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Influence of the stress hormone cortisol on fear conditioning in humans: Evidence for sex differences in the response of the prefrontal cortex

Rudolf Stark, Oliver T. Wolf, Katharina Tabbert, Sabine Kagerer, Mark Zimmermann, Peter Kirsch, Anne Schienle, Dieter Vaitl
2006 NeuroImage  
In sum, these findings demonstrate that in humans cortisol mostly influences prefrontal brain activation during fear conditioning and that these effects appear to be modulated by sex.  ...  The stress hormone cortisol is known to influence declarative memory and associative learning.  ...  Discussion The present study was designed to examine the neural correlates of the influence of the stress hormone cortisol on fear conditioning.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.05.046 pmid:16839780 fatcat:7fqqkqb4nngjvjg4rperipdfle

Effects of stress hormones on the structure and function of the human brain

Oliver T Wolf
2006 Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism  
In response to stress, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is activated and glucocorticoids are secreted. These hormones exert multiple effects in the periphery as well as the brain.  ...  In parallel, structural alterations are observed in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. However, it seems that plasticity/reversibility is more common than previously thought.  ...  Acknowledgements References Affiliation For reprint orders, please contact reprints@future-drugs.com Wolf Acknowledgements The work of the author is supported by grants from the German Research Foundation  ... 
doi:10.1586/17446651.1.5.623 fatcat:roa5gbqanbaixcffpym4hrpllu

Stress Prompts Habit Behavior in Humans

L. Schwabe, O. T. Wolf
2009 Journal of Neuroscience  
These results demonstrate for the first time that stress promotes habits at the expense of goal-directed performance in humans.  ...  Based on previous findings showing that stress modulates the interaction of "cognitive" and "habit" memory systems, we asked in the presented study whether stress may coordinate goal-directed and habit  ...  Converging lines of evidence show that stress and the glucocorticoid stress hormones (mainly cortisol in humans) released from the adrenal cortex can operate as a switch between "cognitive" and "habit"  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.0979-09.2009 pmid:19494141 pmcid:PMC6666491 fatcat:6lsb2nchd5aifnj5au2orzguqa

Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans

Candace M. Raio, Edith Brignoni-Perez, Rachel Goldman, Elizabeth A. Phelps
2014 Neurobiology of Learning and Memory  
The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only.  ...  The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure.  ...  Our results are unique in that they investigate the effect of stress on extinction retrieval in healthy humans within the context of cued classical fear conditioning, providing a viable model for the return  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2014.01.015 pmid:24508065 pmcid:PMC4128278 fatcat:g25qg6wx5fdfblc3kgsfzhnyzi

The influence of stress hormones on emotional memory: Relevance for psychopathology

Oliver T. Wolf
2008 Acta Psychologica  
Finally, the relevance of these findings for emotional memory disturbances in psychiatric disorders is exemplified by discussions on neuroendocrine alterations in depression, post traumatic stress disorder  ...  Substantial progress within recent years has led to a better understanding of the impact of stress on emotional memory. These effects are of relevance for understanding and treating psychopathology.  ...  Acknowledgement The work of the author was supported by grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG WO 733/6-2 and WO 733/7-1).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.08.002 pmid:17900515 fatcat:r7fizwslfrhwlebsqbizuepn5u

Utilizing a unique animal model to better understand human temperament

Cortney A Turner, Shelly B Flagel, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil
2017 Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences  
This review will highlight these relationships with a focus on individual differences in the response to stressors, fear conditioning and drugs of abuse using animals that differ in their response to a  ...  Individual differences in temperament are associated with psychopathology in humans.  ...  For example, animals with high anxiety had increased D1 receptor responsivity following fear conditioning in the prefrontal cortex [34] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.02.002 pmid:28966969 pmcid:PMC5616177 fatcat:ws72asna7nafhiehngahekaszq

Links Between the Neurobiology of Oxytocin and Human Musicality

Alan R. Harvey
2020 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
In this review these special characteristics of music are considered in light of recent research on the neuroscience of the peptide oxytocin, a hormone that has both peripheral and central actions, that  ...  of the distribution of oxytocin and its receptor (OXTR) in the human brain.  ...  Given this, and what is known about the effects of music on hormones such as oxytocin and cortisol, it will be of interest to determine if participation in musical activities influences human hippocampal  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2020.00350 pmid:33005139 pmcid:PMC7479205 fatcat:c2lphjn4lffhfk42lmtt4qkaji

