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The New York School of Urban Ecology: The New Yorker, Rachel Carson, and Jane Jacobs

J. C. Rowan
2010 American Literature  
part of a 1960s protest literature cohort that includes Carson, Betty Friedan, Marshall McLuhan, Michael Harrington, and Ralph Nader. 10 While grouping Jacobs with such writers usefully nudges Death  ...  Oddly, Carson begins her profile with more figurative poetics than factual declarations.  ... 
doi:10.1215/00029831-2010-025 fatcat:ygpnjofqarakllnwtnuj7atnh4

Towards safer use of opioids

R W R Carson, P Jacob, R McQuillan
2009 Irish medical journal  
The main aim of our work was to improve the safety of opioid use in our institution, an acute generalhospital with 620 beds. Initially, all reported opioid errors from 2001 - 2006 were audited. The findings directed a range of multidisciplinary staff educational inputs to improve opioid prescribing and administration practice, and encourage drug error reporting. 448 drug errors were reported, of which 54 (12%) involved opioids; of these, 43 (79%) involved codeine, morphine or oxycodone. 31 of
more » ... e errors (57%) were associated with administration, followed by 12 (22%) with dispensing and 11 (20%) with prescribing. There were 2 reports of definite patient harm. A subsequent audit examined a 17-month period following the introduction of the above teaching: 17 errors were noted, of which 14 (83%) involved codeine, morphine or oxycodone. Again, drug administration was most error-prone, comprising 11 (65%) of reports. However, just 2 (12%) of the reported errors now involved prescribing, which was a reduction.
pmid:19873867 fatcat:z6odkti6ufbd3e3hum4u5mna7y

Monitoring and Modeling the Long-Term Rainfall-Runoff Response of the Jacob K. Javits Center Green Roof

Noura Abualfaraj, Joseph Cataldo, Yara Elborolosy, Daniel Fagan, Sloane Woerdeman, Tyler Carson, Franco Montalto
2018 Water  
Drainage from the 27,316-m2 Jacob K. Javits Convention Center (JJCC) green roof was investigated in the field to quantify the system's long-term rainfall-runoff response.  ...  Funding: This research was funded by the Jacob K. Javits Center, with supplemental funding from the Consortium for Climate Risks in the Urban Northeast.  ...  Carson et al.  ... 
doi:10.3390/w10111494 fatcat:jtevpx4djvavnp6nd732s47khi

Prostate Cancer and Neuroendocrine Differentiation: More Neuronal, Less Endocrine?

Alexandru Dan Grigore, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Mary C. Farach-Carson
2015 Frontiers in Oncology  
Ramnani, MD for microscopy images; Mohit Kumar Jolly and the members of the Carson and Farach-Carson labs for discussions; and Samantha Collum for her rigorous and thoughtful review.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fonc.2015.00037 pmid:25785244 pmcid:PMC4347593 fatcat:ylqsduptzjf6zbo5vplozsftee

Detrital Food Web Drives Aquatic Ecosystem Productivity in a Seasonally Inundated Managed Floodplain [article]

Carson Jeffres, Eric J. Holmes, Ted R. Sommer, Jacob V.E. Katz
2019 bioRxiv   pre-print
Differences in basal carbon sources, invertebrate density and salmon growth rate were observed in food webs across a lateral transect of aquatic habitats in the Sacramento River Valley, California. Similar to many large river valleys globally, the Sacramento River Valley has been extensively drained and leveed, hydrologically divorcing most floodplain wetlands and off-channel aquatic habitats from river channels. Today, the former floodplain is extensively managed for agriculture and wildlife
more » ... bitat. Food web structure and juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) growth were compared in three aquatic habitat types–river channel, a perennial drainage canal in the floodplain, and agricultural floodplain wetlands, which was seasonally inundated to provide bird and fish habitat during the non-agricultural growth season (late winter). Zooplankton densities on the floodplain wetland were 53 times more abundant, on average, than in the river. Juvenile Chinook Salmon raised on the floodplain wetland grew at 0.92 mm/day, a rate 5x faster than fish raised in the adjacent river habitat (0.18 mm/day). Mean water residence times calculated for the floodplain agricultural wetland, perennial drainage canal and Sacramento River were 2.15 days, 23.5 seconds, and 1.7 seconds, respectively. Carbon in the floodplain wetland food web was sourced primarily through heterotrophic detrital pathways while carbon in the river was primarily autotrophic and sourced from in situ phytoplankton production. Hydrologic conditions typifying the ephemeral floodplain–shallower depths, warmer water, longer residence times and detrital carbon sources compared to deeper, colder, swifter water and an algal-based carbon source in the adjacent river channel–appear to facilitate the dramatically higher rates of food web production observed in floodplain verses river channel habitats. These results suggest that hydrologic patterns associated with winter flooding provide Mediterranean river systems access to detrital carbon sources that appear to be important energy sources for the production of fisheries and other aquatic resources.
doi:10.1101/610055 fatcat:yxtuvhenxrhjlpjjaaa3z5ntae

