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Introducing Tarzan, a Peer-to-Peer Anonymizing Network Layer [chapter]

Michael J. Freedman, Emil Sit, Josh Cates, Robert Morris
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We introduce Tarzan, a peer-to-peer anonymous network layer that provides generic IP forwarding. Unlike prior anonymizing layers, Tarzan is flexible, transparent, decentralized, and highly scalable.  ...  Performance tests show that Tarzan imposes minimal overhead over a corresponding non-anonymous overlay route.  ...  Conclusion Tarzan provides a flexible, transparent layer for providing anonymity to generic IP connections. Tarzan's peer-to-peer design makes it decentralized, highly scalable, and easy to manage.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45748-8_12 fatcat:znmuls2eivhkbagmrse3qhxzc4

Tarzan

Michael J. Freedman, Robert Morris
2002 Proceedings of the 9th ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '02  
Tarzan is a peer-to-peer anonymous IP network overlay. Because it provides IP service, Tarzan is general-purpose and transparent to applications.  ...  Tarzan achieves its anonymity with layered encryption and multihop routing, much like a Chaumian mix.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Emil Sit and Josh Cates for significant contribution to the software design and implementation of Tarzan tunnels; David Mazières for helpful discussions regarding security design  ... 
doi:10.1145/586110.586137 dblp:conf/ccs/FreedmanM02 fatcat:ujugen4eg5fchaqa7lo5qx3wpu

Tarzan

Michael J. Freedman, Robert Morris
2002 Proceedings of the 9th ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '02  
Tarzan is a peer-to-peer anonymous IP network overlay. Because it provides IP service, Tarzan is general-purpose and transparent to applications.  ...  Tarzan achieves its anonymity with layered encryption and multihop routing, much like a Chaumian mix.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Emil Sit and Josh Cates for significant contribution to the software design and implementation of Tarzan tunnels; David Mazières for helpful discussions regarding security design  ... 
doi:10.1145/586135.586137 fatcat:mdmxlcbklvdhhiqczcsyt74rsi

The fifteen year struggle of decentralizing privacy-enhancing technology [article]

Rolf Jagerman, Wendo Sabée, Laurens Versluis, Martijn de Vos, Johan Pouwelse
2014 arXiv   pre-print
A number of anonymous communication overlay networks exist whose aim it is to provide privacy to its users.  ...  The Tor network is used as a key comparison network in the main part of the report: a tabular overview of the major anonymous networking technologies in use today.  ...  Tarzan Tarzan [14] is a fully distributed peer-to-peer anonymity network. It implements a network address translator (NAT) to bridge between nodes running Tarzan and the internet.  ... 
arXiv:1404.4818v1 fatcat:7yfg6ske2fhybodp665gtkflny

Practical Anonymity for the Masses with MorphMix [chapter]

Marc Rennhard, Bernhard Plattner
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
nodes • Introduced in 1996 within the context of the Onion Routing project to anonymize low-latency applications -Mixes form an overlay network -Mixes are connected via virtual links; usually based on  ...  "break the anonymity" of honest users MorphMix MorphMix --Details (2) Details (2) • MorphMix is still a circuit-based mix network -The requirements to compromise a tunnel are the same as in static  ...  Comparison with Crowds and Tarzan Comparison with Crowds and Tarzan • Crowds -Crowds requires a centralised lookup service to keep track of the nodes that are currently participating -No collusion detection  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-27809-2_24 fatcat:qbtpiuz2m5hf7k6urctgu7rjpq

Dependability in peer-to-peer systems

F. DePaoli, L. Mariani
2004 IEEE Internet Computing  
To perform in Internetscale applications, P2P systems must address the four major properties of dependable systems: scalability, fault-tolerance, security, and anonymity.  ...  Editor : Siobhán Clarke • siobhan.c Dependability in Peer-to-Peer Systems Napster's centralized nature makes it fragile with respect to faults: if the central server stops working, all services become  ...  P2P systems that do not implement any anonymizing technique could take advantage of anonymizing network layers, such as Tarzan. 16 Tarzan is a P2P-specific anonymizing network layer that addresses anonymity  ... 
doi:10.1109/mic.2004.9 fatcat:a6x4kl44zfekhouae5c5u7f63e

gap – Practical Anonymous Networking [chapter]

Krista Bennett, Christian Grothoff
2003 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
It is not possible for peers to retrieve content from publishers that do not use gap. Also, content migrates over the network.  ...  This paper describes how anonymity is achieved in gnunet, a framework for anonymous distributed and secure networking.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for constructive feedback and Roger Dingledine for helpful discussions.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-40956-4_10 fatcat:afewpls24beixffwpk7uzxucsu

