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Self processing in the brain: A paradigmatic fMRI case study with a professional singer

Yuliya Zaytseva, Evgeny Gutyrchik, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Shihui Han, Georg Northoff, Lorenz Welker, Thomas Meindl, Janusch Blautzik
2014 Brain and Cognition  
Understanding the mechanisms involved in perception and conception of oneself is a fundamental psychological topic with high relevance for psychiatric and neurological issues, and it is one of the great challenges in neuroscientific research. The paradigmatic single-case study presented here aimed to investigate different components of self-and other-processes and to elucidate corresponding neurobiological underpinnings. An eminent professional opera singer with profound performance experience
more » ... as undergone functional magnetic resonance imaging and was exposed to excerpts of Mozart arias, sung by herself or another singer. The results indicate a distinction between self-and other conditions in cortical midline structures, differentially involved in self-related and self-referential processing. This lends further support to the assumption of cortical midline structures being involved in the neural processing of self-specific stimuli and also confirms the power of single case studies as a research tool.
doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2014.03.012 pmid:24732954 fatcat:m5b7jvz3jvferboktfnl6ip7gm

Neurofunctional Correlates of Environmental Cognition: An fMRI Study with Images from Episodic Memory

Aline Vedder, Lukasz Smigielski, Evgeny Gutyrchik, Yan Bao, Janusch Blautzik, Ernst Pöppel, Yuliya Zaytseva, Edmund Russell, Oscar Arias-Carrion
2015 PLoS ONE  
This study capitalizes on individual episodic memories to investigate the question, how different environments affect us on a neural level. Instead of using predefined environmental stimuli, this study relied on individual representations of beauty and pleasure. Drawing upon episodic memories we conducted two experiments. Healthy subjects imagined pleasant and non-pleasant environments, as well as beautiful and non-beautiful environments while neural activity was measured by using functional
more » ... netic Resonance Imaging. Although subjects found the different conditions equally simple to visualize, our results revealed more distribut-ed brain activations for non-pleasant and non-beautiful environments than for pleasant and beautiful environments. The additional regions activated in non-pleasant (left lateral prefrontal cortex) and non-beautiful environments (supplementary motor area, anterior cortical midline structures) are involved in self-regulation and top-down cognitive control. Taken together, the results show that perceptual experiences and emotional evaluations of environments within a positive and a negative frame of reference are based on distinct patterns of neural activity. We interpret the data in terms of a different cognitive and processing load placed by exposure to different environments. The results hint at the efficiency of subject-generated representations as stimulus material.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122470 pmid:25875000 pmcid:PMC4397013 fatcat:x2ma6t4n4jf7ncqyobl5q5gja4

Neural correlates of moral judgments in first- and third-person perspectives: implications for neuroethics and beyond

Mihai Avram, Kristina Hennig-Fast, Yan Bao, Ernst Pöppel, Maximilian Reiser, Janusch Blautzik, James Giordano, Evgeny Gutyrchik
2014 BMC Neuroscience  
There appears to be an inconsistency in experimental paradigms used in fMRI research on moral judgments. As stimuli, moral dilemmas or moral statements/ pictures that induce emotional reactions are usually employed; a main difference between these stimuli is the perspective of the participants reflecting first-person (moral dilemmas) or third-person perspective (moral reactions). The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in order to investigate the neural
more » ... of moral judgments in either first-or third-person perspective. Results: Our results indicate that different neural mechanisms appear to be involved in these perspectives. Although conjunction analysis revealed common activation in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, third person-perspective elicited unique activations in hippocampus and visual cortex. The common activation can be explained by the role the anterior medial prefrontal cortex may play in integrating different information types and also by its involvement in theory of mind. Our results also indicate that the so-called "actor-observer bias" affects moral evaluation in the third-person perspective, possibly due to the involvement of the hippocampus. We suggest two possible ways in which the hippocampus may support the process of moral judgment: by the engagement of episodic memory and its role in understanding the behaviors and emotions of others. Conclusion: We posit that these findings demonstrate that first or third person perspectives in moral cognition involve distinct neural processes, that are important to different aspects of moral judgments. These results are important to a deepened understanding of neural correlates of moral cognition-the so-called "first tradition" of neuroethics, with the caveat that any results must be interpreted and employed with prudence, so as to heed neuroethics "second tradition" that sustains the pragmatic evaluation of outcomes, capabilities and limitations of neuroscientific techniques and technologies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-39 pmid:24742205 pmcid:PMC3991864 fatcat:be7brkrbtzerpceefftjih5sq4

