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This 8-page fact sheet was written by Mercy Olmstead, Jose Chaparro, Pete Andersen, Jeff Williamson, and James Ferguson, and published by the UF Department of Horticultural Sciences, May 2013. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu ...doi:10.32473/edis-mg374-2013 fatcat:ffwbbkheevbsvmgxevuh5if2mq
Just over a quarter of a century ago, thought leaders in the aging research arena recognized that the promotion of increased physical activity was a relatively unexplored but potentially powerful avenue to promoting healthy aging. 1,2 Since that mandate to examine the role of exercise in preventive gerontology was issued, and during the past decade in particular, a growing body of evidence has accumulated that has given legs to the hypothesis that the promotion of physical activity may be thedoi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.491 pmid:20101006 pmcid:PMC4365421 fatcat:qkfujhrhwjgbbjrlhl2q23v42m
more »... st effective prescription that physicians can dispense for the purposes of promoting successful aging. Today it is recognized that virtually all of the diseases and conditions that lead to physical disability in older adults have as part of their etiology a component of personal lifestyle choices (eg, physical inactivity) in addition to biological aging and environmental exposure. Improving our understanding of the relative contributions of these factors to aging-related loss of independence and the subsequent development and implementation of prevention and treatment approaches is the essence of the present research mission for scientists working in the areas of geriatric medicine and gerontology.
Studies of interventions that are intended to improve patients' health are often evaluated with survival as the primary outcome, even when a measure adjusted for quality of survival, such as years of healthy life (YHL), would seem more appropriate. The purpose of this article is to determine whether studies based on survival are more or less powerful than studies based on YHL in clinical trials where either measure might be appropriate. We used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) todoi:10.1016/s0197-2456(98)00062-2 pmid:10357499 fatcat:lmb3dbdqpramnekn3a6o3znn2y
more »... estimate the sample size that would be needed in studies of 156 different health conditions, for the two outcome measures. The median sample size for a 5-year study was 687 if survival was the endpoint and 484 for YHL. YHL usually required lower sample sizes than survival, although survival was more powerful for some health conditions. We also found that lengthy studies, and studies with many follow-up measures per person, did not have appreciably higher power than less intensive studies. We conclude that clinical investigations in which the goal is to improve health may often be performed more efficiently with YHL rather than survival as the primary outcome measure. Such studies can be short in duration, with relatively few measures per person of health status. Control Clin Trials 1999;20:267-279
Anuran artifacts of preservation: 27 years later. Measurements made on preserved anuran specimens are often used in studies of systematics, ecology and evolution. Here, we examine the effect of preservation on one of the most common measurement of frogs, snout-urostyle length (SUL). Preservation had significant effects on the SUL of 13 of the 14 species of North American frogs included in this study, with all species decreasing in SUL by 0.31-5.62%. Smaller frog species did not shrinkdoi:10.11606/issn.2316-9079.v8i1p51-58 fatcat:s2uamyxdojfq5fsmpbxfkx6mcu
more »... ally more or less than larger species. Absolute shrinkage was correlated with SUL and was greater in larger species. Within species, percent shrinkage was not significantly correlated with SUL in 10 species, but significantly greater for larger individuals in 3 species, and decreased with size in 1 species. Absolute shrinkage was statistically greater for larger individuals in 4 species. Our results agree with studies of morphological permutations in fish which show that most preservation-related changes take place within the first few months after initial preservation. We suggest that the potential consequences of using preserved specimens in research must be considered and that future studies continue to examine preservation effects, not only on frogs, but on all preserved specimens used in scientific investigations.
This revised 3-page fact sheet was written by Mercy Olmstead, Jeff Williamson, Jose Chaparro, and Tim Crocker, and published by the UF Department of Horticultural Sciences, September 2011. ...doi:10.32473/edis-ac018-2011 fatcat:267tvjfhe5fclp5lfc3giwsngm
Understanding the microbial content of the air has important scientific, health, and economic implications. While studies have primarily characterized the taxonomic content of air samples by sequencing the 16S or 18S ribosomal RNA gene, direct analysis of the genomic content of airborne microorganisms has not been possible due to the extremely low density of biological material in airborne environments. We developed sampling and amplification methods to enable adequate DNA recovery to allowdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081862 pmid:24349140 pmcid:PMC3859506 fatcat:vzhf6slmmzaajix45tiu3tzouq
more »... genomic profiling of air samples collected from indoor and outdoor environments. Air samples were collected from a large urban building, a medical center, a house, and a pier. Analyses of metagenomic data generated from these samples reveal airborne communities with a high degree of diversity and different genera abundance profiles. The identities of many of the taxonomic groups and protein families also allows for the identification of the likely sources of the sampled airborne bacteria.
