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Mathematics Teaching and Learning as a Mediating Process: The Case of Tape Diagrams

Aki Murata
2008 Mathematical Thinking and Learning  
A U.S. lesson starts with a simple problem (often non-contextual) that shows a step-by-step solution to the problem.  ...  The multiplicative relationship helps students see how to find the answer by using division or multiplication (270/135 = ᮀ or 135 × ᮀ = 270).  ... 
doi:10.1080/10986060802291642 fatcat:eapwckck45grfbibal7qsvog6e

Application focused on structural comprehension of mathematics contextual problems for kindergarten students

Pedro Gabriel Fonteles Furtado, Tsukasa Hirashima, Yusuke Hayashi, Kazushige Maeda
2019 Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning  
This is despite the popularity of contextual problems and the difficulties that students have with them.  ...  The pilot study suggests that young children are successful at learning about the structure of contextual problems by using the application.  ...  Availability of data and materials Requests for data and materials will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s41039-019-0096-1 fatcat:uxtgap6t5bha7ahhmvz6ozb3vu

Biologically Inspired Emotional Expressions for Artificial Agents

Beáta Korcsok, Veronika Konok, György Persa, Tamás Faragó, Mihoko Niitsuma, Ádám Miklósi, Péter Korondi, Péter Baranyi, Márta Gácsi
2018 Frontiers in Psychology  
., smileys) these displays follow general biological and ethological rules. We conducted a multiple questionnaire study on the assessment of the displays with Hungarian and Japanese subjects.  ...  Fear and sadness were most easily confused with each other while both the Hungarian and Japanese participants recognized the anger display most correctly.  ...  We used descriptive analysis to show the ratio of types of answers based on the scoring system. The answers that received scores 3 or 4 were analyzed further.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01191 pmid:30057561 pmcid:PMC6053641 fatcat:ze6ah64bcnfzxnpnrjhslmk7bm

Effective and practical neural ranking

Sean MacAvaney
2021 SIGIR Forum  
I also demonstrate that contextualized representations, particularly those from transformer-based language models, considerably improve neural ad-hoc ranking performance.  ...  I find that this approach is neither limited to the task of ad-hoc ranking (as demonstrated by ranking clinical reports) nor English content (as shown by training effective cross-lingual neural rankers  ...  is a complex question with a simple factoid answer because it involves advanced reasoning that goes beyond what is typically captured by a knowledge graph.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3476415.3476432 fatcat:fdjy53sggvhgxo5fa5hzpede2i

Effective visual communication for the quantitative scientist

Marc Vandemeulebroecke, Mark Baillie, Alison Margolskee, Baldur Magnusson
2019 CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology  
A concise "Cheat Sheet," available on https://graphicsprinciples.github.io, distills more granular recommendations for everyday practical use.  ...  With this competency, we can better understand data and influence decisions toward appropriate actions. Without it, we can fool ourselves and others and pave the way to wrong conclusions and actions.  ...  We also thank the editor for inviting us to submit this tutorial, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. Funding. No funding was received for this work. Conflict of Interest.  ... 
doi:10.1002/psp4.12455 pmid:31329354 pmcid:PMC6813169 fatcat:2j7pnqr7kbe2taib7vw36xu7ne

Knowledge Efficient Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing [article]

Hai Wang
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Here we are interested in methods for reducing the required quantity of annotated data -- by making the learning methods more knowledge efficient so as to make them more applicable in low annotation (low  ...  This thesis focuses on adapting such classical methods to modern deep learning models and algorithms.  ...  answer multiple-choice questions by just using extracted sentences as the input.  ... 
arXiv:2008.12878v1 fatcat:vhcxrhydyfcsnh3iu5t3g5goky

RATIO AND PROPORTION : A CASE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION OF UNIT IN U.S. AND JAPANESE STUDENTS

Keiko HINO
1996 Journal of Science Education in Japan  
and Japanese students, especially the nature and role of unit in their thinking processes, and to detect factors that influence their thinking, Thirty-five students in grade 6 were given four problems,  ...  In solving problems in proportional situations, it is often crucial to coordinate two referents by forming a unit, The purpose of this study is to comparefcontrast performance and thinking across U.S.  ...  These settings were selected because (a> all four settings are typical in the use of ratio and proportion, <b} all deal with intensive quantities that are difficult to express by using drawings, and (c  ... 
doi:10.14935/jssej.20.159 fatcat:enju2ta3rzd7bovlktzrogvmdm

An AI Framework to Teach English as a Foreign Language: CSIEC

Jiyou Jia
2009 The AI Magazine  
system for learners and teachers.  ...  Its multiple functions—including grammar-based gap filling exercises, scenario show, free chatting and chatting on a given topic—can satisfy the various requirements for students with different backgrounds  ...  The user asks a question about him or herself, and the robot finds the answer from the user facts table. "Do you speak Japanese?" → "No, I do not speak Japanese because I can't speak Japanese.  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v30i2.2232 fatcat:dvsus5pxqzbaxcd3hxp32smvni

