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Energia solar e eólica
Resumo. Este documento apresenta uma revisão sobre as principais tecnologias fotovoltaicas existentes hoje no mercado ou a nível de pesquisa. São apresentados os recordes de eficiência de conversão para células e módulos, bem como as eficiências típicas encontradas no mercado. Também é realizada uma análise sobre a participação no mercado por tecnologia. Palavras-chave: Silício amorfo, CdTe, Tecnologias fotovoltaicas A REVIEW OF CURRENT PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES Abstract. This paper presents adoi:10.22533/at.ed.6671922011 fatcat:4fb3i2rmqjd4dczjxrgy2yktqu
more »... eview on the main photovoltaic technologies existing in the market or at a research level. The conversion efficiency records for cells and modules are presented, as well as the typical efficiencies found in the market. An analysis of market share by technology is also carried out.
In this paper, we use the linear deterministic approximation model to study a two user multiple access channel mutually interfering with a point to point link, which represents a basic setup of a cellular system. We derive outer bounds on the achievable sum rate and construct coding schemes achieving the outer bounds. For a large parameter range, the sum capacity is identical to the sum capacity of the interference channel obtained by silencing the weaker user in the multiple access channel.arXiv:1105.2283v1 fatcat:sjmxvat75bbgxae2x4pcwiheuu
more »... other interference configurations, the sum rate can be increased using interference alignment, which exploits the channel gain difference of the users in the multiple access channel. From these results, lower bounds on the generalized degrees of freedom for the Gaussian counterpart are derived.
Brigitte Stephan 1 , Jörg Tittelbach 2 , Silja Bühler 3 (1) Institut für Versorgungsforschung in der Dermatologie und bei Pflegeberufen (IVDP), Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Hamburg ( ...doi:10.1111/ddg.14377_g pmid:33586903 fatcat:62l6nsjezbgodaxglc53dljpjy
Muller, 1,2 Jörg D. Seebach, 2 Leo H. Bühler, 1 Manuel Pascual 3 Key words: transplantation, tolerance, regulatory T cells, cell therapy concerns remain on the long-term outcome. ...doi:10.4161/self.2.1.15422 pmid:21776332 pmcid:PMC3136901 fatcat:o5lng772argqlmfy2vkitleb2e
Oxidative stress due to intratumoral hypoxia in solid cancer has been shown to be associated with increased mortality. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) is an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, which is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and has been described for its role in tumor progression and metastasis in several malignancies. We investigated whether the expression of PGK1 varies between metastatic and non-metastatic colon cancer. We compared PGK1 expression in colon cancerdoi:10.3892/ijo.2013.1971 pmid:23727790 fatcat:7dtqqaetunbwpa47qaz7kepqem
more »... tients either with or without metastasis via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis was performed to test altered gene expression after PGK1 silencing, using isolates from HCT116 cell lines. PCR results showed an increased expression of PGK1 in colon cancer tissue from metastatic patients in comparison to patients with no metastasis (fold change 2.6, p<0.001). Immunohistochemical staining of PGK1 showed stronger staining in metastatic tissue in comparison to non-metastatic cancer tissue according to a semi-quantitative evaluation. Microarray and subsequent pathway analysis provided 4 genes of interest (CYR61, FOS, JUN and EGR1) used for pathway proposal. The results indicate that increased expression of PGK1 in colon cancer tissue is associated with metastasis. Furthermore, we propose several genes induced by PGK1 that could account for cell migration, mainly EGR1 and CYR61 together with the transcription factors FOS and JUN.
