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Iteration grammars and lindenmayer AFL's [chapter]

Arto Salomaa
1974 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A r t o S a l o m a a D e p a r t m e n t of C o m p u t e r S c i e n c e U n i v e r s i t y of A a r h u s A a r h u s , D e n m a r k One of the f i r s t o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g L -s y s t e m s was that the c o r r e s p o n ding l a n g u a g e f a m i l i e s h a v e v e r y w e a k c l o s u r e p r o p e r t i e s , in f a c t , many of the f a mi l i e s a r e a n t i -A F L~s , i . e . , c l o s e d u n d e r none of the A F L o p e r a t i o n s . H o w e v e r
more » ... this p h e n o m e n o n is due to the lack of a t e r m i n a l a l p h a b e t r a t h e r than to p a r a l l e l i s m w h i c h is the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g L -s y s t e m s . E . g . , the f a m i l y
doi:10.1007/3-540-06867-8_20 fatcat:7dil6txvavbf5a5wxhl7uhya6m

Controlled iteration grammars and full hyper-AFL's

Peter R.J. Asveld
1977 Information and Control  
grammars by (K)ITER.  ...  The inclusion (F, K)ITER _C ((F, K)ITER)ITER is obvious from the definition of K-iteration grammar.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0019-9958(77)90308-4 fatcat:t5ynkou5rjcjpbtmzfalxxfdli

Iterative method of generating artificial context-free grammars [article]

Olgierd Unold, Agnieszka Kaczmarek, Łukasz Culer
2019 arXiv   pre-print
This paper aims to present a method of generating artificial context-free grammars with their optimal learning sets, which could be successfully applied as a benchmarking tool for empirical grammar inference  ...  At present, real-life data and examples from manually crafted grammars are used to test their learning performance.  ...  This results in the (5) condition for generating grammar. |R + P | S 2 T S N T (5) Iteration rules Iteration rules are represented as A → aB and A → Ba.  ... 
arXiv:1911.05801v1 fatcat:37nlzdrczvgijezrweihwpp7qm

Iterative CKY Parsing for Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars [chapter]

Yoshimasa Tsuruoka, Jun'ichi Tsujii
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper presents an iterative CKY parsing algorithm for probabilistic contextfree grammars (PCFG).  ...  Experimental results using the Penn Treebank II corpus show that the iterative CKY achieved more than 60% reduction of edges compared with the conventional CKY algorithm and the run-time overhead is very  ...  It is easy to convert a parse tree in the transformed grammar into the parse tree in the original grammar.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30211-7_6 fatcat:upl54c77mnhypmpwbhz7ehvbpy

Categorial grammars with iterated types form a strict hierarchy of k-valued languages

Denis Béchet, Alexandre Dikovsky, Annie Foret
2012 Theoretical Computer Science  
In this paper the hierarchy by the k-valued constraint is established in the class of categorial grammars extended with iterated types adapted to express the so called projective dependency structures.  ...  The notion of k-valued categorial grammars in which every word is associated to at most k types is often used in the field of lexicalized grammars as a fruitful constraint for obtaining interesting properties  ...  Later the iterated types were integrated into pregroup grammars [10] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2012.04.024 fatcat:h6enqz7pefekxigaeo2mv65rru

Iterative Rule Segmentation under Minimum Description Length for Unsupervised Transduction Grammar Induction [chapter]

Markus Saers, Karteek Addanki, Dekai Wu
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
opposite of Saers, Addanki, and Wu's previous 2012 bottom-up iterative rule chunking model yields significantly better translation accuracy and grammar parsimony.  ...  We argue that for purely incremental unsupervised learning of phrasal inversion transduction grammars, a minimum description length driven, iterative top-down rule segmentation approach that is the polar  ...  We will then segment the the grammar iteratively a total of seven times (iteration 1-7), after which the changes are negligible.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39593-2_20 fatcat:bpywavv47bes3fx22zfxisrp2a

Categorial Grammars with Iterated Types form a Strict Hierarchy of k-Valued Languages [chapter]

Denis Béchet, Alexandre Dikovsky, Annie Foret
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper the hierarchy by the k-valued constraint is established in the class of categorial grammars extended with iterated types adapted to express the so called projective dependency structures.  ...  The notion of k-valued categorial grammars in which every word is associated to at most k types is often used in the field of lexicalized grammars as a fruitful constraint for obtaining interesting properties  ...  Later the iterated types were integrated into pregroup grammars [10] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-22256-6_5 fatcat:ubwaqz34ubfnjjeegxc6b65aby

Teaching English Tenses (grammar) in the Turkish Texts; A Case of Simple Present Tense: Isıl Maketi Iter

Ercan Tomakin
2014 International Journal of Learning and Development  
In so doing, firstly an overview of the tenses is briefly explained in the introduction section referring to the tense and grammar distinction.  ...  As a result, it is seen that covert teaching of the grammar in the Turkish texts may facilitate English (foreign) language teaching to some extent for those who know the Turkish language and use code-learning  ...  Second, it aimed to state the rule of English grammar in the Turkish sentences as seen in the following sentence; Isıl maketi iter = I make it.  ... 
doi:10.5296/ijld.v4i1.5154 fatcat:aoegvstfe5bgplk4bxfkh3f5oa

