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Incentive Alignment of Business Processes: a game theoretic approach [article]

Tobias Heindel, Ingo Weber
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Many definitions of business processes refer to business goals, value creation, or profits/gains of sorts. Nevertheless, the focus of formal methods research on business processes, like the well-known soundness property, lies on correctness with regards to execution semantics of modeling languages. Among others, soundness requires proper completion of process instances. However, the question of whether participants have any interest in working towards completion (or in participating in the
more » ... ipating in the process) has not been addressed as of yet. In this work, we investigate whether inter-organizational business processes give participants incentives for achieving the common business goals---in short, whether incentives are aligned with the process. In particular, fair behavior should pay off and efficient completion of tasks should be rewarded. We propose a game-theoretic approach that relies on algorithms for solving stochastic games from the machine learning community. We describe a method for checking incentive alignment of process models with utility annotations for tasks, which can be used for a priori analysis of inter-organizational business processes. Last but not least, we show that the soundness property corresponds to a special case of incentive alignment.
arXiv:2006.06504v1 fatcat:qofpe245ivfkjk4bmjlsykl3je

Control Flow Information Analysis in Process Model Matching Techniques [article]

Christopher Klinkmüler, Ingo Weber
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Online Appendix to: "Analyzing Control Flow Information to Improve the Effectiveness of Process Model Matching Techniques" by the same authors.
arXiv:1707.01089v1 fatcat:sdcdbcwlhjeitguaohfcwmmque

Optimized Execution of Business Processes on Blockchain [article]

Luciano García-Bañuelos, Alexander Ponomarev, Marlon Dumas, Ingo Weber
2016 arXiv   pre-print
Blockchain technology enables the execution of collaborative business processes involving untrusted parties without requiring a central authority. Specifically, a process model comprising tasks performed by multiple parties can be coordinated via smart contracts operating on the blockchain. The consensus mechanism governing the blockchain thereby guarantees that the process model is followed by each party. However, the cost required for blockchain use is highly dependent on the volume of data
more » ... he volume of data recorded and the frequency of data updates by smart contracts. This paper proposes an optimized method for executing business processes on top of commodity blockchain technology. The paper presents a method for compiling a process model into a smart contract that encodes the preconditions for executing each task in the process using a space-optimized data structure. The method is empirically compared to a previously proposed baseline by replaying execution logs, including one from a real-life business process, and measuring resource consumption.
arXiv:1612.03152v1 fatcat:zun5qyoervbwjpmmkuuagdbe3m

Efficient Logging for Blockchain Applications [article]

Christopher Klinkmüller, Ingo Weber, Alexander Ponomarev, An Binh Tran, Wil van der Aalst
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Second generation blockchain platforms, like Ethereum, can store arbitrary data and execute user-defined smart contracts. Due to the shared nature of blockchains, understanding the usage of blockchain-based applications and the underlying network is crucial. Although log analysis is a well-established means, data extraction from blockchain platforms can be highly inconvenient and slow, not least due to the absence of logging libraries. To close the gap, we here introduce the Ethereum Logging
more » ... Ethereum Logging Framework (ELF) which is highly configurable and available as open source. ELF supports users (i) in generating cost-efficient logging code readily embeddable into smart contracts and (ii) in extracting log analysis data into common formats regardless of whether the code generation has been used during development. We provide an overview of and rationale for the framework's features, outline implementation details, and demonstrate ELF's versatility based on three case studies from the public Ethereum blockchain.
arXiv:2001.10281v1 fatcat:lyyo3mxw3rb3lastujwvvqsdai

Web Service Composition [chapter]

Jörg Hoffmann, Ingo Weber
2014 Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining  
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-6170-8_132 fatcat:hzghl2wcpjekbh7xf73y4fqgi4

Web Service Composition [chapter]

Jörg Hoffmann, Ingo Weber
2018 Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining  
doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-7131-2_132 fatcat:j6c7xarwtrbijphctencrl2d3m

Web Service Composition [chapter]