In Bühler im Appenzell Ausserrhoden steht seit letzten Herbst eine neue Doppelturnhalle. Dorfpolitik zwang die Architekten Jörg und Peter Quarella aus St. ... Bühler ist ein unspektakuläres Strassendorf an der Grenze zu Innerrhoden, an der Pendlerstrecke von und nach St. Gallen. ...doi:10.5169/seals-120408 fatcat:szuz4jefh5ayxkm6ak4nmtbfii
A Indústria 4.0 é o atual paradigma de desenvolvimento econômico no ponto de vista industrial. Portanto, a Indústria 4.0 deve ser implantada com plena funcionalidade, no que diz respeito a conexões entre sistemas e máquinas inteligentes, levando em consideração a Gestão de Recursos Humanos (GRH) e seus princípios: conhecimentos, habilidades e atitudes. Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de investigar como a gestão de recursos humanos vem sendo pesquisada dentro do tema Indústria 4.0. Para tanto, foidoi:10.14295/vetor.v31i1.13469 fatcat:n77nc525n5dstkxaumklgt2jhu
more »... ealizada uma breve revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema na base de dados Web of Science a fim de detectar os principais avanços internacionais e nacionais na Engenharia de Produção. Descobriu-se que a Indústria 4.0 acompanha mudanças no âmbito corporativo, com o surgimento de novas áreas – que não tendem a ser alteradas pela automatização, pelo fato de as competências humanas ainda não conseguirem ser substituídas plenamente pelas máquinas – ligando-se diretamente com a vantagem competitiva de mercado pois, em se tratando de aplicações corretas, notam-se diversos avanços quanto a produção e à satisfação dos trabalhadores.
Due to its potential beneficial effects, intra-and postoperative application of intravenous lidocaine has become increasingly accepted over the last couple of years, e.g. in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgical procedures. Based on its beneficial properties, lidocaine was introduced to the standard of care for all pediatric laparoscopic procedures in our institution in mid-2016. In contrast to adult care, scarce data is available regarding the use of perioperative intravenous lidocainedoi:10.1186/s12871-018-0545-1 pmid:30021507 pmcid:PMC6052565 fatcat:iy4alzvx35frphxc4u4ltbsdq4
more »... nistration in children undergoing laparoscopic procedures, such as an appendectomy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all pediatric patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy at the University Children's Hospital Zurich in 2016. Perioperative data, as recorded in the electronic patient data management system, were evaluated for any signs of systemic lidocaine toxicity (neurological and cardiovascular), behavioral deterioration, as well as for hemodynamic instability. Additionally, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, administration of pain rescue medication, time to hospital discharge and to first bowel movement, as well as any postoperative complications were recorded. Starting on 01/07/2016, all patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery received intravenous lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) bolus after induction of anesthesia followed by continuous infusion of 1.5 mg/kgBW/h). These patients were then compared to children without lidocaine administration who had undergone laparoscopic appendectomy between 01/01/2016 and 30/06/ 2016. Results: Data of 116 patients was analyzed. Of these, 60 patients received lidocaine. No signs of systemic toxicity, neurologic impairment or circulatory disturbances were noted in any of these patients. A (non-significant) difference in the incidence of emergence delirium was observed (0 cases in the lidocaine group vs. 4 cases in the control group, p = 0.05). Conclusion: This retrospective analysis did not reveal any adverse effects in pediatric patients receiving intravenous lidocaine for laparoscopic appendectomy under general anesthesia. However, further trials investigating beneficial effects as well as pharmacokinetic properties of intravenous lidocaine in children are required.
Metabolic engineering 68
Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is considered as an ideal energy carrier to replace fossil fuels in future. Biotechnological H 2 production driven by oxygenic photosynthesis appears highly promising, as biocatalyst and H 2 syntheses rely mainly on light, water, and CO 2 and not on rare metals. This biological process requires coupling of the photosynthetic water oxidizing apparatus to a H 2 -producing hydrogenase. However, this strategy is impeded by the simultaneous release of oxygen (O 2 ) which isdoi:10.18154/rwth-2021-10507 fatcat:f37kjf4rbnbpzdl7tliqu77r5u
more »... a strong inhibitor of most hydrogenases. Here, we addressed this challenge, by the introduction of an O 2 -tolerant hydrogenase into phototrophic bacteria, namely the cyanobacterial model strain Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. To this end, the gene cluster encoding the soluble, O 2tolerant, and NAD(H)-dependent hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha (ReSH) was functionally transferred to a Synechocystis strain featuring a knockout of the native O 2 sensitive hydrogenase. Intriguingly, photosynthetically active cells produced the O 2 tolerant ReSH, and activity was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Further, ReSH enabled the constructed strain Syn_ReSH + to utilize H 2 as sole electron source to fix CO 2 . Syn_ReSH + also was able to produce H 2 under dark fermentative conditions as well as in presence of light, under conditions fostering intracellular NADH excess. These findings highlight a high level of interconnection between ReSH and cyanobacterial redox metabolism. This study lays a foundation for further engineering, e.g., of electron transfer to ReSH via NADPH or ferredoxin, to finally enable photosynthesis-driven H 2 production.
