Engineering  
Recently, car fires have been occurring on city roads (47.3%) and expressways (17.2%). Depending on the traffic conditions on the road, the growth of these fires can be delayed until firemen or a pump car arrives at the scene. In this study, application and utilization methods were derived based on car fire extinguishing experiments. To this end, a suffocation effect was induced using a car fire blanket and without using water in the event of a car fire. A car was ignited, and the car fire
more » ... et was applied for 10, 20, and 30 min during the peak of the fire to verify whether the fire could be extinguished. A partial fire was caused for the three experiments, which could be put out with a small amount of water. Based on the results of these experiments, i.e., car fires can be put out using a car fire blanket and an on-site utilization plan, a new technology is presented.
doi:10.7731/kifse.2513d05f fatcat:y5xgxhcy5jeclc5lbn5yerrfe4

A Case Report of Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest within the Pituitary Gland

Tae Ho Kim, Tae Jin Park, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Yoon-Sok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee, Tae Hi Lee, Ho Sung Kim, Kyung Gi Cho
2007 Journal of Korean Endocrine Society  
doi:10.3803/jkes.2007.22.6.436 fatcat:owyh4bl2mnftrbxkt7tzc7bgtu

Genome-Enabled Discovery of Anthraquinone Biosynthesis in Senna tora [article]

Sang-Ho Kang, Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Chang-Muk Lee, Joon-Soo Sim, Jin-Tae Jeong, Beom-Soon Choi, Myunghee Jung, So Youn Won, Tae-Jin Oh, Yeisoo Yu, Nam-Hoon Kim, Ok Ran Lee (+8 others)
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Kim, J. Lee, Alizarin and chrysazin inhibit biofilm and hyphal formation by Candida albicans. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7, 447-447 (2017). 3. M. K. Parvez, M. S. Al-Dosari, P. Alam, M. Rehman, M.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.04.27.063495 fatcat:l23kwjwqfreudewq7pqiuskvne

Antioxidant and Anti-lipase Activity in Halocynthia roretzi Extracts
우렁쉥이 추출물의 항산화 및 리파아제 저해활성 효과

Tae-Hyung Kwon, Jin-Ki Kim, Tae-Wan Kim, Jin-Wook Lee, Jun-Tae Kim, Hyun-Ju Seo, Min-Jeong Kim, Choong-Gon Kim, Deuk-San Jeon, Nyun-Ho Park
2011 Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology  
리파아제 저해 활성 리파아제 저해 활성은 Kim 등의 방법(20)에 따라 측정하였다. Porcine pancreatic lipase 0.3 mg에 10 mM MOPS/1 mM EDTA (pH 6.8) 30 µL를 분주하고 100 mM Tris-HCl/5 mM CaCl 2 (pH 6.8) 850 µL를 첨가하여 enzyme buffer를 준비하였다.  ... 
doi:10.9721/kjfst.2011.43.4.464 fatcat:u2l26ebrrfhuhololj43yxpkyq

The reversible developmental unipotency of germ cells in chicken

Jin Gyoung Jung, Young Mok Lee, Jin Nam Kim, Tae Min Kim, Ji Hye Shin, Tae Hyun Kim, Jeong Mook Lim, Jae Yong Han
2010 Reproduction  
However, in our previous reports (Park et al. 2003a , 2003b , Kim et al. 2009 ), we monitored migration of exogenous germ cells after being transferred into recipients and optimized the injection cell  ...  The cell preparation method and cell number to transfer into embryo stages, blastoderm at stage X and embryonic blood vessel at stage 14-16, were determined according to our previous experiment (Kim et  ... 
doi:10.1530/rep-09-0265 pmid:19776100 fatcat:jawync4ddrbalagnibxcsaexa4