Adrenal Aging and Its Implications on Stress Responsiveness in Humans

Andreas Yiallouris, Constantinos Tsioutis, Eirini Agapidaki, Maria Zafeiri, Aris P. Agouridis, Dimitrios Ntourakis, Elizabeth O. Johnson
2019 Frontiers in Endocrinology  
The chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels also impinge on the normal stress response in the elderly, leading to an impaired ability to recover from stressful stimuli.  ...  , prefrontal cortex, with consequent impairment in normal memory, cognitive function, and sleep cycles.  ...  The hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are largely inhibitory of the limbic-HPA axis activity, and the amygdala appears to activate the stress response.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00054 fatcat:h6lbzsh6dfhsfko5aie27knt7y

Effects of Stress on Memory: Relevance for Human Aging [chapter]

Oliver T. Wolf
2015 Encyclopedia of Geropsychology  
One main finding is that the integrity of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex is compromised, while, in parallel, the amygdala (the "fear center" of the brain) and parts of the striatum (the  ...  GCs are lipophilic hormones that can enter the brain, where they influence regions involved in cognitive functions (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-981-287-080-3_172-1 fatcat:34sx5svjmzaqljhelz3r4c7tyy

Effects of Stress on Memory, Relevance for Human Aging [chapter]

Oliver T. Wolf
2017 Encyclopedia of Geropsychology  
One main finding is that the integrity of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex is compromised, while, in parallel, the amygdala (the "fear center" of the brain) and parts of the striatum (the  ...  GCs are lipophilic hormones that can enter the brain, where they influence regions involved in cognitive functions (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-981-287-082-7_172 fatcat:vtl57cmx7rak5hefmnuehrinwq

Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women

Christian Josef Merz, Oliver Tobias Wolf, Jan Schweckendiek, Tim Klucken, Dieter Vaitl, Rudolf Stark
2013 Psychoneuroendocrinology  
In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol.  ...  Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CSÀ differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition.  ...  Clemens Kirschbaum for hormone analyses. We are also very grateful to Dr. Carlo Blecker for technical assistance and Dr. Bertram Walter for statistical support.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.05.015 pmid:23790683 fatcat:27oldp2hcvhmfjw3xae6wsjb2a

Investigating the impact of sex and cortisol on implicit fear conditioning with fMRI

Christian J. Merz, Katharina Tabbert, Jan Schweckendiek, Tim Klucken, Dieter Vaitl, Rudolf Stark, Oliver T. Wolf
2010 Psychoneuroendocrinology  
In a previous human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we observed acute effects of the stress hormone cortisol on prefrontal structures.  ...  Men showed evidence for impaired fear conditioning after cortisol treatment, while the opposite pattern was found for women.  ...  support as well as Jürgen Hennig, Yvonne Küpper, and Cornelia Meineke for assistance with the cortisol analyses.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.07.009 pmid:19683399 fatcat:4n2rfthdhzcihej6x6sf7ggueu

Gender Differences in Human Brain: A Review

Zeenat F Zaidi
2010 The Open Anatomy Journal  
These neurons are densely crowded on certain layers of the cortex, namely the ones responsible for signals coming in and out of the brain, and these differences were present from birth [10].  ...  Grey Matter vs White Matter Ratios of grey to white matter also differ significantly between the sexes in diverse regions of the human cortex [5] .  ...  Substantial evidence indicates that sex hormones influence learning and memory processes [209] , and interact with stress hormones to do so.  ... 
doi:10.2174/1877609401002010037 fatcat:3i4paesexfawrioll6epwn7lte

Developmental Contributors to Trauma Response: The Importance of Sensitive Periods, Early Environment, and Sex Differences [chapter]

Jennifer S. Stevens, Sanne J. H. van Rooij, Tanja Jovanovic
2016 Current topics in behavioral neurosciences  
of sex differences.  ...  We also describe development of neural substrates that have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and specifically focus on fear behavior and circuitry.  ...  amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder.  ... 
doi:10.1007/7854_2016_38 pmid:27830573 pmcid:PMC5425320 fatcat:dokvktx7zfhx5knajmh4lwjypm

Early developmental emergence of human amygdala-prefrontal connectivity after maternal deprivation

D. G. Gee, L. J. Gabard-Durnam, J. Flannery, B. Goff, K. L. Humphreys, E. H. Telzer, T. A. Hare, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. Tottenham
2013 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
This connectivity pattern was mediated by the hormone cortisol, suggesting that stress-induced modifications of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis shape amygdala-mPFC circuitry.  ...  Under typical conditions, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connections with the amygdala are immature during childhood and become adult-like during adolescence.  ...  The present research was supported by R01MH091864 (to N.T.) and P50MH078105 from the National Institute of Mental Health and a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship award (to D.G.G.)  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1307893110 pmid:24019460 pmcid:PMC3785723 fatcat:yrf7cxk3irddzly3w5qvc54ta4
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