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Modulation of working-memory maintenance by directed attention

Jöran Lepsien, Ian Thornton, Anna C. Nobre
2011 Neuropsychologia  
Lepsien and Nobre (2007) previously demonstrated that orienting attention to one stimulus category modulates stimulus-specific activity during the maintenance period.  ...  This is a clear indication that directing attention towards a category of items held in WM leads to a reduced effective WM load, and extends the findings of Lepsien and Nobre (2007) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.03.011 pmid:21420421 fatcat:mqcnffgg5ndhlccpzopojzwuom

Orienting Attention Based on Long-Term Memory Experience

Jennifer J. Summerfield, Jöran Lepsien, Darren R. Gitelman, M. Marsel Mesulam, Anna C. Nobre
2006 Neuron  
Similar areas are also involved when spatial attention is oriented within the domain of working memory (Lepsien et al., 2005; Nobre et al., 2004) .  ...  These were distributed logarithmically to shorten the total duration of the experiment and to maintain temporal expectations constant (50% between 2-6 s, 33% between 6-10 s, 17% between 10-14 s) (see Lepsien  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.01.021 pmid:16543137 fatcat:a75whnz4lza3zkvud5ihfi57vu

Multi-Echo Investigations of Positive and Negative CBF and Concomitant BOLD Changes [article]

Ratnamanjuri Devi, Jöran Lepsien, Kathrin Lorenz, Torsten Schlumm, Toralf Mildner, Harald E. Möller
2022 bioRxiv   pre-print
Jöran Lepsien: Methodology, Software. Kathrin Lorenz: Methodology. Torsten Schlumm: Methodology, Software, Data curation.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2022.09.05.506629 fatcat:pg6sjjasuvhjtancsozcs72ko4

Changes of Hand Switching Costs during Bimanual Sequential Learning

Sabrina Trapp, Jöran Lepsien, Bernhard Sehm, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert, Marc O. Ernst
2012 PLoS ONE  
Many tasks in our daily life demand not only the use of different fingers of one hand in a serial fashion, but also to alternate from one hand to the other. Here, we investigated performance in a bimanual serial reaction time task (SRTT) with particular emphasis on learning-related changes in reaction time (RT) for consecutive button presses for homologous index-and middle fingers. The bimanual SRTT consisted of sequential button presses either with the left or right index-and middlefinger to a
more » ... series of visual letters displayed on a computer screen. Each letter was assigned a specific button press with one of four fingers. Two outcome measures were investigated: (a) global sequence learning as defined by the time needed to complete a 15-letter SRTT sequence and (b) changes in hand switch costs across learning. We found that bimanual SRTT resulted in a global decrease in RT during the time course of learning that persisted for at least two weeks. Furthermore, RT to a button press showed an increase when the previous button press was associated with another hand as opposed to the same hand. This increase in RT was defined as switch costs. Hand switch costs significantly decreased during the time course of learning, and remained stable over a time of approximately two weeks. This study provides evidence for modulations of switch costs during bimanual sequence learning, a finding that might have important implications for theories of bimanual coordination and learning.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045857 pmid:23029279 pmcid:PMC3448681 fatcat:tg4odputpbc5nmgomgukiceyfu

Prior probability modulates anticipatory activity in category-specific areas

Sabrina Trapp, Jöran Lepsien, Sonja A. Kotz, Moshe Bar
2015 Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  
Bayesian models are currently a dominant framework for describing human information processing. However, it is not clear yet how major tenets of this framework can be translated to brain processes. In this study, we addressed the neural underpinning of prior probability and its effect on anticipatory activity in category-specific areas. Before fMRI scanning, participants were trained in two behavioral sessions to learn the prior probability and correct order of visual events within a sequence.
more » ... he events of each sequence included two different presentations of a geometric shape and one picture of either a house or a face, which appeared with either a high or a low likelihood. Each sequence was preceded by a cue that gave participants probabilistic information about which items to expect next. This allowed examining cue-related anticipatory modulation of activity as a function of prior probability in category-specific areas (fusiform face area and parahippocampal place area). Our findings show that activity in the fusiform face area was higher when faces had a higher prior probability. The finding of a difference between levels of expectations is consistent with graded, probabilistically modulated activity, but the data do not rule out the alternative explanation of a categorical neural response. Importantly, these differences were only visible during anticipation, and vanished at the time of stimulus presentation, calling for a functional distinction when considering the effects of prior probability. Finally, there were no anticipatory effects for houses in the parahippocampal place area, suggesting sensitivity to stimulus material when looking at effects of prediction.
doi:10.3758/s13415-015-0373-4 pmid:26350626 fatcat:24ef5zr4snecbmsfxk3vkmsloe