Reconciling fish and farms: Methods for managing California rice fields as salmon habitat [article]

Eric J Holmes, Parsa Saffarinia, Andrew L Rypel, Miranda N Bell-Tilcock, Jacob V Katz, Carson A Jeffres
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
The rearing habitat for juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California, the southernmost portion of their range, has drastically declined throughout the past century. Recently, through cooperative agreements with diverse stakeholders, winter-flooded agricultural rice fields in California's Central Valley have emerged as promising habitat for rearing juvenile Chinook Salmon. From 2013 to 2016, we conducted a series of experiments examining methods for rearing fall-run Chinook
more » ... lmon on winter-flooded rice fields in the Yolo Bypass, a modified floodplain of the Sacramento River in California. These included: 1) influence of field substrate differences from previous season rice harvest; 2) effects of depth refugia from avian predators (trenches); 3) field drainage methods to promote efficient egress of fish; and 4) in-field salmon survivorship over time. Zooplankton (fish food) in the winter-flooded rice fields were 53-150x more abundant when directly compared to the adjacent Sacramento River. Correspondingly, somatic growth rates of juvenile hatchery-sourced fall-run Chinook Salmon stocked in rice fields were two to five times greater versus fish in the adjacent Sacramento River. Post-harvest field substrate treatments had little effect on the lower trophic food web and had an insignificant effect on growth rates of in-field salmon. Though depth refugia did not directly increase survival, it buffered maximum water temperatures in the trenches and facilitated outmigration from fields during draining. Rapid field drainage methods yielded the highest survival and were preferable to drawn-out drainage methods. High initial mortality immediately after stocking was observed in the survival over time experiment with stable and high survival after the first week. In-field survival ranged 7.4–61.6% and increased over the course of the experiments. Despite coinciding with the most extreme drought in California's recorded history, which elevated water temperatures and reduced the regional extent of adjacent flooded habitats which concentrated avian predators, the adaptive research framework enabled incremental improvements in design to increase survival. The abundance of food resources and exceptionally high growth rates observed during these experiments illustrate the benefits associated with reconciling off-season agricultural land use with fish conservation practices. Without any detriment to flood control or agricultural yield, there is great promise for reconciliation ecology between agricultural floodplains and endangered fish conservation where minor alterations to farm management practices could greatly enhance the effectiveness of fish conservation outcomes.
doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.234062 fatcat:qwgq36jszzbnpoftgs7mndoj4q

Reconciling fish and farms: Methods for managing California rice fields as salmon habitat [article]

