While modelling research typically concentrates on its more technical and formal aspects, this paper provides a case for what we coin natural modelling. Modelling has always been and will always remain a humanintensive activity. To be adopted at large, modelling technologies should be perceived as natural as possible. In order to characterise what natural means, this paper briefly provides an anthropological and historical perspective on modelling. Constituting per se a first contribution, thisdoi:10.5381/jot.2014.13.3.a4 fatcat:zmm3kn2scnblflcr67abl3ae6e
more »... retrospective allows to exhibit fundamental modelling concepts, spanning across ages. By looking backwards to understand what was natural (in) modelling in the past, this paper aims to define some elements for what could what computer-assisted natural modelling could be in the future. More specifically, it is argued that (1) the need for compromises between flexibility and formality is rather natural than extreme, (2) languages are emergent by their very nature and continuously evolve, and (3) natural interaction with modelling technology should be provided to all stakeholders, as it strongly promotes stakeholders participation. Although these aspects took different forms in historical developments of technology, we argue that the principles are still relevant today, and that these should be considered in the future research. The paper ends with some simple illustrations, which help provide the insight on how computer-assisted natural modelling could look like in a possible future.
Proceedings of the 2012 Extreme Modeling Workshop on - XM '12
Is extreme modeling so extreme? We advocate that natural modeling might be a better term. After all, the ultimate goal is to enable modelers to perform their job naturally. In the century of the "disappearing computer", it definitively makes sense to search for non invasive and flexible modeling technologies. This paper considers modeling from an anthropological point of view. A retrospective starting back to the Prehistoric Age leads to new perspectives for natural modeling in the Informationdoi:10.1145/2467307.2467309 fatcat:orv247ejfbaw5nxwj6trtii5m4
more »... ge. It is shown (1) that the need for compromises between flexibility and formality is "natural" rather than "extreme", (2) that the languages are emergent by nature, and (3) that natural interfaces should be provided to all stakeholders. We advocate that surface computing, tangible user-interfaces, collaborative modeling and emergent (meta)modeling are future research directions to be investigated in order to make "extreme" modeling just "natural". Just as it should be.
Workshop Organization and Acknowledgments The workshop was organized by Andreas Winter (University of Koblenz, Germany), Jean-Marie Favre (University of Grenoble, France), and Michael Godfrey (University ...doi:10.1016/j.entcs.2004.01.009 fatcat:yworqoyodbf5hgx4dcvdn5vj7m
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Software Configuration Management (SCM) is the discipline of controlling the evolution of a software product. Product Data Management (PDM) is the disciple of designing and controlling the evolution of a product design. For a long time, these two domains have been disconnected, but they probably share common concepts and techniques. Furthermore, any large product development includes a substantial (and growing) part of software development. There is a need to control the evolution of both thedoi:10.1007/bfb0053880 fatcat:6fbckqftgrfvpmpdw22tifs644
more »... oduct and its associated software. Thus we are faced with the question: are the involved concepts and techniques close enough to envision a common tool capable of supporting both domains. This paper tries to answer this question, through an analysis of the PDM standard STEP and tools characteristic of both domains: Metaphase for PDM; Clear Case and Adele for SCM. "Those who know only England do not know England" (Rudyard Kipling). This paper is written by SCM experts, not PDM ones, and assumes that readers are more knowledgeable in SCM than PDM. The other objective of the paper is to make a critical assessment of SCM (and SE) in the light of another related domain PDM  Since the 70s, computers have been used to provide Computer Assistance (CAx) in two directions: Design (CAD) and Manufacturing (CAM). Simultaneously appears a new kind of engineering and associated products: software. Complete computer aided engineering environments (CAEE) have been built in most engineering domains. These environments can be split in two parts: (1) domain specific tools (3D drawing, structure resistance computing, syntax