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Abductive reasoning and qualitative research

Martin Lipscomb
2012 Nursing Philosophy  
Abduction, deduction and induction describe forms of reasoning. Deduction and induction are discussed in the nursing literature. However, abduction has been largely neglected by nurse scholars.  ...  Second, difficulties in choosing between alternative plausible hypotheses (i.e. concerning theme, code, and category description) are explored through an examination of the 'generality problem'.  ...  Acknowledgements While the views expressed herein are not necessarily theirs I would like to thank the following people for kindly giving their time, advice, and encouragement during the writing of this  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1466-769x.2011.00532.x pmid:22950728 fatcat:6wwuetfbkravjobkhfxiaxyi5a

Some Key Notions in Non-monotonic Reasoning

Raymundo Morado
2004 Latin-American Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning  
The first section presents the motivations for this analysis and can be skipped by people familiar with non-monotonic reasoning. The second section offers a taxonomy of terms in the NMR literature.  ...  I propose that work on non-monotonic reasoning can benefit from new notions of inference, logicality and reason. The paper is divided into three sections.  ...  A logic for default reasoning. In Artificial Intelligence, vol. 13, no. 1-2, pp. 81-132. Reprinted in Ginsberg (1987), pp. 68-93. [Reiter and Criscuolo (1981)] Reiter, Raymond, Criscuolo, g., (1981)  ... 
dblp:conf/lanmr/Morado04 fatcat:cjmleghfdrav3iugxgv3atcnpq

The Feasibility of Defeat in Defeasible Reasoning [chapter]

Gerard Vreeswijk
1993 Diamonds and Defaults  
I claim that sensible criteria of defeat among arguments in those systems are feasible, be it to a certain extent.  ...  Systems of defeasible reasoning are characterized by defeasible proofs, called arguments.  ...  Finally many thanks to Irene Baker for her efforts in proofreading.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-015-8242-1_13 fatcat:7by2sqoyejfcpnag3ubplotthi

Distrusting Reason

Hilary Kornblith
1999 Midwest Studies In Philosophy  
This is, after all, why reason is so important: it serves, and rightly so, as a guide to both belief and action.  ...  Reason-giving may be viewed with suspicion as yet one more instrument for wielding power over the oppressed.  ...  plausible methodological challenge to them: some important variable was not controlled for, the number of cases involved is not statistically significant, and so on.  ... 
doi:10.1111/1475-4975.00010 fatcat:y5hzp5ygq5hsto6wezofu3rwzq

IS REASONABLE DOUBT REASONABLE?

Larry Laudan
2003 Legal Theory  
A reasonable doubt is said to be a doubt that is reasonable, that is, for which you could give a reason.  ...  Given that (statistically speaking) the death penalty has vanished, and given that guilty verdicts are routinely vetted by higher courts, does it remain plausible that it is better that ten (or twenty  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1352325203000132 fatcat:eiiprnvmkfcnrke3p5agpa33wa

Is Reasonable Doubt Reasonable?

Larry Laudan
2008 Social Science Research Network  
A reasonable doubt is said to be a doubt that is reasonable, that is, for which you could give a reason.  ...  Given that (statistically speaking) the death penalty has vanished, and given that guilty verdicts are routinely vetted by higher courts, does it remain plausible that it is better that ten (or twenty  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1152883 fatcat:hsuvazn6sra2zonnazmynauhue

Reasoning about Others' Reasoning

Larbi Alaoui, Katharina A. Janezic, Antonio Penta
2020 Journal of Economic Theory  
We find evidence that, in some of our treatments, the cognitive bound is indeed binding for a large fraction of subjects.  ...  Rather, there is an interaction between own cognitive bound and reasoning about the opponent's reasoning process.  ...  While alternatives are possible in practice, in order to ensure that the model has bite we impose the most restrictive assumptions on beliefs which is sensible in the present context: The reason why the  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jet.2020.105091 fatcat:7etfc3t2pvgr7lvnt4kosalqku

Structured statistical models of inductive reasoning

Charles Kemp, Joshua B. Tenenbaum
2009 Psychological review  
The framework therefore shows how statistical inference can operate over structured background knowledge, and the authors argue that this interaction between structure and statistics is critical for explaining  ...  Formal models of induction should aim to incorporate this knowledge and should explain how different kinds of knowledge lead to the distinctive patterns of reasoning found in different inductive contexts  ...  Our work is fundamentally different and offers a single, integrated, structured statistical approach to modeling inductive reasoning.  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0014282 pmid:19159147 fatcat:vtzluuq7mrfhrhwitclfhtfvda