Context: Depressive symptoms are common in patients with dementia and may be associated with increased risk of developing dementia. It has been hypothesized that depressive symptoms and dementia may be attributable to underlying vascular disease in some older persons. Objectives: To test the hypotheses (1) that depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a preclinical state that often precedes dementia, and (2) that the associationdoi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.3.273 pmid:16520432 fatcat:f37w5223mjdo7kvhw6ygmoh5bi
more »... n depressive symptoms and MCI is attributable to underlying vascular disease. Design: Prospective, population-based, longitudinal study. Setting: Random sample of adults 65 years or older recruited from 4 US communities. Participants: Subjects were 2220 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study with high cognitive function at baseline. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and were classified as none (0-2 points), low (3-7 points), and moderate or high (Ն8 points). Vascular disease measures at baseline included confirmed history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension; carotid artery stenosis; ankle-arm blood pressure index; and small or large infarcts or white matter disease on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Mild cognitive impairment was diagnosed after 6 years of follow-up based on the consensus of a team of dementia experts using standard clinical criteria. Main Outcome Measure: Diagnosis of MCI. Results: Depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with increased risk of MCI (10.0%, 13.3%, and 19.7% for those with no, low, and moderate or high depressive symptoms, respectively). This association was diminished only slightly by adjustment for vascular disease measures and demographics. Vascular disease measures also were associated with increased risk of MCI, and these associations were not diminished by adjustment for depressive symptoms or demographics. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of MCI, and this association was independent of underlying vascular disease.
Written by Ali Sarkhosh, Mercy Olmstead, Jeff Williamson, Jose Chaparro, and Juanita Popenoe, translated by Eva Pabon, and published by the UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu ...doi:10.32473/edis-hs1374-2020 fatcat:cpuy2dkspjb57ftdacsy4rg2iu
Objectives/Hypothesis-While flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is an established diagnostic tool, little data exist on the effects of varying liquid types on the swallowing outcomes in healthy older adults. Study Design-Prospective. Methods-Seventy-six healthy older adult volunteers participated (i.e., 18, 28, and 30 in the 7th, 8th, and 9th decades of life, respectively). The effects of age, gender, liquid type (i.e., water, skim, 2%, and whole milk), delivery method (i.e.,doi:10.1002/lary.21116 pmid:20938951 pmcid:PMC3780773 fatcat:ypypczgeibdl3pvqopiwx7x6vq
more »... and straw), and volume (i.e., 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml) on Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores were assessed during FEES. Results-Penetration and silent aspiration were observed in 83% and 28% of the participants, respectively. This represented 19% and 3% of participants' 2,432 swallows, respectively. Liquid type (p = 0.0001), bolus volume (p = 0.02) and delivery method (p = 0.04) significantly affected PAS scores. PAS scores were significantly (p < 0.05) greater for: milk versus water swallows; whole versus skim milk swallows; 10 and 20 ml versus 5 ml volumes; and straw versus cup delivery. The risk for aspiration increased by approximately 2, 3 and 7 fold with maximal increases in bolus volume, fat content of liquids, and age, respectively. Conclusions-Occasional aspiration may be an underappreciated phenomenon during FEES in healthy older adults. In addition, milk yielded a higher likelihood of aspiration than water. Accordingly, different liquid types, bolus volumes, and delivery methods should be utilized to assure an accurate assessment of aspiration status in healthy older adults. Level of Evidence = 2c Send Proofs and
Cost-effectiveness studies often need to compare the cost of a program to the lifetime benefits of the program, but estimates of lifetime benefits are not routinely available, especially for older adults. We used data from two large longitudinal studies of older adults (ages 65-100) to estimate transition probabilities from one health state to another, and used those probabilities to estimate the mean additional years of healthy life that an older adult of specified age, sex, and health statusdoi:10.1016/s0895-4356(97)00298-9 pmid:9539891 fatcat:t6cfqbiv6fhfpph6z3eyllirpa
more »... ould experience. We found, for example, that 65year-old women in excellent health can expect 16.8 years of healthy life in the future, compared to only 8.5 years for women in poor health. We also provide estimates of discounted years of healthy life and future life expectancy. These estimates may be used to extend the effective length of the study period in cost-effectiveness studies, to examine the impact of chronic diseases or risk factors on years of healthy life, or to investigate the relationship of years of life to years of healthy life. Several applications are described. j clin epidemiol 51;4: 343-353, 1998.