Jörg Hoffmann, Ingo Weber
2017 Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining  
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7163-9_132-1 fatcat:uont45nuh5efdaxyqcbvf5eo5u

Forms-based Service Composition [chapter]

Ingo Weber, Hye-Young Paik, Boualem Benatallah
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In many cases, it is not cost effective to automate business processes which affect a small number of people and/or change frequently. We present a novel approach for enabling domain experts to model and deploy such processes from their respective domain as Web service compositions. The approach is based on user-editable service naming, a graphical composition language where Web services are represented as forms, a targeted restriction of control flow expressivity, automated process
more » ... process verification mechanisms, and code generation for executing orchestrations. A Web-based service composition prototype implements this approach, including a WS-BPEL code generator.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-25535-9_49 fatcat:wwhs5bi5xjfv7jj3uigoippe2y

Interpreted Execution of Business Process Models on Blockchain [article]

Orlenys López-Pintado, Marlon Dumas, Luciano García-Bañuelos, Ingo Weber
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Blockchain technology provides a tamper-proof mechanism to execute inter-organizational business processes involving mutually untrusted parties. Existing approaches to blockchain-based process execution are based on code generation. In these approaches, a process model is compiled into one or more smart contracts, which are then deployed on a blockchain platform. Given the immutability of the deployed smart contracts, these compiled approaches ensure that all process instances conform to the
more » ... s conform to the process model. However, this advantage comes at the price of inflexibility. Any changes to the process model require the redeployment of the smart contracts (a costly operation). In addition, changes cannot be applied to running process instances. To address this lack of flexibility, this paper presents an interpreter of BPMN process models based on dynamic data structures. The proposed interpreter is embedded in a business process execution system with a modular multi-layered architecture, supporting the creation, execution, monitoring and dynamic update of process instances. For efficiency purposes, the interpreter relies on compact bitmap-based encodings of process models. An experimental evaluation shows that the proposed interpreted approach achieves comparable or lower costs relative to existing compiled approaches.
arXiv:1906.01420v1 fatcat:y5ydwpdvdva6rlmrifqskzvnly

Semantic Web Services Fundamentals [chapter]

Stijn Heymans, Jörg Hoffmann, Annapaola Marconi, Joshua Phillips, Ingo Weber
2012 Handbook of Service Description  
The research area of Semantic Web Services investigates the annotation of services, typically in a SOA, with a precise mathematical meaning in a formal ontology. These annotations allow a higher degree of automation. The last decade has seen a wide proliferation of such approaches, proposing different ontology languages, and paradigms for employing these in practice. The next chapter gives an overview of these approaches. In the present chapter, we provide an understanding of the fundamental
more » ... the fundamental techniques, from Artificial Intelligence and Databases, on which they are built. We give a concise, ontology-language independent, overview of the techniques most frequently used to automate service discovery and composition.
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1864-1_6 fatcat:jq6tex32uzdhhie2sc5ut6utoi

Context-Aware UI Component Reuse [chapter]

Kerstin Klemisch, Ingo Weber, Boualem Benatallah
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Adapting user interfaces (UIs) to various contexts, such as for the exploding number of different devices, has become a major challenge for UI developers. The support offered by current development environments for UI adaptation is limited, as is the support for the efficient creation of UIs in Web service-based applications. In this paper, we describe an approach where -based on a given context -a complete user interface is suggested. We demonstrate the approach for the example of a SOA
more » ... ple of a SOA environment. The suggestions are created by a rule-based recommender system, which combines Web service-bound UI elements with other UI building blocks. The approach has been implemented, as well as evaluated by simulating the development of 115 SAP UI screens.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38709-8_5 fatcat:3x2mlttpibh5vniuvlwqoaz5j4

uBaaS: A Unified Blockchain as a Service Platform [article]