Eric J Holmes, Parsa Saffarinia, Andrew L Rypel, Miranda N Bell-Tilcock, Jacob V Katz, Carson A Jeffres
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
The rearing habitat for juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California, the southernmost portion of their range, has drastically declined throughout the past century. Recently, through cooperative agreements with diverse stakeholders, winter-flooded agricultural rice fields in California's Central Valley have emerged as promising habitat for rearing juvenile Chinook Salmon. From 2013 to 2016, we conducted a series of experiments examining methods for rearing fall-run Chinook
more » ... lmon on winter-flooded rice fields in the Yolo Bypass, a modified floodplain of the Sacramento River in California. These included: 1) influence of field substrate differences from previous season rice harvest; 2) effects of depth refugia from avian predators (trenches); 3) field drainage methods to promote efficient egress of fish; and 4) in-field salmon survivorship over time. Zooplankton (fish food) in the winter-flooded rice fields were 53-150x more abundant when directly compared to the adjacent Sacramento River. Correspondingly, somatic growth rates of juvenile hatchery-sourced fall-run Chinook Salmon stocked in rice fields were two to five times greater versus fish in the adjacent Sacramento River. Post-harvest field substrate treatments had little effect on the lower trophic food web and had an insignificant effect on growth rates of in-field salmon. Though depth refugia did not directly increase survival, it buffered maximum water temperatures in the trenches and facilitated outmigration from fields during draining. Rapid field drainage methods yielded the highest survival and were preferable to drawn-out drainage methods. High initial mortality immediately after stocking was observed in the survival over time experiment with stable and high survival after the first week. In-field survival ranged 7.4–61.6% and increased over the course of the experiments. Despite coinciding with the most extreme drought in California's recorded history, which elevated water temperatures and reduced the regional extent of adjacent flooded habitats which concentrated avian predators, the adaptive research framework enabled incremental improvements in design to increase survival. The abundance of food resources and exceptionally high growth rates observed during these experiments illustrate the benefits associated with reconciling off-season agricultural land use with fish conservation practices. Without any detriment to flood control or agricultural yield, there is great promise for reconciliation ecology between agricultural floodplains and endangered fish conservation where minor alterations to farm management practices could greatly enhance the effectiveness of fish conservation outcomes.
doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.234054 fatcat:5qfljegw7zdvtedspw4vli573y

Dynamic Multiscale Boundary Conditions for 4D CT of Healthy and Emphysematous Rats

Richard E. Jacob, James P. Carson, Mathew Thomas, Daniel R. Einstein, Rory Edward Morty
2013 PLoS ONE  
Changes in the shape of the lung during breathing determine the movement of airways and alveoli, and thus impact airflow dynamics. Modeling airflow dynamics in health and disease is a key goal for predictive multiscale models of respiration. Past efforts to model changes in lung shape during breathing have measured shape at multiple breath-holds. However, breathholds do not capture hysteretic differences between inspiration and expiration resulting from the additional energy required for
more » ... tion. Alternatively, imaging dynamically -without breath-holds -allows measurement of hysteretic differences. In this study, we acquire multiple micro-CT images per breath (4DCT) in live rats, and from these images we develop, for the first time, dynamic volume maps. These maps show changes in local volume across the entire lung throughout the breathing cycle and accurately predict the global pressure-volume (PV) hysteresis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either a full-or partial-lung dose of elastase or saline as a control. After three weeks, 4DCT images of the mechanically ventilated rats under anesthesia were acquired dynamically over the breathing cycle (11 time points, #100 ms temporal resolution, 8 cmH 2 O peak pressure). Non-rigid image registration was applied to determine the deformation gradient -a numerical description of changes to lung shape -at each time point. The registration accuracy was evaluated by landmark identification. Of 67 landmarks, one was determined misregistered by all three observers, and 11 were determined misregistered by two observers. Volume change maps were calculated on a voxel-by-voxel basis at all time points using both the Jacobian of the deformation gradient and the inhaled air fraction. The calculated lung PV hysteresis agrees with pressure-volume curves measured by the ventilator. Volume maps in diseased rats show increased compliance and ventilation heterogeneity. Future predictive multiscale models of rodent respiration may leverage such volume maps as boundary conditions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065874 pmid:23799057 pmcid:PMC3683027 fatcat:qblxaec4yzea5cdlesx7r6q3ni

ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC DEMONSTRATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND NADH DEHYDROGENASE (DIAPHORASE) IN PHAGOSOMES

JACOB S. HANKER, RICHARD A. COLEMAN, KEITH A. CARSON, A. G. EVERSON PEARSE
1977 Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica  
The electron microscopic cytochemical localizations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and NADH dehydrogenase (diaphorase, NADH-D) were studied in osteoclasts of developing chick bone and of mandibular condyle of newborn mice. These enzymes were also studied in trigeminal ganglion neurons of newborn mice. Both of these enzymes were observed in some mitochondria in all tissues, suggesting involvement in aerobic metabolism; their association with phagocytic vacuoles suggests involvement in anaerobic
more » ... lycolysis, also. Lactic acid produced in lysosomes and phagosomes could enhance the activities of acid hydrolases in the digestion of extracellular and intracellular substances. An NADH-D isoenzyme with a relationship to anaerobic metabolism, like the LDH muscle isoenzyme, may be involved.
doi:10.1267/ahc.10.380 fatcat:xwmiygqle5eqbpxmpdwa63yprq

