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A framework for (under)specifying dependency syntax without overloading annotators [article]

Nathan Schneider, Brendan O'Connor, Naomi Saphra, David Bamman, Manaal Faruqui, Noah A. Smith, Chris Dyer, Jason Baldridge
<span title="2013-06-15">2013</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We demonstrate the efficacy of this annotation on three languages and develop algorithms to evaluate and compare underspecified annotations.  ...  Our formalism builds upon the typical representation for unlabeled dependencies, permitting a simple notation and annotation workflow.  ...  When designing such representations, there may be a tradeoff between parsimony and expressiveness.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.2091v2">arXiv:1306.2091v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fkqe4cjo45gcfauxj7n2ocx5wu">fatcat:fkqe4cjo45gcfauxj7n2ocx5wu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200911205421/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.2091v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/57/d4/57d4c25c838ec2bd98f81d31da4e5031d2d3c5b8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1306.2091v2" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Statistical MWE-aware parsing [chapter]

Mathieu Constant, Gülşen Eryiğit, Carlos Ramisch, Mike Rosner, Gerold Schneider
<span title="2019-02-27">2019</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
This chapter aims at presenting different strategies that have been designed to incorporate multiword expression (MWE) identification in the process of syntactic parsing using statistical approaches.  ...  We discuss MWE representation in treebanks, pipeline and joint orchestrations, the integration of external lexicons and the evaluation of MWE-aware parsers, concluding with our suggestions for future research  ...  Hence, it influences the design of datasets used for training and testing, including treebanks, as shown in Section 3.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2579042">doi:10.5281/zenodo.2579042</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7gnmn55vg5dhhe2uhajd34jwmm">fatcat:7gnmn55vg5dhhe2uhajd34jwmm</a> </span>
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Statistical MWE-aware parsing [chapter]

Mathieu Constant, Gülşen Eryiğit, Carlos Ramisch, Mike Rosner, Gerold Schneider
<span title="2019-02-27">2019</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
This chapter aims at presenting different strategies that have been designed to incorporate multiword expression (MWE) identification in the process of syntactic parsing using statistical approaches.  ...  We discuss MWE representation in treebanks, pipeline and joint orchestrations, the integration of external lexicons and the evaluation of MWE-aware parsers, concluding with our suggestions for future research  ...  Hence, it influences the design of datasets used for training and testing, including treebanks, as shown in Section 3.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2579043">doi:10.5281/zenodo.2579043</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/uycyose5kjdqtexqrl5x7b4ode">fatcat:uycyose5kjdqtexqrl5x7b4ode</a> </span>
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Sentence Meaning Representations across Languages: What Can We Learn from Existing Frameworks?

Zdeněk Žabokrtský, Magda Ševčíková, Daniel Zeman
<span title="2020-07-16">2020</span> <i title="MIT Press - Journals"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/e4yflo6sufcufjwloald7xudm4" style="color: black;">Computational Linguistics</a> </i> &nbsp;
This article gives an overview of how sentence meaning is represented in eleven deep-syntactic frameworks, ranging from those based on linguistic theories elaborated for decades to rather lightweight NLP-motivated  ...  We outline most important characteristics of each framework and then discuss how particular language phenomena are treated across those frameworks, while trying to shed light on commonalities as well as  ...  We dedicate this study to the memory of Petr Sgall, the founder of computational linguistics in former Czechoslovakia and one of the founding members of our Institute.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1162/coli_a_00385">doi:10.1162/coli_a_00385</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kku2zljemfhfpprixiv2lczjme">fatcat:kku2zljemfhfpprixiv2lczjme</a> </span>
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Universal Word Segmentation: Implementation and Interpretation [article]

Yan Shao, Christian Hardmeier, Joakim Nivre
<span title="2018-07-09">2018</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Based on the analysis, we design a small set of language-specific settings and extensively evaluate the segmentation system on the Universal Dependencies datasets.  ...  Our model obtains state-of-the-art accuracies on all the UD languages.  ...  Note that this notion of multiword token has nothing to do with the notion of multiword expression (MWE) as discussed, for example, in Sag et al. (2002) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.02974v1">arXiv:1807.02974v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/waet77bhvffflftk7s27wl2euu">fatcat:waet77bhvffflftk7s27wl2euu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191023050429/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1807.02974v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/2e/14/2e14e44f43b446f2c6e26267b318939865c47a16.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.02974v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Universal Word Segmentation: Implementation and Interpretation