The structural and interfacial properties of the inclusion of silicon nanoparticles in two classes of polymeric binders (1) a soluble polymer, and (2) a polymerizing monomers were investigated using small angle x-ray (SAXs) technique. The soluble polymers were cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), and commercial quality, low density polystyrene foam (PS). The polymerizing monomer binders were a commercial acrylic printing base (ACR), and refined linseed oil (LIN). Analysis of the obtained SAXsdoi:10.1557/proc-1245-a13-02 fatcat:eneza5wobff2nisi4rpd7tghum
more »... t using the Gunier scheme suggests that the dispersion of the powders in the different binders consisted of a broad distribution of size heterogeneities, one in which the cluster mass is not uniform but varies over a size distribution in the range 69 to 74nm. Further analysis using Porod's law revealed that the ACR, CAB and PS based composite resulted in a surface fractal structure while the LIN based composite gave a characteristic mass fractal with the size of the basic particles ranging from 61nm to 74nm in agreement with the Gunier analysis, while the size of the aggregate clusters ranges from 338 to 370nm. Analysis of the deviation from porods law from the SAXs data reveals that the all of the binder formed a diffuse interface with the embedded silicon powder except the LIN based composite sample which exhibited a two-phase system with electron density inhomogeneity.
Objectives/Hypothesis-Scant data exist on normal bolus dwell time assessed during Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES). The purpose of this study was to examine bolus dwell time in healthy older adults. Since it has been previously reported that some healthy older adults aspirate, we also sought to determine if bolus dwell time varied as function of aspiration status. Study Design-Prospective Methods-Seventy-six healthy volunteers from the 7 th , 8 th , and 9 th decades of lifedoi:10.1002/lary.22372 pmid:22081498 pmcid:PMC3383802 fatcat:dq2fhue74jdklbhjt54yjfpeyu
more »... rticipated. Dwell times were analyzed via FEES as a function of pharyngeal location, liquid type, delivery method, purée type, viscosity, age, and gender. Results-Longer dwell times were evidenced with the eldest participants, straw delivery, and the smallest volume. Adults in the 9 th decade were 4.8 (p = 0.01) and 3.8 (p = 0.02) times more likely to have longer dwell times at the vallecula and 7.1 (p = 0.002) and 3.8 (p = 0.02) at the pyriform sinus than those in the 7 th and 8 th decades, respectively. Longer dwell times at the vallecula and pyriform sinuses were 2 and 2.38 times (p < 0.0001) more likely for straw than cup delivery, respectively. Five ml boluses were 1.5 times (p < 0.05) more likely to result in longer dwell times than larger volumes. Bolus dwell times did not significantly differ as a function of aspiration status. Conclusions-Advanced age, straw delivery, and small volumes yielded longer dwell times. These variables should be considered before diagnosing an abnormal bolus dwell time in elder patients.