Salsa

Arjun Nambiar, Matthew Wright
2006 Proceedings of the 13th ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '06  
Salsa is designed to select nodes to be used in anonymous circuits randomly from the full set of nodes, even though each node has knowledge of only a small subset of the network.  ...  Requiring nodes to have full knowledge of the other nodes in the system, as in Tor and Tarzan, limits scalability and leads to intersection attacks in peer-to-peer configurations.  ...  Peer-to-peer anonymous communications systems, such as Tarzan [13] and MorphMix [23] , have been proposed as a way to alleviate these problems with a large and dynamic set of peers acting as servers  ... 
doi:10.1145/1180405.1180409 dblp:conf/ccs/NambiarW06 fatcat:2sl6ezdis5be3alo35dwb7mbim

SAS: A Scalar Anonymous Communication System [chapter]

Hongyun Xu, Xinwen Fu, Ye Zhu, Riccardo Bettati, Jianer Chen, Wei Zhao
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In general, users obtain anonymity at a certain cost in an anonymous communication system, which uses rerouting to increase the system's robustness.  ...  In this paper, we propose the Scalar Anonymity System (SAS) in order to provide a tradeoff between anonymity and cost for different users with different requirements.  ...  The scalar anonymity system introduced in this paper is a general one and can use either core networks or peer-to-peer networks.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11534310_49 fatcat:2rnhzhzalvcb7khbxdkvxw4v3m

Survey on anonymous communications in computer networks

Jian Ren, Jie Wu
2010 Computer Communications  
Anonymous communications aim to preserve communications privacy within the shared public network environment. It can provide security well beyond content privacy and integrity.  ...  We also describe verifiable mixnets and their applications to electronic voting. Finally, we briefly cite some other anonymous systems.  ...  Tarzan Tarzan was designed by Freedman and Morris in 2002 [72] . It is a peer-to-peer anonymous IP network overlay.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2009.11.009 fatcat:4ux4n767pvaujpnsnkgiytqikq

Breaking the Collusion Detection Mechanism of MorphMix [chapter]

Parisa Tabriz, Nikita Borisov
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
MorphMix is a peer-to-peer circuit-based mix network designed to provide low-latency anonymous communication.  ...  Our results suggest that mechanisms based solely on a node's local knowledge of the network are not sufficient to solve the difficult problem of detecting colluding adversarial behavior in a P2P system  ...  We would also like to thank Ian Goldberg, Andrei Serjantov, and the anonymous reviewers for their useful suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11957454_21 fatcat:6acib42ad5ftfp73jpqplqxm7q

A survey of peer-to-peer content distribution technologies

Stephanos Androutsellis-Theotokis, Diomidis Spinellis
2004 ACM Computing Surveys  
In this survey, we propose a framework for analyzing peer-to-peer content distribution technologies.  ...  Content distribution applications typically allow personal computers to function in a coordinated manner as a distributed storage medium by contributing, searching, and obtaining digital content.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments and suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1041680.1041681 fatcat:yr4rk6umqnbivp2jumyce6q45m

Strong pseudonymous communication for peer-to-peer reputation systems

Michael Kinateder, Ralf Terdic, Kurt Rothermel
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 ACM symposium on Applied computing - SAC '05  
We use a variation of Chaum mixes to achieve unlinkability between sender and recipient and introduce a concept called extended destination routing (EDR) which relies on routing headers constructed in  ...  Our work provides strong sender and recipient anonymity by eliminating the need to know of each other's address.  ...  Furthermore our thanks go to Daniel Herrscher, Timo Heiber, and Arno Wacker for good comments and helpful pointers on the further UniTEC evaluation.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1066677.1067033 dblp:conf/sac/KinatederTR05 fatcat:4djpzwyl6jgwhcur4qxrezi6wm

BitBlender

Kevin Bauer, Damon McCoy, Dirk Grunwald, Douglas Sicker
2008 Proceedings of the workshop on Applications of private and anonymous communications - AIPACa '08  
This work is among the first to propose a privacy enhancing system that is designed specifically for a particular class of peer-to-peer traffic.  ...  We present BitBlender, an efficient protocol that provides an anonymity layer for BitTorrent traffic.  ...  Tarzan [12] provides a peer-to-peer anonymous network layer with a high degree of resistance to traffic analysis by employing cover traffic in addition to using a source-routed mix strategy.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1461464.1461465 dblp:conf/securecomm/BauerMGS08 fatcat:a7mqn4dd6fcj7chgd5apftc6hi

Introducing SOR: SSH-based Onion Routing

Andre Egners, Dominic Gatzen, Andriy Panchenko, Ulrike Meyer
2012 2012 26th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops  
In this paper we introduce SOR -a novel approach for anonymization that is completely based on standardized, well tested, and performance-tuned protocols.  ...  The results of our evaluation show that our approach outperforms existing alternatives by a factor of up to nine without sacrificing the degree of anonymity.  ...  Thanks to Mark Schlösser who sparked our interest in the initial idea of this work. Also thanks to Fabian Lanze who provided insight into the Tor control protocol.  ... 
doi:10.1109/waina.2012.89 dblp:conf/aina/EgnersGPM12 fatcat:cwyb7gbk2jf2lg4plkhack4a3m
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