Impact of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 on Pigmentation

Tae-Young Choi, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Jin-Hwa Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Cheol-Hee Kim, Jae-Sung Hwang, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Chang Deok Kim, Tae-Jin Yoon
2010 Journal of Investigative Dermatology  
We obtained metastasized melanoma tissue from a primary acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) patient and established a melanoma cell line named primary culture of melanoma cell derived from lymph node (PML)-1. PML-1 cells had a light brown color and decreased the expression of melanogenesis markers, including tyrosinase (TYR), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and tyrosinase-related protein-1. To identify genes differentially regulated in PML-1 melanoma cells, we performed DNA
more » ... ay and two-dimensional matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analyses. Among the candidate genes identified, we chose NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) for further study. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that NQO1 was markedly decreased in PML-1 cells and in several amelanotic melanoma cell lines. To investigate whether NQO1 affects the melanogenesis, we treated the cultured normal human melanocytes (NHMC) and zebrafish with NQO1 inhibitors, ES936 and dicoumarol. Interestingly, melanogenesis was significantly decreased by the addition of NQO1 inhibitors in both NHMC and zebrafish models. In contrast, overexpression of NQO1 using a recombinant adenovirus clearly induced melanogenesis, concomitantly with an increase of TYR protein level. These results suggest that NQO1 is a positive regulator of the pigmentation process.
doi:10.1038/jid.2009.280 pmid:19759547 fatcat:4ngldw3d4jc77ptww7z7pgder4

Concurrence of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Bilateral Parotitis after Minocycline Therapy

Jimi Yoon, Seung Hun Lee, Tae-Heung Kim, Deok-Jin Choi, Jin-Pyeong Kim, Tae-Jin Yoon
2010 Case Reports in Dermatology  
Minocycline is an antibiotic of tetracycline derivatives that is commonly used in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. It has been reported to cause rare adverse events from mild cutaneous eruption to severe forms including drug-induced lupus, serum sickness-like reaction, and hypersensitivity reactions, etc. The risks of adverse events attributed to minocycline have not been ascertained reliably and there are concerns about the safety of minocycline which could possibly result in
more » ... lifethreatening events such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Here we demonstrate an unusual case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in conjunction with bilateral parotitis after the intake of minocycline in a Korean boy suggesting discreet use of the drug.
doi:10.1159/000314952 pmid:21103193 pmcid:PMC2988842 fatcat:jjfwkkmaknewzjsa4koglxxs7q

Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials Encapsulating Angelica gigas Nakai Extract for Potential Anticancer Nanomedicine

Hyoung-Jun Kim, Gyeong Jin Lee, Ae-Jin Choi, Tae-Hyun Kim, Tae-il Kim, Jae-Min Oh
2018 Frontiers in Pharmacology  
., 2014; Kim et al., 2016) .  ...  Thus, the enhanced anticancer efficacy of hybrids was thought to be attributed to the hybridization of DS with LDHs, as reported previously for drug-LDH hybrids (Oh et al., 2006c; Kim et al., 2013 Kim  ... 
doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00723 pmid:30038570 pmcid:PMC6046438 fatcat:y53szy4pavgj5pmhifzj6bs32u

Structural, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of PLA/PBAT/MEA Blend

Tae-Jin Kim, Tae-Hui Kim, Sang-Gu Kim, Kwan-Ho Seo
2016 Porrime  
초록: 본 연구에서는 poly(lactic acid)(PLA), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)(PBAT), ethanolamine(MEA) 블 렌드를 제작하였다. MEA는 PLA/PBAT의 에스터 치환반응을 가능하게 하였고, 커플링반응의 촉매로써 작용하였으 며, PLA와 PBAT간의 상용성을 증진하게 하였다. PLA/PBAT/MEA 블렌드의 구조 및 열적 특성을 관찰하였고, PLA/PBAT/MEA 블렌드를 PLA/PBAT 블렌드의 커플링제로 사용하였다. 결론적으로 PLA/PBAT/MEA 블렌드는 화 학적 결합으로 인하여 상용성을 향상하였고, 커플링제로의 가능성을 보여주었다. Abstract: In this study, a polymer blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), and ethanolamine (MEA)
more » ... A) was prepared. MEA made PLA/PBAT capable of transesterification reaction, acted as a catalyst of coupling reaction and improved the compatibility between PLA and PBAT. The structural and thermal properties of PLA/PBAT/MEA blend were characterized, and PLA/PBAT/MEA blend was used for the coupling agent of PLA/PBAT blend. In conclusion, the PLA/PBAT/MEA blend had an improved compatibility due to chemical coupling and showed a possibility as a coupling agent.
doi:10.7317/pk.2016.40.3.371 fatcat:joqzbwwqi5agzk333e5xmif5ta