Yan Shao, Christian Hardmeier, Joakim Nivre
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="MIT Press - Journals"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jtrizn7izbhdlfmye6eriw6ub4" style="color: black;">Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics</a> </i> &nbsp;
Based on the analysis, we design a small set of language-specific settings and extensively evaluate the segmentation system on the Universal Dependencies datasets.  ...  Our model obtains state-of-the-art accuracies on all the UD languages.  ...  the notion of multiword expression (MWE) as discussed, for example, in Sag et al. (2002) . 421 the input character sequence.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1162/tacl_a_00033">doi:10.1162/tacl_a_00033</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kkkw2o4jvbcydft3ovnpwjvnym">fatcat:kkkw2o4jvbcydft3ovnpwjvnym</a> </span>
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Contributors

Victoria Rosén, Koenraad De Smedt
<span title="2017-11-23">2017</span> <i title="Universtity of Bergen Library"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ptlm6cvopjh7rd2pladmhfrvt4" style="color: black;">Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies</a> </i> &nbsp;
Her most recent research has focused on non-truth conditional semantics and pragmatics, including topics such as implicature, the semantics and pragmatics of referring expressions, and the semantics and  ...  She has previously run a project on the relation between syntax and information structure in old Germanic and Romance languages, and has recently started a new project on the structure of noun phrases  ...  Recently she has been working with multiword expressions and how they are represented in treebanks.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.15845/bells.v8i1.1365">doi:10.15845/bells.v8i1.1365</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fsloczr7kbeghgksobanmlt5ry">fatcat:fsloczr7kbeghgksobanmlt5ry</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190429050451/https://bells.uib.no/index.php/bells/article/download/1365/1232" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/9c/d2/9cd2d1cb85b40cd06c47ef4d95a84316738afaac.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.15845/bells.v8i1.1365"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Building a Lexicon of Formulaic Language for Language Learners

Julian Brooke, Adam Hammond, David Jacob, Vivian Tsang, Graeme Hirst, Fraser Shein
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Association for Computational Linguistics"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/5cqgnrgxwfekfp5byjimbel7eq" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Multiword Expressions</a> </i> &nbsp;
Though the multiword lexicon has long been of interest in computational linguistics, most relevant work is targeted at only a small portion of it.  ...  We evaluate using a novel method that allows us to calculate an estimate of recall without a reference lexicon, showing that good performance in the second enhancement depends crucially on the first, and  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Mitacs Elevate program.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3115/v1/w15-0915">doi:10.3115/v1/w15-0915</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/mwe/BrookeHJTHS15.html">dblp:conf/mwe/BrookeHJTHS15</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/f5vpjwtltraihf3l37ant6eaz4">fatcat:f5vpjwtltraihf3l37ant6eaz4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170829235428/http://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/gh/Brooke-etal-2015-MWE.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/26/91/269177a2f2609ebe5c27ba39edb9ed67dbc10326.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3115/v1/w15-0915"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

SemEval-2016 Task 10: Detecting Minimal Semantic Units and their Meanings (DiMSUM)

Nathan Schneider, Dirk Hovy, Anders Johannsen, Marine Carpuat
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Association for Computational Linguistics"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/aa3ggf3tbjarfj2zylzuxxqvdi" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)</a> </i> &nbsp;
This task combines the labeling of multiword expressions and supersenses (coarse-grained classes) in an explicit, yet broad-coverage paradigm for lexical semantics.  ...  An error analysis reveals that a large number of instances in the data set are either hard cases, which no systems get right, or easy cases, which all systems correctly solve.  ...  We do not mark supersenses on all words of the MWE to avoid giving MWEs a disproportionate influence on the supersense score.)  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/s16-1084">doi:10.18653/v1/s16-1084</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/semeval/SchneiderHJC16.html">dblp:conf/semeval/SchneiderHJC16</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/d2vvwrqbwvbu5eqjqwg3iybmgi">fatcat:d2vvwrqbwvbu5eqjqwg3iybmgi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160824014901/http://www.cs.cmu.edu:80/~nschneid/dimsum.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/9b/0c/9b0c25772bc0c82d37f260171b6908ba27df1262.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/s16-1084"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

The Koala Part-of-Speech Tagset

Yvonne Adesam, Gerlof Bouma
<span title="2019-12-20">2019</span> <i title="Linkoping University Electronic Press"> The Northern European Journal of Language Technology </i> &nbsp;
The categorization takes the Swedish Academy Grammar (SAG) as its main starting point, to fit with the current descriptive view on Swedish grammar.  ...  We present the Koala part-of-speech tagset for written Swedish.  ...  Finally, we are indebted to our annotators, who, besides annotating 100 000 tokens of text with moving target annotation guidelines, have pointed out discrepancies and many unforeseen uses of language.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3384/nejlt.2000-1533.1965">doi:10.3384/nejlt.2000-1533.1965</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/begkb6kisfcdpboz76qdtfnoaq">fatcat:begkb6kisfcdpboz76qdtfnoaq</a> </span>
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Quantitative Linguistic Investigations across Universal Dependencies Treebanks [chapter]