A Systematic Review of Automatic Question Generation for Educational Purposes

Ghader Kurdi, Jared Leo, Bijan Parsia, Uli Sattler, Salam Al-Emari
2019 International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education  
To reduce the expenses associated with manual construction of questions and to satisfy the need for a continuous supply of new questions, automatic question generation (AQG) techniques were introduced.  ...  This, in turn, hinders and slows down the use of educational activities (e.g. providing practice questions) and new advances (e.g. adaptive testing) that require a large pool of questions.  ...  Free-response questions are more prevalent among studies using text, with 21 studies focusing on this question type, 18 on multiple-choice, three on both freeresponse and multiple-choice questions, and  ... 
doi:10.1007/s40593-019-00186-y fatcat:76pklz67u5ecjco6vfwqwqfdte

A Survey and Analysis of Current CAPTCHA Approaches

Narges Roshanbin, James Miller
2013 Journal of Web Engineering  
Two fundamental issues with CAPTCHAs are usability and robustness. It is important for a CAPTCHA to be both legible for humans and strong against malicious computer programs.  ...  Lack of security and usability in CAPTCHAs designed to protect popular websites such as Gmail and Yahoo mail, with almost 500 million users in July 2011, would cause huge problems.  ...  The random question "which word is connected to center by a line marked with a circle?" is asked in this example. It is easy for human but difficult for computers to answer this question [63] .  ... 
dblp:journals/jwe/RoshanbinM13 fatcat:xy5pvkvnb5calkqu6ythkqiljy

In search of the Why

Suzan Verberne
2011 SIGIR Forum  
Recently, research by Higashinaka and Isozaki has been directed at developing and evaluating QA systems for answering Japanese why-questions (why-QA) [37] .  ...  For each question, we selected as an answer the satellite that is connected to the nu cleus corresponding to the question topic.  ...  She graduated with a curriculum of science subjects and languages ('Gymnasium Beta').  ... 
doi:10.1145/1924475.1924501 fatcat:fjnlh6htjfg5bas5rjdxd5wx44

CNN-based framework for classifying temporal relations with question encoder

Yohei Seki, Kangkang Zhao, Masaki Oguni, Kazunari Sugiyama
2021 International Journal on Digital Libraries  
To overcome this problem, we propose a novel framework that incorporates prior information by employing awareness of events and time expressions (time-event entities) with various window sizes to focus  ...  We refer to this module as "question encoder." In our approach, this kind of prior information can extract task-related information from simple sentence embedding.  ...  Acknowledgements This work was partially supported by a Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (#19H04420).  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00799-021-00310-1 pmid:34776775 pmcid:PMC8513567 fatcat:xy5koqnklveu7aedrngawygjni

BRAIN vol. 3, issue 2, May 2012

Editors Editorial Board
2012 Brain: Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience  
In one week, you will find here all the articles, published as separate fe files.You are welcome to download the current issue of the journal and read it.Thank you for your understanding!  ...  Acknowledgement This paper is based upon work supported by the Jalisco State Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (project FOMIXJAL-2008-05-98486 ).  ...  In the process of teacher questioning, student answering and what follows up, there seems to be a questioning cycle which usually starts with a question by the teacher and an answer by the student followed  ... 
doaj:b19511114d344783a0039c4da6e49002 fatcat:emd7oei2evdsxpppr4xqfocsae

International Comparative Studies in Mathematics: Lessons for Improving Students' Learning [chapter]

Jinfa Cai, Ida A. C. Mok, Vijay Reddy, Kaye Stacey
2016 International Comparative Studies in Mathematics  
Therefore, the student added 3 to the sum of the numbers of hats sold in the first 3 weeks, then divided it by 3, and got 7, and then gave the answer 3. 2.  ...  With the exception of Japan, all six countries used more "using procedure" problems than "making connections" problems.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-42414-9_1 fatcat:tosvas7jpfbctm3fw2pfbrmrf4

Pretrained Transformers for Text Ranking: BERT and Beyond

Andrew Yates, Rodrigo Nogueira, Jimmy Lin
2021 Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining  
The goal of text ranking is to generate an ordered list of texts retrieved from a corpus in response to a query for a particular task.  ...  This survey provides an overview of text ranking with neural network architectures known as transformers, of which BERT is the best-known example.  ...  However, there remain many open research questions, and thus in addition to laying out the foundations of pretrained transformers for text ranking, this survey also attempts to prognosticate where the  ... 
doi:10.1145/3437963.3441667 fatcat:6teqmlndtrgfvk5mneq5l7ecvq
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