Rhabdomyolysis Following Colonoscopy: A Case Report

Jin Yong Jeong, Kap Tae Kim, Mi Jin Kim, Yea Jeong Kim
2018 Annals of Coloproctology  
We experienced a case of 1 patient who died from rhabdomyolysis-related complications after colonoscopy. A 60-year-old man had undergone an 'uncomplicated' colonoscopic polypectomy. Approximately 10 hours following this procedure, the patient complained of increasing left abdominal pain. His computed tomography image showed free gas, but his operative findings revealed no macroscopic perforation or abscess formation. Eight hours after the operation, the patient presented with myoglobulinuria,
more » ... d we diagnosed the condition to be rhabdomyolysis. Based on this case, we recommend that rhabdomyolysis be added to the list of complications following a colonoscopic procedure. Moreover, for prevention and early treatment, endoscopists should be attentive to the risk factors and signs/symptoms of rhabdomyolysis.
doi:10.3393/ac.2018.34.1.52 pmid:29535989 pmcid:PMC5847405 fatcat:ebaqaebnq5gbligtobbr4jjtn4

A Case Report of an Aldosterone-producing Adrenocortical Carcinoma

You Hong Lee, Tae Jin Park, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan Woo Lee, Myung Wook Kim, Jang Hee Kim, Tae Hi Lee, Yoon-Sok Chung
2008 Journal of Korean Endocrine Society  
Primary aldosteronism is a syndrome characterized by hypokalemic alkalosis and hypertension. Aldosteroneproducing adenomas and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are common causes of this syndrome. An aldosteroneproducing adrenocortical carcinoma is a very rare cause of primary aldosteronism. Recently we experienced a case of an aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. A 41-year-old female was admitted for evaluation of a retroperitoneal mass. Because of hypokalemia and a history of
more » ... on, we evaluated the patient for primary aldosteronism. The high ratio of plasma aldosterone to renin activity suggested the possibility of the presence of primary aldosteronism. We performed adrenal vein sampling for differential diagnosis of an aldosterone-producing tumor from a retroperitoneal mass. The adrenal vein sampling showed that the primary aldosteronism was due to an aldosterone-producing tumor from the left adrenal gland. Surgical findings indicated that the retroperitoneal mass originated from the left adrenal gland and the pathological diagnosis for the mass was an adrenocortical carcinoma. In conclusion, the results from the adrenal vein sampling, as well as the surgical and pathological findings demonstrate that this case was an aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma.
doi:10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.56 fatcat:vwdjay5ilvb63a7kbhfw5356iu

Complications and oncologic outcomes following robot-assisted radical cystectomy: What is the real benefit?