Covert Reorienting and Inhibition of Return: An Event-Related fMRI Study

Jöran Lepsien, Stefan Pollmann
2002 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
Reprint requests should be sent to Jöran Lepsien, Max-Planck-Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Stephanstrasse 1a, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany, or via e-mail: lepsien@cns.mpg.de.  ... 
doi:10.1162/089892902317236795 pmid:11970781 fatcat:dfvxvocscvfc5bygwcdqroroze

The Timing of Neural Activity during Shifts of Spatial Attention

Debora Brignani, Jöran Lepsien, Matthew F. S. Rushworth, Anna Christina Nobre
2009 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
The Timing of Neural Activity during Shifts of Spatial Attention Debora Brignani’, Joran Lepsien**, Matthew F. S.  ... 
doi:10.1162/jocn.2008.21176 pmid:19199414 fatcat:ttxqveldbbcvzdipvtp5nou2q4

Commentary: Cluster failure: Why fMRI inferences for spatial extent have inflated false-positive rates

Karsten Mueller, Jöran Lepsien, Harald E. Möller, Gabriele Lohmann
2017 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Copyright © 2017 Mueller, Lepsien, Möller and Lohmann. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00345 pmid:28701944 pmcid:PMC5487467 fatcat:sq5ldufalfgwtoragatitb4s2y

Dissonance encoding in human inferior colliculus covaries with individual differences in dislike of dissonant music

Seung-Goo Kim, Jöran Lepsien, Thomas Hans Fritz, Toralf Mildner, Karsten Mueller
2017 Scientific Reports  
Harmony is one of the most fundamental elements of music that evokes emotional response. The inferior colliculus (IC) has been known to detect poor agreement of harmonics of sound, that is, dissonance. Electrophysiological evidence has implicated a relationship between a sustained auditory response mainly from the brainstem and unpleasant emotion induced by dissonant harmony. Interestingly, an individual's dislike of dissonant harmony of an individual correlated with a reduced sustained
more » ... response. In the current paper, we report novel evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for such a relationship between individual variability in dislike of dissonance and the IC activation. Furthermore, for the first time, we show how dissonant harmony modulates functional connectivity of the IC and its association with behaviourally reported unpleasantness. The current findings support important contributions of low level auditory processing and corticofugal interaction in musical harmony preference. Harmony is one of the most fundamental elements of music. Consonant harmony (i.e., high agreement of harmonic series of a complex sound) is perceived as pleasant whereas dissonant harmony (i.e., poor agreement of harmonics) is perceived as unpleasant in the general population, even with no prior exposure to Western polyphonic music 1 . Throughout the human auditory stream, encoding of dissonance is believed to occur at a very low level, particularly in the inferior colliculus (IC) 2, 3 . Structural and functional features of the human IC have been associated with perception of dissonant harmony. Structurally, intersubject covariance between the regional grey matter volume in the human IC and subjective perception of unpleasantness was reported, suggesting that IC neurons might play an important role in emotional response to dissonance 4 . Functionally, a sustained auditory response mainly from brainstem to prolonged tonal sound, namely "frequency-following response (FFR)" 5 , was found to correlate with the subjective preference for consonant over dissonant intervals based on scalp electroencephalography (EEG) data 6 . Together, these studies are consistent with the idea that emotional responses, musical preferences, and perhaps even the foundation of musical systems are rooted, at least to some extent, in low level auditory processing such as neural computation in the IC 2 . Previous neuroimaging studies focused on investigating a group level effect of dissonant music that is common to all participants 7, 8 , but neuroimaging data showing how well individual variability in IC activation covaries with individual variability in emotional response to dissonant harmony is yet scarce. In the current paper, we addressed a relationship between individual variability in neuroimaging data and that in behavioural data, in response to dissonant harmony. To this end, we adopted fMRI data from our previous experiment 9 . Twenty-three healthy participants were scanned using a 3 T MR system while listening to 30-s excerpts from instrumental music (e.g., classical piano concerto, big band swing). After each excerpt, participants rated the perceived pleasantness (1 = very pleasant, 2 = pleasant, 3 = unpleasant, 4 = very unpleasant) during a silence period of 6 s. An fMRI volume covering the ventral half of the brain was acquired every second. The original design of the experiment manipulated stimuli in a 2 × 2 factorial design of play direction (forward vs. backward) and harmony (consonant vs. dissonant) 9 . In the present study, we only focused on the contrast between the original music (i.e., "consonant") and its dissonant counterpart (i.e., "dissonant"). Both excerpts were played in Published: xx xx xxxx OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2 Scientific RepoRts | 7: 5726 |
doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06105-2 pmid:28720776 pmcid:PMC5516034 fatcat:nco6ntj7vje6takfb7ulrvuera

Brain networks underlying aesthetic appreciation as modulated by interaction of the spectral and temporal organisations of music