What and how should we measure in paediatric oncology FDG-PET/CT? Comparison of commonly used SUV metrics for differentiation between paediatric tumours

Janusch Blautzik, Leonie Grelich, Nicolai Schramm, Rebecca Henkel, Peter Bartenstein, Thomas Pfluger
2019 EJNMMI Research  
In clinical routine, SUVmax and SUVpeak are most often used to determine the glucose metabolism in tumours by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Both metrics can be further normalised to SUVs in reference regions resulting in a SUV ratio (SUVratio). The aim of the study was to directly compare several widely used SUVs/SUVratios with regard to differentiation between common tumours in paediatric patients; a special focus was put on characteristics of reference region SUVs. The final study population consisted of
more » ... children and adolescents with diagnoses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, n = 25), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, n = 14), and sarcoma (n = 22). SUV metrics included SUVmax and SUVpeak as well as both parameters normalised to liver and mediastinal blood pool, respectively, yielding the SUVratios SUVmax/liver, SUVmax/mediastinum, SUVpeak/liver, and SUVpeak/mediastinum. The metrics SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmax/liver, and SUVpeak/liver all proved to be sensitive for tumour differentiation (p ≤ 0.008); in contrast, SUVmax/mediastinum and SUVpeak/mediastinum revealed to be non-sensitive approaches. Correlation analyses showed inverse associations between reference region SUVs and SUVratios (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated significant effects of factors as bodyweight and uptake time on reference region SUVs (p < 0.01), and thus indirectly on the corresponding SUVratios. In the paediatric population, the ability to differentiate between common tumours remarkably varies between SUV metrics. When using SUVratios, the choice of reference region is crucial. Factors potentially influencing reference region SUVs (and thus SUVratios) should be taken into account in order to avoid erroneous conclusions. When not possible, SUVmax and SUVpeak represent less complex, more robust alternatives.
doi:10.1186/s13550-019-0577-7 pmid:31872312 fatcat:yjmkdcajjzeznc34d33oryatfa

Sadness is unique: neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians

Mona Park, Evgeny Gutyrchik, Lorenz Welker, Petra Carl, Ernst Pöppel, Yuliya Zaytseva, Thomas Meindl, Janusch Blautzik, Maximilian Reiser, Yan Bao
2015 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
† These authors have contributed equally to this work. Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians.
more » ... erences in processing of emotional speech prosody between the two groups were only observed when sadness was expressed. Musicians showed increased activation in the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the retrosplenial cortex. Our results suggest an increased sensitivity of emotional processing in musicians with respect to sadness expressed in speech, possibly reflecting empathic processes.
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.01049 pmid:25688196 pmcid:PMC4311618 fatcat:aalgwtpmofchli2ovryqm7v3ne

Existential neuroscience: effects of mortality salience on the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces

Sarita Silveira, Verena Graupmann, Maria Agthe, Evgeny Gutyrchik, Janusch Blautzik, Idil Demirçapa, Andrea Berndt, Ernst Pöppel, Dieter Frey, Maximilian Reiser, Kristina Hennig-Fast
2013 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience  
Being reminded of the inherently finite nature of human existence has been demonstrated to elicit strivings for sexual reproduction and the formation and maintenance of intimate relationships. Recently, it has been proposed that the perception of potential mating partners is influenced by mortality salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces after priming with death-related words for heterosexual men and
more » ... men. Significant modulations of behavioral and neural responses were found when participants were requested to decide whether they would like to meet the presented person. Men were more in favor of meeting attractive women after being primed with death-related words compared to a no-prime condition. Increased neural activation could be found under mortality salience in the left anterior insula and the adjacent lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) for both men and women. As previously suggested, we believe that the lPFC activation reflects an approach-motivated defense mechanism to overcome concerns that are induced by being reminded of death and dying. Our results provide insight on a neurocognitive level that approach motivation in general, and mating motivation in particular is modulated by mortality salience.
doi:10.1093/scan/nst157 pmid:24078106 pmcid:PMC4187282 fatcat:dtt4bwj2cbfrfmujguli6vseki

Disrupted white matter structural networks in healthy older adult APOE ε4 carriers – An international multicenter DTI study