directed programming editors and so on), whose goal is to define each piece of the product; (2) and tools related to the management of the product seen as an assembly of these pieces: storage (product model), assembly (composition), and evolution (versions and change control) of the pieces. This paper focuses only on the second category of tools, called Software Configuration Management tools (SCM tools) in Software Engineering Environments, and Product Data Management tools (PDM tools) in Product Engineering Environments. It is interesting to note that the distinction Programming in the Small and Programming in the Large is nothing else than the distinction Engineering specific vs. Engineering generic. PDM and SCM both deal with generic engineering issues thus with the same issues. At that level of abstraction, SCM and PDM look identical. The goal of this paper is to go forward in the analysis of both classes of tools, trying to identify where the real differences are (if any), what know-how, conventions and standards have been developed in each domain, and to what extent these standards and conventions are arbitrary; to what extent the know-how developed in a domain can be applied in others. In conclusion, to what extent is it reasonable to envision a generic Computer Aided Engineering Environment (CAEE)? The paper compares PDM and SCM characteristic tools. The selected tools are Metaphase because it is the leader in PDM. For SCM, we have selected ClearCase because it is a leader of the SCM market, and our system Adele, because, for almost 2 decades, it has been among the leaders of the SCM research field, and the product has currently more than 700 industrial licences inside major companies developing software. It is an agreement in both SCM and PDM to distinguish between four major classes of services: • The product model (model of the components and their relationships), • The versioned product model (versioning, composition, selection), • The relationship with the domain specific tools (work spaces, concurrent engineering) • The process model (change control, activity control, organization control). This paper is organized following this distinction. Chapter 2 looks at the standards, chapter 3 compares the data model; chapter 4 the evolution models; chapter 5 workspace control and chapter 6 process models.
• Anamaria Martins Moreira, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil • Leila Silva, Universidade Federal de Segipe, Brazil • German Vega, Universite Grenoble 1, France February 2007 Jean-Marie ... Politécnica de Valencia, Spain • Christiano de Oliveira Braga, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain • Andrea Corradini, Università di Pisa, Italy • Mohammad El-Ramly, University of Leicester, UK • Jean-Marie ...doi:10.14279/tuj.eceasst.3.35.24 dblp:journals/eceasst/HeckelFM06 fatcat:zyj4splku5g4bhzj67wape5ck4
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Developing advanced User Interfaces (UI) is very challenging, in particular when many variants of a same UI are to be produced for different platforms. The development of plastic user interfaces is even more demanding. In Human Computer Interaction, plasticity denotes the capacity of a UI to withstand variations of the context of use while preserving usability. A context of use is a triplet < user, platform, environment >. Plasticity raises many issues for both the design and run time of UIs.doi:10.1007/11663430_20 fatcat:6jdnncpnzjh5zh4yb5jfupkhka
more »... is paper shows how Model Driven Engineering concepts can be used in this area.
doi:10.1145/1134285.1134486 dblp:conf/icse/BezivinFR06 fatcat:uvnv7jfv6fc6joo67s6l7jb7pm
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
User Interface (UI) plasticity denotes UI adaptation to the context of use (user, platform, physical and social environments) while preserving usability. In this article, we focus on the use of Model-Driven Engineering and demonstrate how the intrinsic flexibility of this approach can be exploited by designers for UI prototyping as well as by end-users in real settings. For doing so, the models developed at design-time, which convey high-level design decisions, are still available at run-time.doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74796-3_38 fatcat:ftrhqvcipvaevbwplubaj2urai
more »... s a result, an interactive system is not limited to a set of linked pieces of code, but is a graph of models that evolves, expresses and maintains multiple perspectives on the system from top-level tasks to the final UI. A simplified version of a Home Heating Control System is used to illustrate our approach and technical implementation.