Properties of inductive reasoning

Evan Heit
2000 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results.  ...  This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions.  ...  Medin et al. (1997) devised questions on a test of inductive reasoning that pitted scientific matches against alternative, functional category structures.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03212996 pmid:11206199 fatcat:5iyqal3y2rbpbp22jfz4t22upq

Analogical Reasoning [chapter]

Antonis C. Kakas, David Cohn, Sanjoy Dasgupta, Andrew G. Barto, Gail A. Carpenter, Stephen Grossberg, Geoffrey I. Webb, Marco Dorigo, Mauro Birattari, Hannu Toivonen, Jon Timmis, Jürgen Branke (+9 others)
2011 Encyclopedia of Machine Learning  
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive.  ...  Sunstein* Reasoning by analogy is the most familiar form of legal reasoning. It dominates the first year of law school; it is a characteristic part of brief-writing and opinion-writing as well.  ...  It seems plausible that the search for a relatively wide or extended version of reflective equilibrium is superior to analogical reasoning, and that the latter is a kind of crude, incomplete version of  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-0-387-30164-8_19 fatcat:xps5ztqafrbdpcczilndxoimc4

Statistical and logical reasoning in disambiguation

S. G. Pulman
2000 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  
While recent statistical methods for disambiguation in natural language processing have been very successful, earlier arguments for the position that fully successful disambiguation requires reasoning  ...  We describe a pilot experiment in which a partial domain theory for the domain of air travel information was induced from a corpus of disambiguated example sentences, the resulting theory then being used  ...  I am grateful to Stephen Muggleton for introducing me to the ILP paradigm and for advice about the use of CProgol.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rsta.2000.0585 fatcat:jerigzjwcjcotlbyhufv2jznky

Reason and value: making reasoning fit for practice

Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson, Vikki Entwistle, Elselijn Kingma
2012 Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice  
Reasoning in medicine Is clinical reasoning a manifestation of cognitive ability, logical analysis skills, interpretive sensitivity or narrative sensibility?  ...  problems associated with health research, including problems with inductive reasoning and the external validity of causal findings.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2753.2012.01896.x pmid:22994987 fatcat:tealzpjdtnbtpbhsvhsi4z5vxi

The Development of Scientific Reasoning Skills

Corinne Zimmerman
2000 Developmental Review  
The focus is on the reasoning and problem-solving strategies involved in experimentation and evidence evaluation.  ...  The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to the growing body of research on the development of scientific reasoning skills.  ...  Participants frequently needed to explain why the patterns of evidence were sensible or plausible.  ... 
doi:10.1006/drev.1999.0497 fatcat:xb46mn6dmbhzrjf27mpwef7f6q

What could abductive reasoning contribute to human computer interaction? A technology domestication view

Erkki Patokorpi
2009 PsychNology Journal  
Abduction is a form of everyday reasoning that people typically use under uncertainty in a context.  ...  In recent decades, non-monotonous, informal patterns of reasoning have awakened a renewed interest among psychologists, economists and educationalists.  ...  In order to become a sensible guide to reasonable or reasoned action abduction requires support from deduction and induction as well as a close connection to the seeking of evidence.  ... 
dblp:journals/psychnology/Patokorpi09 fatcat:yl7vl34dt5cg5fynmn4shufvee

On Analogical Reasoning

Cass R. Sunstein
1993 Harvard Law Review  
Reasoning by analogy is the most familiar form of legal reasoning. It dominates the first year of law school; it is a characteristic part of brief-writing and opinion-writing as well.  ...  Often lawyers themselves are unenthusiastic about analogical reasoning, urging that this w.y of thinking about law is unconstrained or not a form of reasoning at all. 2 As a result, the legal culture lacks  ...  It seems plausible that the search for a relatively wide or extended version of reflective equilibrium is superior to analogical reasoning, and that the latter is a kind of crude, incomplete version of  ... 
doi:10.2307/1341662 fatcat:vk3bkx6pgzgprncvmyyvn6xvvq
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