Dong Jae Bak, You Jin Lee, Myeong Jin Woo, Jae-Wook Chung, Yun-Sok Ha, Hyun Tae Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Eun Sang Yoo, Bup Wan Kim, Tae Gyun Kwon
2016 Investigative and Clinical Urology  
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the advantages of robotic surgery, comparing perioperative and oncological outcomes between robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) and open radical cystectomy (ORC). Materials and Methods: Between August 2008 and May 2014, 112 radical cystectomies (42 RARCs and 70 ORCs) were performed at a single academic institution following Institutional Review Board approval. Patient demographics, perioperative variables (e.g., complications), and oncologic
more » ... omes including metastasis-free survival (MFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were reported using the Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results: The median follow-up period was 40 months (range, 0-70 months) vs. 42 months (range, 0-74 months) in RARC and ORC, respectively. Baseline characteristics of both groups were balanced. Blood loss (median, [range]; 300 mL [125-925 mL] vs. 598 mL [150-2,000 mL], p=0.001) and perioperative transfusion rates (23.8% vs. 45.7%, p=0.020) were significantly lower in the RARC group than in the ORC group. The overall complication rates were greater in the ORC group, but this was not statistically significant (65.7% vs. 64.3%, p=0.878). However, there were significantly higher major complication rates in the ORC group (45.7% vs. 26.2%, p=0.040). No significant differences were found with regards to MFS, CSS, and OS. Conclusions: While histopathological findings, overall complications, and survival rates do not reveal definite differences, RARC has more advantages compared to ORC in terms of estimated blood loss, perioperative transfusion rates and fewer perioperative major complications. We propose that RARC is a safer treatment modality with equivalent oncological outcomes compared to ORC.
doi:10.4111/icu.2016.57.4.260 pmid:27437535 pmcid:PMC4949693 fatcat:2ymqzt2npzexfofgpq2khzhl3a

The Inhibitory Effect of Phytoclear-EL1 on Melanogenesis

Kee Suck Suh, Jae Woo Baek, Tae Kwon Kim, Jin Woo Lee, Hyo Jin Roh, Young Seung Jeon, Sang Tae Kim
2009 Annals of Dermatology  
Phytoclear-EL1, an extract from Euphorbia lathyris seeds, has a whitening effect due to inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of phytoclear-EL1 on melanogenesis. Methods: Cultured B-16 melanoma cells and 30 human volunteers were used for in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. Phytoclear-EL1 was added to the cultured B-16 melanoma cells, and applied to UVB-induced hyperpigmented lesions of human volunteers twice
more » ... for 7 weeks. Changes in the number of B-16 melanoma cells, as well as changes in morphology, melanin content, and tyrosinase activity, were measured and then compared with the normal control and the 10 −3 M arbutin groups. Also, the effect of phytoclear-EL1 on UVB-induced hyperpigmented lesions was examined through subjective and objective measurements. Results: In the in vitro study (p<0.05), the number, melanin content, and tyrosinase activity of cultured B-16 melanoma cells were decreased in the 5μg/ml phytoclear-EL1 group compared to the control group. On objective assessment with a chromameter, the 0.2% phytoclear-EL1 group had a larger difference in the mean L values before and 7 weeks after applying phytoclear-EL1 as compared to the other groups. On subjective assessment by both the researchers and subjects 7 weeks after applying experimental materials, the 0.2% phytoclear-EL1 group and positive control (3% arbutin) had higher scores than the placebo groups. These results demonstrated that phytoclear-EL1 in vivo and in vitro had an inhibitory effect on melano-genesis. Conclusion: Phytoclear-EL1 may be a candidate extract in the control of hyperpigmentary disorders. (Ann Dermatol 21(4) 369∼375, 2009) -
doi:10.5021/ad.2009.21.4.369 pmid:20523826 pmcid:PMC2861257 fatcat:suk2xsb3ufhb7hlds2qokmxiui

Induction of Melanogenesis by Rapamycin in Human MNT-1 Melanoma Cells

Young-Sool Hah, Hee Young Cho, Tae-Yeon Lim, Dong Hwa Park, Hwa Mi Kim, Jimi Yoon, Jin Gu Kim, Chi Yeon Kim, Tae-Jin Yoon
2012 Annals of Dermatology  
doi:10.5021/ad.2012.24.2.151 pmid:22577264 pmcid:PMC3346904 fatcat:j7geadgjnraonnfcna5vadtjgq
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