Chiara Alzetta, Felice Dell'Orletta, Simonetta Montemagni, Petya Osenova, Kiril Simov, Giulia Venturi
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Accademia University Press"> Proceedings of the Seventh Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics CLiC-it 2020 </i> &nbsp;
Linguistics), the conference uniting research on models and theories around dependency representations, and UDW (Universal Dependency Workshop), the annual meeting of the UD project itself.  ...  In this context it was natural to bring together TLT (Treebanks and Linguistic Theories), the historical conference on treebanks as linguistic resources, Depling (The international conference on Dependency  ...  Acknowledgments I thank Roger Levy, Greg Scontras, and Ted Gibson for many conversations on these topics and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on the paper.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4000/books.aaccademia.8210">doi:10.4000/books.aaccademia.8210</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ctirgjeeirccbgy6aen5ufd7pe">fatcat:ctirgjeeirccbgy6aen5ufd7pe</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200508191320/https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W19-79.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e9/db/e9db2e44b4f89003b5d5b213ff1513888f232f88.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4000/books.aaccademia.8210"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Parsing Tweets into Universal Dependencies [article]

Yijia Liu, Yi Zhu, Wanxiang Che, Bing Qin, Nathan Schneider, Noah A. Smith
<span title="2018-04-23">2018</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Our parser achieves an improvement of 2.2 in LAS over the un-ensembled baseline and outperforms parsers that are state-of-the-art on other treebanks in both accuracy and speed.  ...  To overcome annotation noise without sacrificing computational efficiency, we propose a new method to distill an ensemble of 20 transition-based parsers into a single one.  ...  This work was supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China via grant 2014CB340503 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) via grant 61632011.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.08228v1">arXiv:1804.08228v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/243zroo3cbgadk2o6thm2og5u4">fatcat:243zroo3cbgadk2o6thm2og5u4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200824200805/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1804.08228v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cd/d9/cdd96735c8ce028b8b53c90bfebc22d67292edf6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.08228v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Parsing Tweets into Universal Dependencies

Yijia Liu, Yi Zhu, Wanxiang Che, Bing Qin, Nathan Schneider, Noah A. Smith
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="Association for Computational Linguistics"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/d5ex6ucxtrfz3clshlkh3f6w2q" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)</a> </i> &nbsp;
Our parser achieves an improvement of 2.2 in LAS over the un-ensembled baseline and outperforms parsers that are state-ofthe-art on other treebanks in both accuracy and speed.  ...  To overcome annotation noise without sacrificing computational efficiency, we propose a new method to distill an ensemble of 20 transition-based parsers into a single one.  ...  This work was supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China via grant 2014CB340503 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) via grant 61632011.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/n18-1088">doi:10.18653/v1/n18-1088</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/naacl/LiuZCQSS18.html">dblp:conf/naacl/LiuZCQSS18</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xsyqktfjf5achjfwdu73ji2vti">fatcat:xsyqktfjf5achjfwdu73ji2vti</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200309062233/https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/N18-1088.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/48/c7/48c7451dddbec5218af66ec2c3b777c0f35a37f8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/n18-1088"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Building And Querying Parallel Treebanks [chapter]

Martin Volk, Torsten Marek, Yvonne Samuelsson
<span title="2017-02-09">2017</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
This tool comes with a powerful search facility which supersedes the expressivity of previous popular treebank query engines.  ...  This paper describes our work on building a trilingual parallel treebank.  ...  Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge financial support for the Smultron project by Granholms stiftelse, Rausings stiftelse and the University of Zurich.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.283438">doi:10.5281/zenodo.283438</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/d2d3zk2fnnhljewmbybtknejhi">fatcat:d2d3zk2fnnhljewmbybtknejhi</a> </span>
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Forty years of working with corpora: from Ibsen to Twitter, and beyond

Knut Hofland, Paul Meurer, Andrew Salway
<span title="2013-04-10">2013</span> <i title="Universtity of Bergen Library"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ptlm6cvopjh7rd2pladmhfrvt4" style="color: black;">Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies</a> </i> &nbsp;
Current activities are also described, with a focus on corpus analysis tools, treebanks and social media analysis.  ...  We provide an overview of forty years of work with language corpora by the research group that started in 1972 as the Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities.  ...  A volume of research based on the corpus was published recently (Andersen 2012 ); this includes work on corpus compilation, neology detection, and the extraction of multiword expressions.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.15845/bells.v3i1.371">doi:10.15845/bells.v3i1.371</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/b4273ihrdfdu3b3fce2ln2vob4">fatcat:b4273ihrdfdu3b3fce2ln2vob4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190428214903/https://bells.uib.no/index.php/bells/article/download/371/385" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/30/e8/30e8a6b30214667db292469e6e155f98375d14ee.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.15845/bells.v3i1.371"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>
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