Data Science, Analytics and Collaboration for a Biosurveillance Ecosystem

Karen Stark, Amol Shah, JAcob Borgman, Miko Somborac, Jeremy Carson, Lauren Hauser, Krishna Kola, Hermant Virkar
2019 Online Journal of Public Health Informatics  
ObjectiveWhile there is a growing torrent of data that disease surveillance could leverage, few effective tools exist to help public health professionals make sense of this data or that provide secure work-sharing and communication. Meanwhile, our ever more-connected world provides an increasingly receptive environment for diseases to emerge and spread rapidly making early warning and collaborative decision-making essential to saving lives and reducing the impact of outbreaks. Digital
more » ... previous work on the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)'s Biosurveillance Ecosystem (BSVE) built a cloud-based platform to ingest big data with analytics to provide users a robust surveillance environment. We next enhanced the BSVE data sources and analytics to support an integrated One Health paradigm. The resulting BSVE and Digital Infuzion's HARBINGER platform include: 1) identifying and ingesting data sources that span global human, animal and crop health; 2) inclusion of non-health data such as travel, weather, and infrastructure; 3) the data science tools, analytics and visualizations to make these data useful and 4) a fully-featured Collaboration Center for secure work-sharing and communication across agencies.IntroductionAfter the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Defense indicated "biodefense" would include emerging infectious disease. In response, DTRA launched an initiative for an innovative, rapidly emerging capability to enable real-time biosurveillance for early warning and course of action analysis. Through competitive prototyping, DTRA selected Digital Infuzion to develop the platform and next generation analytics. This work was extended to enhance collaboration capabilities and to harness data science and advanced analytics for multi-disciplinary surveillance including climate, crop, and animal as well as human data. New analysis tools ensure the BSVE supports a One Health paradigm to best inform public health action. Digital Infuzion and DTRA first introduced the BSVE to the ISDS community at the 2013 annual conference SWAP Meet. Digital Infuzion is pleased to present the mature platform to this community again as it is now a fully developed capability undergoing FedRAMP certification with the Department of Homeland Security's National Biosurveillance Integration Center and Is the basis for Digital Infuzion's HARBINGER ecosystem for biosurveillance.MethodsWe integrated over 170 global One Health data sources using cloud-based automated data ingestion workflows that provide unified access with data provenance. We used modular automated workflows to implement data science including Natural Language Processing (NLP), machine learning, anomaly detection, and expert systems for extraction of concepts from unstructured text. A first of its kind ontology for biosurveillance permits linking of data across sources. This ontology allows users to rapidly find all relevant data by looking at semantic relationships within and across data sets having varying quality, types, and usages to understand the best, most complete indicators of impending threats.We applied the following principles to the development of data science tools: 1) mathematics should be fully automated and operate 'under the hood' without need for user intervention; 2) 'At-a-Glance' visualizations should summarize Information, draw attention to key aspects and permit drill down into underlying data; 3) data science analytics and tools need to be validated with real-world data and by disease surveillance experts and 4) secure collaboration capabilities are essential to biosurveillance activities.This was a highly complex effort. We worked closely with surveillance analysts from multiple agencies and organizations to continuously guide the development of capabilities. We drew upon subject matter expertise in public health, machine learning, social media, NLP, semantics, big data integration, computational science, and visualization. A high level of automation, security and immediacy of data was applied to support rapid identification and investigation of potential outbreaks.ResultsThe platform now provisions integrated One Health information. Data sources were harmonized and expanded, along with historical information, to better predict and understand biothreats. These include global social media, human, plant, animal, and weather data. An Analyst Workbench delivers logical, intuitive and interactive visualizations enabling disease surveillance professionals to identify critical, predictive information without extensive manual research. Over 700 approved users currently have access to the prototype.Biosurveillance activities can be performed collaboratively among governmental agencies, public health officials, and the general public using the Collaboration Center and its sharing and messaging systems. Data sharing is HIPAA compliant and distinguishes public from private data using carefully controlled and approved role- and attribute-based access for security.To speed disease surveillance workflows, the workbench generates suggestions to the user on their current work. Anomaly detection to alert to potential developing disease events employs fully automated analytics to conduct over 43 million calculations daily for more than 500 diseases in over 170 data sources, distilling this into a table that ranks the most significant anomalous increases that may indicate an outbreak and warrant investigation.A predictive disease modeling tool based on current and historical data uses fuzzy logic to identify the likeliest outcome, even early in an outbreak when there is much uncertainty about the disease and its characteristics. A complex automated workflow identifies health-related topics that are trending in Twitter and evaluates their severity using novel lexicons and new reactive sentiment analysis. Searches use the ontology to gather all relevant information and are supported by the most advanced NLP with custom surveillance rules to provide succinctly extracted information. This alleviates the need for extensive reading by identifying exactly which data is needed and extracting key concepts from it. Intuitive methods of visual representation, interactive displays, and drill-down capabilities were leveraged in all analytics for rapid understanding of results.Finally, we added a software development kit to enable third party developers to continuously enhance the platform capabilities by adding new data sources and new analytic apps. This allows the platform to be adapted for specific needs and to keep pace with new scientific and technical discoveries and has resulted in over 50 analytic apps.ConclusionsThe addition of One Health data and analytics, and the integration of health data with unconventional data sources and modern approaches to data science and complex workflows, resulted in enhanced situational awareness and decision-making capabilities for users. The expanded Collaboration Center within the workbench, enables users to partner and collaborate with other agencies and biosurveillance professionals both nationally and internationally to maximize the rapidity of responses to serious disease outbreaks.
doi:10.5210/ojphi.v11i1.9702 fatcat:7oizh3ljwbdcbdw7eq4m2bq234