Qinghua Lu, Xiwei Xu, Yue Liu, Ingo Weber, Liming Zhu, Weishan Zhang
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Blockchain is an innovative distributed ledger technology which has attracted a wide range of interests for building the next generation of applications to address lack-of-trust issues in business. Blockchain as a service (BaaS) is a promising solution to improve the productivity of blockchain application development. However, existing BaaS deployment solutions are mostly vendor-locked: they are either bound to a cloud provider or a blockchain platform. In addition to deployment, design and
more » ... ent, design and implementation of blockchain-based applications is a hard task requiring deep expertise. Therefore, this paper presents a unified blockchain as a service platform (uBaaS) to support both design and deployment of blockchain-based applications. The services in uBaaS include deployment as a service, design pattern as a service and auxiliary services. In uBaaS, deployment as a service is platform agnostic, which can avoid lock-in to specific cloud platforms, while design pattern as a service applies design patterns for data management and smart contract design to address the scalability and security issues of blockchain. The proposed solutions are evaluated using a real-world quality tracing use case in terms of feasibility and scalability.
arXiv:1907.13293v1 fatcat:mquirvka7zd5pg4isumggkeycu

Dynamic Role Binding in Blockchain-Based Collaborative Business Processes [article]

Orlenys López-Pintado, Marlon Dumas, Luciano García-Bañuelos, Ingo Weber
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Blockchain technology enables the execution of collaborative business processes involving mutually untrusted parties. Existing platforms allow such processes to be modeled using high-level notations and compiled into smart contracts that can be deployed on blockchain platforms. However, these platforms brush aside the question of who is allowed to execute which tasks in the process, either by deferring the question altogether or by adopting a static approach where all actors are bound to roles
more » ... are bound to roles upon process instantiation. Yet, a key advantage of blockchains is their ability to support dynamic sets of actors. This paper presents a model for dynamic binding of actors to roles in collaborative processes and an associated binding policy specification language. The proposed language is endowed with a Petri net semantics, thus enabling policy consistency verification. The paper also outlines an approach to compile policy specifications into smart contracts for enforcement. An experimental evaluation shows that the cost of policy enforcement increases linearly with the number of roles and constraints.
arXiv:1812.02909v1 fatcat:s5nb324vwzhvzjxjz4vgbrtrii

Validating a screening agar for linezolid-resistant enterococci [article]

Guido Werner, Carola Fleige, Ingo Klare, Robert E. Weber, Jennifer K. Bender
2019 bioRxiv   pre-print
Linezolid is an alternative treatment option for infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Some countries report an increasing number of isolates with resistance to linezolid. The recent publication of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene in Germany on enterococci/VRE recommends screening for linezolid-resistant enterococci (LRE). However, a suitable selective medium or a genetic test is not available. Our aim was to establish a
more » ... was to establish a selective screening agar for LRE detection and validate its application with a comprehensive collection of clinical LRE and linezolid-susceptible enterococci (LSE). We decided to combine the selective power of an enterococcal screening agar with a supplementation of linezolid. Several rounds of analyses with reference, control and test strains pointed towards Enterococcosel agar and a concentration of 2 mg/L linezolid. Finally, we validated our LRE agar with 400 samples sent to our National Reference Centre in 2019.
doi:10.1101/798983 fatcat:selcvtva6zglrd2l6qx6sx2gw4

Entity-Centric Search for Enterprise Services [chapter]

Marcus Roy, Ingo Weber, Boualem Benatallah
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The consumption of APIs, such as Enterprise Services (ESs) in an enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture (eSOA), has largely been a task for experienced developers. With the rapidly growing number of such (Web)APIs, users with little or no experience in a given API face the problem of finding relevant API operations -e.g., mashups developers. However, building an effective search has been a challenge: Information Retrieval (IR) methods struggle with the brevity of text in API descriptions,
more » ... I descriptions, whereas semantic search technologies require domain ontologies and formal queries. Motivated by the search behavior of users, we propose an iterative keyword search based on entities. The entities are part of a knowledge base, whose content stems from model-driven engineering. We implemented our approach and conducted a user study showing significant improvements in search effectiveness.
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-45005-1_28 fatcat:4xx6zc6vjrbnnodiepicqtq4q4
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