From Grammars to Parameters: Automatic Iterated Greedy Design for the Permutation Flow-Shop Problem with Weighted Tardiness [chapter]

Franco Mascia, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Thomas Stützle
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In particular, we first propose a grammar that generates iterated greedy (IG) algorithms for the permutation flow-shop problem with weighted tardiness minimization.  ...  Next, we show how this grammar can be represented in terms of parameters.  ...  [2] automatically generate iterated greedy (IG) algorithms for the one-dimensional bin packing problem. Both works instantiate algorithms bottom-up from a context-free grammar.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-44973-4_36 fatcat:st342qbfnvgxfi564y4v7hbvt4

Optional and Iterated Types for Pregroup Grammars [chapter]

Denis Béchet, Alexander Dikovsky, Annie Foret, Emmanuelle Garel
Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Pregroup grammars are a context-free grammar formalism which may be used to describe the syntax of natural languages.  ...  We also iterate left and right adjoints for every X ∈ T (P,≤) : X (0) = X, X (n+1) = (X r ) (n) and X (n−1) = (X l ) (n) 5 ≤ is only a preorder.  ...  As a result, we obtain a class of PG with simple optional and iterated types, which express the optional and iterated constructions in the way the dependency grammars do ( [10] [11] [12] [13] ).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-88282-4_10 fatcat:xaqqmzkqqfg5pfmslnisalyab4

Unsupervised Learning of Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar using Iterative Biclustering [chapter]

Kewei Tu, Vasant Honavar
Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The algorithm acquires rules of an unknown PCFG through iterative biclustering of bigrams in the training corpus.  ...  Our analysis shows that this procedure uses a greedy approach to adding rules such that each set of rules that is added to the grammar results in the largest increase in the posterior of the grammar given  ...  Starting from only terminals, PCFG-BCL iteratively adds new symbols and rules to the grammar. At each iteration, it first learns a new AND-OR group by biclustering, as explained in Section 3.1.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-88009-7_18 fatcat:ddwhn5mmeref5kakec3xcrx6ye

A generalized method for iterative error mining in parsing results

Daniël de Kok, Jianqiang Ma, Gertjan van Noord
2009 Proceedings of the 2009 Workshop on Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks - GEAF '09   unpublished
We extend the iterative method of Sagot and de la Clergerie (2006) to treat n-grams of an arbitrary length. An inherent problem of incorporating longer n-grams is data sparseness.  ...  Grammar (Copestake and Flickinger, 2000) .  ...  Introduction In the past decade wide-coverage grammars and parsers have been developed for various languages, such as the Alpino parser and grammar (Bouma et al., 2001) for Dutch and the English Resource  ... 
doi:10.3115/1690359.1690368 fatcat:kb7m4uvojbfc7kpsjgj3e7fajm

A Grammar-Based Unsupervised Method of Mining Volitive Words

Jianfeng Zhang, Yu Hong, Yuehui Yang, Jianmin Yao, Qiaoming Zhu
2010 2010 International Conference on Asian Language Processing  
This paper proposes a grammar-based unsupervised method to automatically mine the Chinese volitive words, which are the important clues of intention and desiration in literal content, such as "can", "must  ...  C Grammar ranking in global mining But it is conceivable that the global mining will result in low precision because of the cumulative errors from each iterative local mining.  ...  , To solve that, we iteratively run our local mining for three times and verify the probability of correct volitive words in the whole results determined by a specific grammar.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ialp.2010.35 dblp:conf/ialp/ZhangHYYZ10 fatcat:t7q3vsbw2bdftbu3fjvlkh5rke

WHY HAS AMBIGUOUS SYNTAX EMERGED?

STEFAN HOEFLER
2006 The Evolution of Language  
This paper discusses the implications of a typical iterated learning model on the conditions under which syntactic ambiguity emerges and stabilises in language.  ...  In a second step, we will analyse the stabilisation of ambiguous grammars in iterated learning simulations, where language is transmitted through a bottleneck over generations.  ...  Cursorily viewed, this could lead to the assumption that ambiguity would increase over generations in an iterated learning model in which hypothesis grammars are selected for maximal expressivity.  ... 
doi:10.1142/9789812774262_0016 fatcat:6oaqhb3a2facpjn3pnyt6xqpfm

Object grammars and bijections

I. Dutour, J.M. Fédou
2003 Theoretical Computer Science  
It is based on the notion of object grammars. Object grammars give recursive descriptions of objects and generalize context-free grammars.  ...  The study of a particular substitution in these object grammars conÿrms once more the key role of Dyck words in the domain of enumerative and bijective combinatorics. (I.  ...  An object grammar built from the object grammar G by a ÿnite sequence of S-iterations is called an iterate of G.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0304-3975(02)00368-7 fatcat:6qg4ettdqncener5g3v2cmfl2u
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