Enrica Cavedo, Simone Lista, Katrine Rojkova, Patrizia A. Chiesa, Marion Houot, Katharina Brueggen, Janusch Blautzik, Arun L.W. Bokde, Bruno Dubois, Frederik Barkhof, Petra J.W. Pouwels, Stefan Teipel (+1 others)
2017 Neuroscience  
The ε4 allelic variant of the Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE ε4) is the best-established genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) . White matter (WM) microstructural damages measured with Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) represent an early sign of fiber tract disconnection in AD. We examined the impact of APOEε4 on WM microstructure in elderly individuals from the multicenter European DTI Study on Dementia. Voxelwise statistical analysis of Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean
more » ... ity, radial and axial diffusivity (MD, radD and axD respectively) was carried out using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. Seventyfour healthy elderly individuals -31 APOE ε4 carriers (APOE ε4+) and 43 APOE ε4 non-carriers (APOE ε4-) -were considered for data analysis. All the results were corrected for scanner acquisition protocols, age, gender and for multiple comparisons. APOE ε4+ and APOE ε4subjects were comparable regarding sociodemographic features and global cognition. A significant reduction of FA and increased radD was found in the APOE ε4+ compared to the APOE ε4in the cingulum, in the corpus callosum, in the inferior fronto-occipital and in the inferior longitudinal fasciculi, internal and external capsule. APOE ε4+, compared to APOE ε4showed higher MD in the genu, right internal capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus and corona radiate. Comparisons stratified by center supported the results obtained on the whole sample. These findings support previous evidence in monocentric studies indicating a modulatory role of APOE ɛ4 allele on WM microstructure in elderly individuals at risk for AD suggesting early vulnerability and/or reduced resilience of WM tracts involved in AD. NMR Biomed 15:435-455. Behrens TE, Berg HJ, Jbabdi S, Rushworth MF, Woolrich MW (2007) Probabilistic diffusion tractography with multiple fibre orientations: What can we gain? Neuroimage 34:144-155. Johnson SC (2010) White matter is altered with parental family history of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 6:394-403. Bertram L, McQueen MB, Mullin K, Blacker D, Tanzi RE (2007) Systematic meta-analyses of Alzheimer disease genetic association studies: the AlzGene database. Nat Genet 39:17-23. Bisdas S, Bohning DE, Besenski N, Nicholas JS, Rumboldt Z (2008) Reproducibility, interrater agreement, and age-related changes of fractional anisotropy measures at 3T in healthy subjects: effect of the applied b-value. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29:1128-1133. Boyles JK, Pitas RE, Wilson E, Mahley RW, Taylor JM (1985) Apolipoprotein E associated with astrocytic glia of the central nervous system and with nonmyelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system. J Clin Invest 76:1501-1513. Brueggen K, Dyrba M, Barkhof F, Hausner L, Filippi M, Nestor PJ, Hauenstein K, Klöppel S, Grothe MJ, Kasper E, Teipel SJ (2015) Basal Forebrain and Hippocampus as Predictors of Conversion to Alzheimer's Disease in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment -A Multicenter DTI and Volumetry Study. J Alzheimers Dis 48:197-204. Teipel S (2016) The European DTI Study Corder EH, Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, Schmechel DE, Gaskell PC, Small GW, Roses AD, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance MA (1993) Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families. Science 261:921-923. Dell'Acqua F, Simmons A, Williams SC, Catani M (2013) Can spherical deconvolution provide more information than fiber orientations? Hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy, a true-tract specific index to characterize white matter diffusion. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2464-2483. Donix M, Burggren AC, Suthana NA, Siddarth P, Ekstrom AD, Krupa AK, Jones M, Martin-Harris L, Ercoli LM, Miller KJ, Small GW, Bookheimer SY (2010a) Family history of Alzheimer's disease and hippocampal structure in healthy people. Am J Psychiatry 167:1399-1406. Donix M, Burggren AC, Suthana NA, Siddarth P, Ekstrom AD, Krupa AK, Jones M, Rao A, Martin-Harris L, Ercoli LM, Miller KJ, Small GW, Bookheimer SY (2010b) Longitudinal changes in medial temporal cortical thickness in normal subjects with the APOE-4 polymorphism. Neuroimage 53:37-43. Heise V, Filippini N, Trachtenberg AJ, Suri S, Ebmeier KP, Mackay CE (2014) Apolipoprotein E genotype, gender and age modulate connectivity of the hippocampus in healthy adults. Neuroimage 98:23-30. Hua X, Hibar DP, Lee S, Toga AW, Jack CR, Weiner MW, Thompson PM, Initiative AsDN (2010) Sex and age differences in atrophic rates: an ADNI study with n=1368 MRI scans. Neurobiol Aging 31:1463-1480. Huang J, Friedland RP, Auchus AP (2007) Diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing white matter in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer disease: preliminary evidence of axonal degeneration in the temporal lobe. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:1943-1948. Jack CR, Petersen RC, Xu YC, O'Brien PC, Waring SC, Tangalos EG, Smith GE, Ivnik RJ, Thibodeau SN, Kokmen E (1998) Hippocampal atrophy and apolipoprotein E genotype are independently associated with Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 43:303-310. Janowsky JS, Kaye JA, Carper RA (1996) Atrophy of the corpus callosum in Alzheimer's disease versus healthy aging. J Am Geriatr Soc 44:798-803. Subregional Basal Forebrain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter Study. J Alzheimers Dis. Kljajevic V, Meyer P, Holzmann C, Dyrba M, Kasper E, Bokde AL, Fellgiebel A, Meindl T, Hampel H, Teipel S, group Es (2014) The epsilon4 genotype of apolipoprotein E and white matter integrity in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 10:401-404. Kumar R, Chavez AS, Macey PM, Woo MA, Harper RM (2013) Brain axial and radial diffusivity changes with age and gender in healthy adults. Brain Res 1512:22-36. Kumar R, Woo MA, Macey PM, Fonarow GC, Hamilton MA, Harper RM (2011) Brain axonal and myelin evaluation in heart failure. J Neurol Sci 307:106-113. Landman BA, Farrell JA, Jones CK, Smith SA, Prince JL, Mori S (2007) Effects of diffusion weighting schemes on the reproducibility of DTI-derived fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and principal eigenvector measurements at 1.5T. Morphometry and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study under 3-Tesla MRI. J Neuroimaging 26:144-149. Nyberg L, Salami A (2014) The APOE ε4 allele in relation to brain white-matter microstructure in adulthood and aging. Scand J Psychol 55:263-267. O'Dwyer L, Lamberton F, Matura S, Scheibe M, Miller J, Rujescu D, Prvulovic D, Hampel H (2012) White matter differences between healthy young ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers identified with tractography and support vector machines. PLoS One 7:e36024. Persson J, Lind J, Larsson A, Ingvar M, Cruts M, Van Broeckhoven C, Adolfsson R, Nilsson LG, Nyberg L (2006) Altered brain white matter integrity in healthy carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele: a risk for AD? Neurology 66:1029-1033. Pierpaoli C, Basser PJ (1996) Toward a quantitative assessment of diffusion anisotropy. Magn Reson Med 36:893-906. (2013) Posterior cingulate glucose metabolism, hippocampal glucose metabolism, and hippocampal volume in
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.05.048 pmid:28596117 fatcat:xqvh3cnsrfdpfo3tym3c7ropri

Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study

Sophia Mueller, Daniel Keeser, Andrea C. Samson, Valerie Kirsch, Janusch Blautzik, Michel Grothe, Okan Erat, Michael Hegenloh, Ute Coates, Maximilian F. Reiser, Kristina Hennig-Fast, Thomas Meindl (+1 others)
2013 PLoS ONE  
Citation: Mueller S, Keeser D, Samson AC, Kirsch V, Blautzik J, et al. (2013) Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067329 pmid:23825652 pmcid:PMC3688993 fatcat:6xuvm3aqz5hefirm2uos2whvca

Activated protein C protects against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting endothelial and podocyte apoptosis

Berend Isermann, Ilya A Vinnikov, Thati Madhusudhan, Stefanie Herzog, Muhammed Kashif, Janusch Blautzik, Marcus A F Corat, Martin Zeier, Erwin Blessing, Jun Oh, Bruce Gerlitz, David T Berg (+6 others)
2007 Nature Medicine  
Data providing direct evidence for a causative link between endothelial dysfunction, microvascular disease and diabetic end-organ damage are scarce. Here we show that activated protein C (APC) formation, which is regulated by endothelial thrombomodulin, is reduced in diabetic mice and causally linked to nephropathy. Thrombomodulin-dependent APC formation mediates cytoprotection in diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting glomerular apoptosis. APC prevents glucose-induced apoptosis in endothelial
more » ... and podocytes, the cellular components of the glomerular filtration barrier. APC modulates the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway via the protease-activated receptor PAR-1 and the endothelial protein C receptor EPCR in glucose-stressed cells. These experiments establish a new pathway, in which hyperglycemia impairs endothelial thrombomodulin-dependent APC formation. Loss of thrombomodulin-dependent APC formation interrupts cross-talk between the vascular compartment and podocytes, causing glomerular apoptosis and diabetic nephropathy. Conversely, maintaining high APC levels during long-term diabetes protects against diabetic nephropathy.
doi:10.1038/nm1667 pmid:17982464 fatcat:fnrh7cm4m5d2tkk5lbbspdbboe