A energia solar fotovoltaica tem se tornado gradualmente mais interessante no Brasil devido a questões o uso de combustíveis fósseis e seu impacto no meio ambiente, mas principalmente devido ao aumento no custo da energia elétrica, paga pelos consumidores. Somente no ano de 2015, o custo da energia elétrica residencial no Brasil aumentou cerca de 40%, devido ao aumento do uso das usinas termoelétricas. Considerando que desde 2012 o Brasil possui resolução normativa permitindo a geração dedoi:10.5380/rber.v8i1.53983 fatcat:klbhrpdpdvcltncl4tgzfjkpue
more »... a pelo consumidor, sistemas fotovoltaicos residenciais e industriais conectados à rede passam a ser uma excelente alternativa de geração. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso para a análise do potencial de geração e do tempo de retorno de um sistema de minigeração que seria instalado em uma empresa distribuidora de frutas na serra do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O sistema é dividido em três subsistemas que juntos passam de 2 MWp de potência instalada. A análise da energia gerada é feita com o software SAM do NREL e o tempo de retorno foi estimado considerando diferentes taxas de amortização supondo que todo o investimento seria financiado. Dependendo do cenário analisado, tempos de retorno de até 5 anos podem ser obtidos.
Pancreatic islet allotransplantation is a treatment for patients with severe forms of type 1 diabetes. As long-term graft function and survival are not yet optimal, additional studies are warranted in order to continue improving transplant outcomes. The mechanisms of islet graft loss and tolerance induction are often studied in murine diabetes models. Despite numerous islet transplantation studies successfully performed over recent years, translation from experimental mouse models to humandoi:10.1111/tri.13445 pmid:31033036 fatcat:bfwv7c6glrelfcedxgs252lbae
more »... cal application remains elusive. This review aims at critically discussing the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of diabetes and experimental islet transplantation. In particular, we will analyze the causes leading to diabetes and compare the immunological mechanisms responsible for rejection between mouse and human. A better understanding of the experimental mouse models should facilitate translation to human clinical application.
PET systems using the acquisition control system version 2 (ACS2), e.g. the ECAT Exact HR PET scanner series, offer a rather restricted list-mode functionality. For instance, typical transfers of acquisition data consume a considerable amount of time. This represents a severe obstacle to the utilization of potential advantages of listmode acquisition. In our study, we have developed hardware and software solutions which do not only allow for the integration of list-mode into routine procedures,doi:10.1078/0939-3889-00294 pmid:16696373 fatcat:miguica33fhdvkb5d3njcegspm
more »... but also improve the overall runtime stability of the system. We show that our methods are able to speed up the transfer of the acquired data to the image reconstruction and processing workstations by a factor of up to 140. We discuss how this improvement allows for the integration of list-mode-based post-processing methods such as an event-driven movement correction into the data processing environment, and how list-mode is able to improve the overall flexibility of PET investigations in general. Furthermore, we show that our methods are also attractive for conventional histogram-mode acquisition, due to the improved stability of the ACS2 system. Zusammenfassung PET-Systeme, die wie der weit verbreitete ECAT Exact HR+ PET-Scanner das Acquisition Control System Version 2 (ACS2) nutzen, bieten eine eher begrenzte Listmo de-Funktionalität, z.B. benötigt die Übertragung typischer Datensätze beträchtliche Zeit. Dies stellt eine schwerwiegende Hürde für die Ausnutzung potentieller Vorteile von Listmode-Messungen dar. In unserer Studie haben wir Hardware-und Softwarelösungen entwickelt, die nicht nur eine Integration von Listmode in die Routine erlauben, sondern auch die gesamte Stabilität des PET-Systems verbessern. Wir zeigen, dass unsere Methoden in der Lage sind, die Übertragung von akquirierten Daten um einen Faktor von bis zu 140 zu beschleunigen. Wir diskutieren wie diese Verbesserung eine Integration von Listmodebasierten Korrekturmethoden, z.B. einer Event-getriebenen Bewegungskorrektur, ermöglicht, und wie mit Listmode generell die Flexibilität von PET-Untersuchungen verbessert werden kann. Des Weiteren zeigen wir, dass durch die verbesserte Stabilität des ACS2-Systems unsere Methoden auch für konventionelle Histogramm-Akquisitionen attraktiv sind.