Seung-Goo Kim, Karsten Mueller, Jöran Lepsien, Toralf Mildner, Thomas Hans Fritz
2019 Scientific Reports  
Music is organised both spectrally and temporally, determining musical structures such as musical scale, harmony, and sequential rules in chord progressions. A number of human neuroimaging studies investigated neural processes associated with emotional responses to music investigating the influence of musical valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness) comparing the response to music and unpleasantly manipulated counterparts where harmony and sequential rules were varied. Interactions between the
more » ... iously applied alterations to harmony and sequential rules of the music in terms of emotional experience and corresponding neural activities have not been systematically studied although such interactions are at the core of how music affects the listener. The current study investigates the interaction between such alterations in harmony and sequential rules by using data sets from two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. While replicating the previous findings, we found a significant interaction between the spectral and temporal alterations in the fronto-limbic system, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen. We further revealed that the functional connectivity between the vmPFC and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was reduced when listening to excerpts with alterations in both domains compared to the original music. As it has been suggested that the vmPFC operates as a pivotal point that mediates between the limbic system and the frontal cortex in reward-related processing, we propose that this fronto-limbic interaction might be related to the involvement of cognitive processes in the emotional appreciation of music.
doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55781-9 pmid:31857651 pmcid:PMC6923468 fatcat:ay5arz2kabgrhalignoaewvkmu

Prediction processes during multiple object tracking (MOT): involvement of dorsal and ventral premotor cortices

Silke Atmaca, Waltraud Stadler, Anne Keitel, Derek V. M. Ott, Jöran Lepsien, Wolfgang Prinz
2013 Brain and Behavior  
The multiple object tracking (MOT) paradigm is a cognitive task that requires parallel tracking of several identical, moving objects following nongoal-directed, arbitrary motion trajectories. Aims: The current study aimed to investigate the employment of prediction processes during MOT. As an indicator for the involvement of prediction processes, we targeted the human premotor cortex (PM). The PM has been repeatedly implicated to serve the internal modeling of future actions and action effects,
more » ... as well as purely perceptual events, by means of predictive feedforward functions. Materials and methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), BOLD activations recorded during MOT were contrasted with those recorded during the execution of a cognitive control task that used an identical stimulus display and demanded similar attentional load. A particular effort was made to identify and exclude previously found activation in the PM-adjacent frontal eye fields (FEF). Results: We replicated prior results, revealing occipitotemporal, parietal, and frontal areas to be engaged in MOT. Discussion: The activation in frontal areas is interpreted to originate from dorsal and ventral premotor cortices. The results are discussed in light of our assumption that MOT engages prediction processes. Conclusion: We propose that our results provide first clues that MOT does not only involve visuospatial perception and attention processes, but prediction processes as well. Involvement of PM in MOT S. Atmaca et al.
doi:10.1002/brb3.180 pmid:24363971 pmcid:PMC3868173 fatcat:fl22ajjofbaufewb2kmfq3gd5y

Task-order coordination in dual-task performance and the lateral prefrontal cortex: an event-related fMRI study

André J. Szameitat, Jöran Lepsien, D. Yves von Cramon, Annette Sterr, Torsten Schubert
2005 Psychological Research  
A crucial demand in dual tasks suffering from a capacity limited processing mechanism is task-order scheduling, i.e. the control of the order in which the two component tasks are processed by this limited processing mechanism. The present study aims to test whether the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is associated with this demand. For this, 15 participants performed a psychological refractory paradigm (PRP) type dual task in an event-related functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) experiment. In
more » ... detail, two choice reaction tasks, a visual (response with right hand) and an auditory (response with left hand), were presented with a temporal offset of 200 ms, while the participants were required to respond to the tasks in the order of their presentation. Importantly, the presentation order of the tasks changed randomly. Based on previous evidence, we argue that trials in which the present task order changed as compared to the previous trial (differentorder trials) impose higher demands on task coordination than same-order trials do. The analyses showed that cortical areas along the posterior part of the left inferior frontal sulcus as well as the right posterior middle frontal gyrus were more strongly activated in differentorder than in same-order trials, thus supporting the conclusion that one function of the LPFC for dual-task performance is the temporal coordination of two tasks. Furthermore, it is discussed that the present findings favour the active scheduling over the passive queuing hypothesis of dual-task processing.
doi:10.1007/s00426-005-0015-5 pmid:16142491 fatcat:grpsw6kvfnccpio6oevc3hjd3q

Alexithymia and automatic processing of facial emotions: behavioral and neural findings