Rapture facilitates inexpensive and high-throughput parent-based tagging in salmonids

Michelle Y. Pepping, Sean M. O'Rourke, Connie Huang, Jacob V. E. Katz, Carson Jeffres, Michael R. Miller, Tzong-Yueh Chen
2020 PLoS ONE  
Chittenden CM, Butterworth KG, Cubitt KF, Jacobs MC, Ladouceur A, Welch DW, et al.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239221 pmid:33175847 fatcat:3bxqer3ze5epphuayygpnmpx4m

28 days of creatine nitrate supplementation is apparently safe in healthy individuals

Jordan M Joy, Ryan P Lowery, Paul H Falcone, Matt M Mosman, Roxanne M Vogel, Laura R Carson, Chih-Yin Tai, David Choate, Dylan Kimber, Jacob A Ormes, Jacob M Wilson, Jordan R Moon
2014 Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition  
Creatine monohydrate has become a very popular nutritional supplement for its ergogenic effects. The safety of creatine monohydrate has previously been confirmed. However with each novel form of creatine that emerges, its safety must be verified. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the safety of a novel form of creatine, creatine nitrate (CN), over a 28 day period. Methods: 58 young males and females (Pooled: 24.3 ± 3.9 years, 144.9 ± 8.0 cm, 74.2 ± 13.0 kg) participated in this
more » ... study across two laboratories. Subjects were equally and randomly assigned to consume either 1 g (n = 18) or 2 g (n = 20) of CN or remained unsupplemented (n = 20). Blood draws for full safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist prior to and at the conclusion of the supplementation period. Results: Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group x time interactions for absolute lymphocytes and absolute monocytes (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 1 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for red blood cell distribution width, platelets, absolute monocytes, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN):creatinine, sodium, protein, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 2 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for BUN:creatinine and ALT (p < 0.05). BUN and BUN:creatinine increased beyond the clinical reference range for the 2 g treatment of Lab 2, but BUN did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Overall, CN appears to be safe in both 1 g and 2 g servings daily for up to a 28 day period. While those with previously elevated BUN levels may see additional increases resulting in post-supplementation values slightly beyond normal physiological range, these results have minor clinical significance and are not cause for concern. Otherwise, all hematological safety markers remained within normal range, suggesting that CN supplementation has no adverse effects in daily doses up to 2 g over 28 days and may be an alternative to creatine monohydrate supplementation.
doi:10.1186/s12970-014-0060-9 pmid:25589898 pmcid:PMC4293808 fatcat:cyb3rizgojenxbpj3heyfglauy