Background/Aims: Wounds, especially non-healing wounds are characterized by elevated tissue lactate concentrations. Lactate is known for being able to stimulate collagen synthesis and vessel growth. Lately it has been shown that lactate, in vivo, plays an important role in homing of stem cells. With this work we aimed to show the influence of lactate on the gene expressionprofile of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Materials and Methods: hMSCs were obtained from bone marrow anddoi:10.1159/000343342 pmid:23234875 fatcat:zfi5cpjlr5cwtooiklsxujbdre
more »... with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Subsequently the hMSCs were treated with either 0, 5, 10 and 15 mM lactate (pH 7,4) for 24 hours. RNA Isolation from stimulated hMSCs and controls was performed. The Microarray analysis was performed using AffymetrixHuGene 1.0 ST Gene Chip. Selected targets were subsequently analysed using quantitative real time PCR (RTq-PCR). Results: We were able to show that lactate in moderate concentrations of 5 respectively 10 mM leads to an anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic but growth and proliferation promoting gene expression after 24 h. In contrast, high lactate concentrations of 15 mM leads to the opposed effect, namely promoting inflammation and apoptosis. Hypoxia induced genes did not show any significant regulation. Contrary to expectation, we were not able to show any significant regulation of candidates associated with glycolysis. Conclusion: We were able to show that lactate alters gene expression but does not change the cell phenotype, which might be helpful for further investigations of new treatment strategies for chronic non-healing wounds as well as tumor-therapy and neuronal plasticity. Pre-incubation for 300 s at 95°C for 1 cycle (20°C/s), amplification for 42 cycles each with denaturation for 10 s at 95°C (20°C/s), annealing for 5 s at 60°C (20°C/s) and extension for 15 s at 72°C (20°C/s), melting curve 15 s at 50°C (20°C/s) then continuous ascent with 0,1°C/s until 95°C for 1 cycle, followed by cooling 30 s at 40°C for 1 cycle (20°C/s). Analysis was carried out using the relative quantification  and the relative expression software tool (REST©)  . Human hydroxymethyl-bilane synthase (HMBS) was used as reference gene for the relative quantification . 1555 Schneider/Ateschrang/Königsrainer et al.: Lactate and hMSC Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry isoemzyme M2 (PKM2), even though lactate is the metabolic end-product of this pathway . Only a moderate up-regulation of phosphoglycerat kinase 1 (PGK1) and PKM2at 15 mM lactate could be found. Conclusion We are aware of the fact that these are gene expression rates and that the levels of the corresponding proteins need to be further investigated since various regulatory processes may occur during translation and post-translational modification. Nevertheless our data suggest that lactate is able to modulate the gene expression of hMSCs involved in wound healing in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore lactate might be involved in the regulation of processes like tumorgenesis and neuronal plasticity and growth. These data could be helpful for investigating new treatment strategies for chronic non-healing wounds as well as tumor therapy and neuronal plasticity or regeneration.
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