Resting-state networks in healthy adult subjects: a comparison between a 32-element and an 8-element phased array head coil at 3.0 Tesla

Marco Paolini, Daniel Keeser, Michael Ingrisch, Natalie Werner, Nicole Kindermann, Maximilian Reiser, Janusch Blautzik
2015 Acta Radiologica  
Little research exists on the influence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head coil's channel count on measured resting-state functional connectivity. Purpose: To compare a 32-element (32ch) and an 8-element (8ch) phased array head coil with respect to their potential to detect functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Material and Methods: Twenty-six healthy adults (mean age, 21.7 years; SD, 2.1 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla with both coils using
more » ... ual standard imaging parameters and a counterbalanced design. Independent component analysis (ICA) at different model orders and a dual regression approach were performed. Voxel-wise non-parametric statistical between-group contrasts were determined using permutation-based nonparametric inference. Results: Phantom measurements demonstrated a generally higher image signal-to-noise ratio using the 32ch head coil. However, the results showed no significant differences between corresponding resting-state networks derived from both coils (p < 0.05, FWE-corrected). Conclusion: Using the identical standard acquisition parameters, the 32ch head coil does not offer any significant advantages in detecting ICA-based functional connectivity within RSNs.
doi:10.1177/0284185114567703 pmid:25585849 fatcat:27sdepntn5bcfdncrmswgzhmo4

Modulation of Craving Related Brain Responses Using Real-Time fMRI in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder

Susanne Karch, Daniel Keeser, Sebastian Hümmer, Marco Paolini, Valerie Kirsch, Temmuz Karali, Michael Kupka, Boris-Stephan Rauchmann, Agnieszka Chrobok, Janusch Blautzik, Gabi Koller, Birgit Ertl-Wagner (+2 others)
2015 PLoS ONE  
Literature One prominent symptom in addiction disorders is the strong desire to consume a particular substance or to display a certain behaviour (craving). Especially the strong association between craving and the probability of relapse emphasises the importance of craving in the therapeutic process. Neuroimaging studies have shown that craving is associated with increased responses, predominantly in fronto-striatal areas. Aim and Methods The aim of the present study is the modification of
more » ... ng-related neuronal responses in patients with alcohol addiction using fMRI real-time neurofeedback. For that purpose, patients with alcohol use disorder and healthy controls participated once in neurofeedback training; during the sessions neuronal activity within an individualized cortical region of interest (ROI) (anterior cingulate cortex, insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) was evaluated. In addition, variations regarding the connectivity between brain regions were assessed in the resting state. Results and Discussion The results showed a significant reduction of neuronal activity in patients at the end of the training compared to the beginning, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the inferior temporal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the results show that patients were able to regulate their neuronal activities in the ROI, whereas healthy subjects achieved no significant reduction. However, there was a wide variability regarding the effects of the training within the group of patients. After the neurofeedback-sessions, individual craving was slightly reduced compared to baseline. The results demonstrate that it PLOS ONE | Fig 2. Regions defined for the seed-based functional connectivity analysis in areas are known to be relevant for addictive behaviour, including the left insula, the right insula, the left DLPFC (BA 9, 46) and the right DLPFC (BA 9, 46).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133034 pmid:26204262 pmcid:PMC4512680 fatcat:nj7jyw7g2fhw3d2l77qdap5alm

Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treatment of Schizophrenia With Predominant Negative Symptoms: A Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Proof-of-Concept Study

Ulrich Palm, Daniel Keeser, Alkomiet Hasan, Michael J. Kupka, Janusch Blautzik, Nina Sarubin, Filipa Kaymakanova, Ina Unger, Peter Falkai, Thomas Meindl, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Frank Padberg
2016 Schizophrenia Bulletin  
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbw041 pmid:27098066 pmcid:PMC4988747 fatcat:vnxyktnoovfxhpukqcsa3dehsm