Comparison of Two Quantitative Methods of Discerning Airspace Enlargement in Smoke-Exposed Mice

Richard E. Jacob, James P. Carson, Kathy M. Gideon, Brett G. Amidan, Cathie L. Smith, K. Monica Lee, Mauricio Rojas
2009 PLoS ONE  
In this work, we compare two methods for evaluating and quantifying pulmonary airspace enlargement in a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Standard stereological sample preparation, sectioning, and imaging of mouse lung tissues were performed for semi-automated acquisition of mean linear intercept (L m ) data. After completion of the L m measurements, D 2 , a metric of airspace enlargement, was measured in a blinded manner on the same lung images using a fully automated technique
more » ... eveloped in-house. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that although L m was able to separate the smoke-exposed and control groups with statistical significance (p = 0.034), D 2 was better able to differentiate the groups (p,0.001) and did so without any overlap between the control and smoke-exposed individual animal data. In addition, the fully automated implementation of D 2 represented a time savings of at least 24x over semi-automated L m measurements. Although D 2 does not provide 3D stereological metrics of airspace dimensions as L m does, results show that it has higher sensitivity and specificity for detecting the subtle airspace enlargement one would expect to find in mild or early stage emphysema. Therefore, D 2 may serve as a more accurate screening measure for detecting early lung disease than L m .
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006670 pmid:19688093 pmcid:PMC2722737 fatcat:tfjicfbljvdqpfagmxvyig5gdy

In situ casting and imaging of the rat airway tree for accurate 3D reconstruction

Richard E. Jacob, Sean M. Colby, Senthil Kabilan, Daniel R. Einstein, James P. Carson
2013 Experimental Lung Research  
The airways of the TLC image were semi-automatically segmented using intensity thresholdbased approaches described by Carson et al.  ...  Airway segmentation of the in situ cast image was performed using an automated intensitybased thresholding with connectivity validation as described by Carson et al. [23] .  ... 
doi:10.3109/01902148.2013.801535 pmid:23786464 pmcid:PMC3928801 fatcat:cb4eqrvguzd7ppx3uiaiopml5a

Detrital food web contributes to aquatic ecosystem productivity and rapid salmon growth in a managed floodplain

Carson A Jeffres, Eric J Holmes, Ted R Sommer, Jacob V E Katz
2020 PLoS ONE  
Similar to many large river valleys globally, the Sacramento River Valley has been extensively drained and leveed, hydrologically divorcing river channels from most floodplains. Today, the former floodplain is extensively managed for agriculture. Lack of access to inundated floodplains is recognized as a significant contributing factor in the decline of native Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We observed differences in salmon growth rate, invertebrate density, and carbon source in
more » ... webs from three aquatic habitat types-leveed river channels, perennial drainage canals in the floodplain, and agricultural floodplain wetlands. Over 23 days (17 February to 11 March, 2016) food web structure and juvenile Chinook Salmon growth rates were studied within the three aquatic habitat types. Zooplankton densities on the floodplain wetland were 53x more abundant, on average, than in the river. Juvenile Chinook Salmon raised on the floodplain wetland grew at 0.92 mm/day, 5x faster than fish raised in the adjacent river habitat (0.18 mm/day). Two aquatic-ecosystem modeling methods were used to partition the sources of carbon (detrital or photosynthetic) within the different habitats. Both modeling approaches found that carbon in the floodplain wetland food web was sourced primarily from detrital sources through heterotrophic pathways, while carbon in the river was primarily photosynthetic and sourced from in situ autotrophic production. Hydrologic conditions typifying the ephemerally inundated floodplain-shallower depths, warmer water, longer water residence times and predominantly detrital carbon sources compared to deeper, colder, swifter water and a predominantly algal-based carbon source in the adjacent river channel-appear to facilitate the dramatically higher rates of food web production observed in the floodplain. These results suggest that hydrologic patterns associated with seasonal flooding facilitate river food webs to access floodplain carbon sources that contribute to highly productive heterotrophic energy pathways important to the production of fisheries resources.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0216019 pmid:32946438 pmcid:PMC7500630 fatcat:vlk6gibovzgy3ocqpipzjnds3y
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