Nicole Rosenberg, Klas Ihme, Vladimir Lichev, Julia Sacher, Michael Rufer, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Harald Kugel, André Pampel, Jöran Lepsien, Anette Kersting, Arno Villringer, Thomas Suslow
2020 BMC Neuroscience  
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings, an externally oriented style of thinking, and a reduced inclination to imagination. Previous research has shown deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alexithymia and reductions of brain responsivity to emotional stimuli. Using an affective priming paradigm, we investigated automatic perception of facial emotions as a function of alexithymia at the behavioral and neural
more » ... evel. In addition to self-report scales, we applied an interview to assess alexithymic tendencies. During 3 T fMRI scanning, 49 healthy individuals judged valence of neutral faces preceded by briefly shown happy, angry, fearful, and neutral facial expressions. Alexithymia was assessed using the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) and the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA). As expected, only negative correlations were found between alexithymic features and affective priming. The global level of self-reported alexithymia (as assessed by the TAS-20 and the BVAQ) was found to be related to less affective priming owing to angry faces. At the facet level, difficulties identifying feelings, difficulties analyzing feelings, and impoverished fantasy (as measured by the BVAQ) were correlated with reduced affective priming due to angry faces. Difficulties identifying feelings (BVAQ) correlated also with reduced affective priming due to fearful faces and reduced imagination (TSIA) was related to decreased affective priming due to happy faces. There was only one significant correlation between alexithymia dimensions and automatic brain response to masked facial emotions: TAS-20 alexithymia correlated with heightened brain response to masked happy faces in superior and medial frontal areas. Our behavioral results provide evidence that alexithymic features are related in particular to less sensitivity for covert facial expressions of anger. The perceptual alterations could reflect impaired automatic recognition or integration of social anger signals into judgemental processes and might contribute to the problems in interpersonal relationships associated with alexithymia. Our findings suggest that self-report measures of alexithymia may have an advantage over interview-based tests as research tools in the field of emotion perception at least in samples of healthy individuals characterized by rather low levels of alexithymia.
doi:10.1186/s12868-020-00572-6 pmid:32471365 fatcat:aqf4pow77vfmjcslvgd52vzwqq

Obesity Associated Cerebral Gray and White Matter Alterations Are Interrelated in the Female Brain

Karsten Mueller, Annette Horstmann, Harald E. Möller, Alfred Anwander, Jöran Lepsien, Matthias L. Schroeter, Arno Villringer, Burkhard Pleger, Satoru Hayasaka
2014 PLoS ONE  
Obesity is known to affect the brain's gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structure but the interrelationship of such changes remains unclear. Here we used T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to assess the relationship between obesity-associated alterations of gray matter density (GMD) and anisotropic water diffusion in WM, respectively. In a small cohort
more » ... f lean to obese women, we confirmed previous reports of obesityassociated alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) and habit learning (i.e., dorsal striatum). Gray matter density alterations of the DLPFC were negatively correlated with radial diffusivity in the entire corpus callosum. Within the genu of the corpus callosum we found a positive correlation with axial diffusivity. In posterior region and inferior areas of the body of the corpus callosum, axial diffusivity correlated negatively with altered GMD in the dorsal striatum. These findings suggest that, in women, obesityrelated alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control and habit learning might relate to alterations of associated WM fiber bundles within the corpus callosum.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114206 pmid:25494174 pmcid:PMC4262391 fatcat:zr3hbz7p6rdstpstapy4ct4b4i

Neural Correlates of Mirror Visual Feedback-Induced Performance Improvements: A Resting-State fMRI Study

Viola Rjosk, Jöran Lepsien, Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Bernhard Sehm, Christopher J. Steele, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
2017 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising approach to enhance motor performance without training in healthy adults as well as in patients with focal brain lesions. There is preliminary evidence that a functional modulation within and between primary motor cortices as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) might be one candidate mechanism mediating the observed behavioral effects. Recently, studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that
more » ... MVF-induced functional changes might not be restricted to the primary motor cortex (M1) but also include higher order regions responsible for perceptual-motor coordination and visual attention. However, aside from these instantaneous task-induced brain changes, little is known about learning-related neuroplasticity induced by MVF. Thus, in the present study, we assessed MVF-induced functional network plasticity with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). We performed rs-fMRI of 35 right-handed, healthy adults before and after performing a complex ball-rotation task. The primary outcome measure was the performance improvement of the untrained left hand (LH) before and after right hand (RH) training with MVF (mirror group [MG], n = 17) or without MVF (control group [CG], n = 18). Behaviorally, the MG showed superior performance improvements of the untrained LH. In restingstate functional connectivity (rs-FC), an interaction analysis between groups showed changes in left visual cortex (V1, V2) revealing an increase of centrality in the MG. Within group comparisons showed further functional alterations in bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), left V4 and left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIP) in the MG, only. Importantly, a correlation analysis revealed a linear positive relationship
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00054 pmid:28220070 pmcid:PMC5292421 fatcat:wsjd2fr66rannbgi6o6ucc65mu
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