[18F]-THK5351 PET Correlates with Topology and Symptom Severity in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Matthias Brendel, Sonja Schönecker, Günter Höglinger, Simon Lindner, Joachim Havla, Janusch Blautzik, Julia Sauerbeck, Guido Rohrer, Christian Zach, Franziska Vettermann, Anthony E. Lang, Lawrence Golbe (+9 others)
2018 Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience  
Copyright © 2018 Brendel, Schönecker, Höglinger, Lindner, Havla, Blautzik, Sauerbeck, Rohrer, Zach, Vettermann, Lang, Golbe, Nübling, Bartenstein, Furukawa, Ishiki, Bötzel, Danek, Okamura, Levin and Rominger  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnagi.2017.00440 pmid:29387005 pmcid:PMC5776329 fatcat:gpocrn6clvdgxhmybsz2nobu5m

Cognitive subtypes in recent onset psychosis: distinct neurobiological fingerprints?

Julian Wenzel, the PRONIA consortium, Shalaila S. Haas, Dominic B. Dwyer, Anne Ruef, Oemer Faruk Oeztuerk, Linda A. Antonucci, Sebastian von Saldern, Carolina Bonivento, Marco Garzitto, Adele Ferro, Marco Paolini (+10 others)
2021 Neuropsychopharmacology  
AbstractIn schizophrenia, neurocognitive subtypes can be distinguished based on cognitive performance and they are associated with neuroanatomical alterations. We investigated the existence of cognitive subtypes in shortly medicated recent onset psychosis patients, their underlying gray matter volume patterns and clinical characteristics. We used a K-means algorithm to cluster 108 psychosis patients from the multi-site EU PRONIA (Prognostic tools for early psychosis management) study based on
more » ... gnitive performance and validated the solution independently (N = 53). Cognitive subgroups and healthy controls (HC; n = 195) were classified based on gray matter volume (GMV) using Support Vector Machine classification. A cognitively spared (N = 67) and impaired (N = 41) subgroup were revealed and partially independently validated (Nspared = 40, Nimpaired = 13). Impaired patients showed significantly increased negative symptomatology (pfdr = 0.003), reduced cognitive performance (pfdr < 0.001) and general functioning (pfdr < 0.035) in comparison to spared patients. Neurocognitive deficits of the impaired subgroup persist in both discovery and validation sample across several domains, including verbal memory and processing speed. A GMV pattern (balanced accuracy = 60.1%, p = 0.01) separating impaired patients from HC revealed increases and decreases across several fronto-temporal-parietal brain areas, including basal ganglia and cerebellum. Cognitive and functional disturbances alongside brain morphological changes in the impaired subgroup are consistent with a neurodevelopmental origin of psychosis. Our findings emphasize the relevance of tailored intervention early in the course of psychosis for patients suffering from the likely stronger neurodevelopmental character of the disease.
doi:10.1038/s41386-021-00963-1 pmid:33723384 pmcid:PMC8209013 fatcat:s24j6i77ynabrd4gdtruk4n7ra

The European DTI Study on Dementia — A multicenter DTI and MRI study on Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

Katharina Brueggen, Michel J. Grothe, Martin Dyrba, Andreas Fellgiebel, Florian Fischer, Massimo Filippi, Federica Agosta, Peter Nestor, Eva Meisenzahl, Janusch Blautzik, Lutz Frölich, Lucrezia Hausner (+11 others)
2017 NeuroImage  
Highlights • The multicenter EDSD dataset contains 493 DTI and 512 T1-weighted MRI scans • Encompasses 139 AD patients, 160 MCI patients and 194 Healthy Controls • Retrospective data collection from 11 centers and 13 scanners • Extensive demographic/clinical/neuropsychological characterization of subjects Abstract The European DTI Study on Dementia (EDSD) is a multicenter framework created to study the diagnostic accuracy and inter-site variability of DTI-derived markers in patients with
more » ... t and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). The dynamically growing database presently includes 493 DTI, 512 T1-weighted MRI, and 300 FLAIR scans from patients with AD dementia, patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and matched Healthy Controls, acquired on 13 different scanner platforms. The imaging data is publicly available, along with the subjects' demographic and clinical characterization. Detailed neuropsychological information, cerebrospinal fluid information on biomarkers and clinical follow-up diagnoses are included for a subset of subjects. This paper describes the rationale and structure of the EDSD, summarizes the available data, and explains how to gain access to the database. The EDSD is a useful database for researchers seeking to investigate the contribution of DTI to dementia diagnostics.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.03.067 pmid:27046114 fatcat:jdfh2jftundcze3cd7htnbpo5e
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