Aim of review: Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) on functional, social, and behavioral factors might be important preoperative predictors of postoperative outcomes. We conducted a literature review to explore associations of preoperative depression, socioeconomic status, social support, functional status/frailty, cognitive status, self-management skills, health literacy, and nutritional status with surgical outcomes. Methods: Two electronic data bases, including PubMed and Google Scholar, weredoi:10.24015/japm.2017.0081 fatcat:tog2tto7nzem5eret2drrp2bom
more »... rched linking either depression, socioeconomic status, social support, functional status/ frailty, cognitive status, self-management skills, health literacy, or nutritional status with surgery, postoperative complications, or perioperative period within the past 2 decades. Recent findings: Preoperative depression has been linked to postoperative delirium, complications, persistent pain, longer lengths of stay, and mortality. Socioeconomic status associates with overall and cancer-free survival. Low socioeconomic status has also been connected to medication non-compliance. Social support can predict overall and cancer-free survival, as well as physical, social and emotional quality of life. Poor functional status and frailty have been related to postoperative complications, longer lengths of stay, postdischarge institutionalization, and higher costs. Preoperative cognitive impairment also associates with self-medication management errors, postoperative cognitive impairment, delirium, complications and mortality. In addition, a greater tendency for reduced adherence to preoperative medication instructions has been linked to health illiteracy. Preoperative malnutrition is prevalent and associates with postoperative morbidity. Conclusion: Efficient and effective assessments of social and behavioral determinants of health, functional status, health literacy, patient's perception of health, and preferences for self-management may improve postoperative management and surgical outcomes, particularly among vulnerable patients undergoing elective surgery who might have subtle physical, social, or psychological deficits or challenges, otherwise missed upon routine evaluation. Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) can be used to effectively and efficiently collect these factors in the preoperative period, thereby identifying areas that can be intervened preemptively.
Objectives-The purposes of this study are to determine the frequency and severity of insomnia symptoms and related complaints experienced by older adults with GAD and compare them with older adults without GAD; compare insomnia symptoms among older adults with GAD with and without comorbid depression; determine if there are age differences in insomnia severity among people with GAD; and determine if there are differences in insomnia severity between older adults with GAD and older adultsdoi:10.1097/jgp.0b013e3181987747 pmid:19472436 pmcid:PMC2699110 fatcat:qyfxeosvlbfzliqympy3lgf6pm
more »... ed with insomnia. Design-Cross-sectional. Setting-Participants were recruited through primary care clinics, advertisements, and mass mailings. Participants-110 older adults; 31 with GAD, 25 with GAD and depression, 33 worried well, and 21 with no psychiatric diagnosis. Measurements-Psychiatric diagnosis, sleep disturbance, and health. Results-Participants with GAD with and without comorbid depression reported significantly greater sleep disturbance severity than participants with no psychiatric diagnosis and the worried well. There were no differences in sleep disturbances between older adults with GAD only and older adults with comorbid GAD and depression. The severity of sleep disturbance reported by older participants with GAD was greater than reports by young and middle-aged participants with GAD, and comparable to reports by older adults with a diagnosis of insomnia. Conclusions-Ninety percent of older adults with GAD report dissatisfaction with sleep and the majority report moderate to severe insomnia. These findings support the assessment of sleep disturbances within the context of late-life GAD.
Objective-The authors describe characteristics that are associated with chronic anxiety symptoms and examine the use of anxiolytic and anti-depressant medications in physically disabled women with and without symptoms of anxiety. Methods-Participants are 791 physically disabled women aged 65 years and older who participated in the Women's Health and Aging Study for 2 to 3 years. Anxiety symptoms were measured with 4 questions from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and women were categorized asdoi:10.1097/00019442-200501000-00004 pmid:15653936 pmcid:PMC1343492 fatcat:irstauwc2bdtjirgsy45fszouu
more »... ng no anxiety, intermittent anxiety, and chronic anxiety symptoms. Health-related characteristics, medications, physical functioning, physical activity, and psychosocial variables were also measured. Results-Forty-nine percent of women reported no anxiety symptoms, 41% reported intermittent symptoms, and 10% reported chronic symptoms of anxiety. Depressive symptoms and lack of emotional support were significant correlates of intermittent anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms, negative life events, and lack of emotional support were significant correlates of chronic anxiety symptoms. Over the course of 3 years, 20.3% of women with no anxiety, 33.0% of women with intermittent anxiety, and 48.7% of women with chronic anxiety symptoms took anxiolytic and/ or anti-depressant medications. Conclusion-Anxiety symptoms are common among disabled older women. Psychosocial variables were significantly different in women with intermittent or chronic anxiety symptoms compared with women without anxiety.
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