Designing complex interactive systems requires the collaboration of actors with very different background. As a result, several languages and tools are used in a single project with no hope for interoperability. In this article, we examine whether a universal language is a realistic approach to UI specification by looking for answers into the domain of Linguistics while finding analogies in software engineering. Then, we explore one particular avenue from main-stream software engineering: thatdoi:10.1007/bf02910054 fatcat:rnpaivjlhbcw3et62cugux3eiy
more »... f Model Driven Engineering where the notion of transformation is key to the definition of bridges between languages and tools. Building upon these two analyses, we then show how model-driven engineering can be successfully exploited in the development and execution of plastic multimodal UIs illustrated with a variety of complementary tools. KEYWORDS HCI -User Interface -Interoperability -Metamodel -Model Driven Engineering
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Plastic User Interfaces (UI) are able to adapt to their context of use while preserving usability. Research efforts have focused so far, on the functional aspect of UI adaptation, while neglecting the usability dimension. This paper investigates how the notion of mapping as promoted by Model Driven Engineering (MDE), can be exploited to control UI adaptation according to explicit usability criteria. In our approach, a run-time UI is a graph of models related by mappings. Each model (e.g., thedoi:10.1007/978-3-540-92698-6_9 fatcat:ekgvzyeyv5b27fbhdm3c6xtumm
more »... sk model, the Abstract UI, the Concrete UI, and the final UI) describes the UI from a specific perspective from high-level design decisions (conveyed by the task model) to low-level executable code (i.e. the final UI). A mapping between source and target models specifies the usability properties that are preserved when transforming source models into target models. This article presents a meta-model for the notion of mapping and shows how it is applied to plastic UIs.
Understanding how software systems evolve is useful from different perspectives: reverse engineering, empirical studies etc.. For an effective understanding we need an explicit meta-model. We introduce Hismo, a meta-model which is centered around the notion of history and we show how we can obtain it from a snapshot meta-model. Based on our experience in developing the Hismo reverse engineering system, we show how we can transform a snapshot meta-model in a history metamodel.doi:10.1016/j.entcs.2005.07.005 fatcat:mnrbxrrrorb5fjiyc6jp5kse7u
RESUMEN En este artículo se presenta un ejemplo que describe cómo la Ingeniería Dirigida por Modelos (IDM) puede ser aplicada al desarrollo de herramientas para la ingeniería en reverso y comprensión de programas. Se seleccionó como caso de estudio la herramienta CodeCrawler, específicamente la funcionalidad denominada polymetric view, desarrollada mediante tecnologías y técnicas de la IDM. Para ello, se emplearon dos metamodelos (entrada y salida) y transformaciones a nivel de los metamodelosdoi:10.4067/s0718-33052010000100009 fatcat:5ek3mzbrf5dtleagpfnnuxmyy4
more »... ue permiten generar la información de un polymetric view asociado a un proyecto de software, utilizando la información extraída del código fuente. Las tecnologías utilizadas para el desarrollo del ejemplo, las relacionadas con el Eclipse Modeling Project, específicamente el lenguaje de transformación ATL y el lenguaje KM3. El enfoque seguido para obtener la implementación resultante puede ser utilizado para desarrollar una herramienta de ingeniería en reverso y comprensión de software mediante técnicas de la IDM, incorporando el vocabulario del dominio en la implementación. Palabras clave: Ingeniería dirigida por modelos, ingeniería en reverso, comprensión de programas, modelos, metamodelos, transformaciones entre metamodelos, CodeCrawler, ATL, KM3. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) can be applied to the development of tools for reverse engineering and program comprehension. The tool CodeCrawler was selected as an example; in particular, the polymetric view feature was computed using MDE techniques. To this end, two metamodels were proposed (source and target) and meta-level transformations that were used to deduce the information of a polymetric view associated to any software project (source code). The technologies selected to develop the example were those related with the Eclipse Modeling Project, specifically the ATL and the KM3 languages. The approach used in this paper to obtain the implementation can be used to develop all the features of a MDE-oriented software comprehension tool, obtaining a domain-oriented implementation. ABSTRACT This paper presents an example of how
We also would like to thanks Jean Bzivin, Jacky Estublier, German Vega, and all members of the AS MDA project, as well as attendee of the Dagsthul seminar 1401 on MDA for the fruitful discussions we had ...doi:10.1016/j.entcs.2004.08.034 fatcat:3ahifk6b5vgyzc33uwa4ryccma
The microenvironment plays a major role in the onset and progression of metastasis. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tends to metastasize to the peritoneal cavity where interactions within the microenvironment might lead to chemoresistance. Mesothelial cells are important actors of the peritoneal homeostasis; we determined their role in the acquisition of chemoresistance of ovarian tumours.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003894 pmid:19079610 pmcid:PMC2597737 fatcat:uql7suhcqveqregkqzquc3up44
Proceedings of the 2006 international workshop on Global integrated model management - GaMMa '06
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